A preliminary survey of thirteen Latin American nations indicated that both the number and rate of importations of wild hoofed animals from Europe, Asia, and Africa, has increased rapidly in recent years. This is especially true for Mexico, Argentina, and Chile. In nearly every instance reported, the original stock of hoofed game was held under fence and no importer intended that animals should escape from his control. From these and other instances around the world, it seems that eventual escapes of captive ungulates held under normal ranching conditions are a virtual certainty. As the full effects of imported species on the plants and animals in their new environment cannot be predicted with certainty, guideline principles to govern species introductions are sorely needed.