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Simulation plays an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High-quality, simulation-based research will ensure its effective use. This study sought to summarize simulation-based research activity and its facilitators and barriers, as well as establish priorities for simulation-based research in Canadian emergency medicine (EM).
Simulation-leads from Canadian departments or divisions of EM associated with a general FRCP-EM training program surveyed and documented active EM simulation-based research at their institutions and identified the perceived facilitators and barriers. Priorities for simulation-based research were generated by simulation-leads via a second survey; these were grouped into themes and finally endorsed by consensus during an in-person meeting of simulation leads. Priority themes were also reviewed by senior simulation educators.
Twenty simulation-leads representing all 14 invited institutions participated in the study between February and May, 2018. Sixty-two active, simulation-based research projects were identified (median per institution = 4.5, IQR 4), as well as six common facilitators and five barriers. Forty-nine priorities for simulation-based research were reported and summarized into eight themes: simulation in competency-based medical education, simulation for inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology.
This study summarized simulation-based research activity in EM in Canada, identified its perceived facilitators and barriers, and built national consensus on priority research themes. This represents the first step in the development of a simulation-based research agenda specific to Canadian EM.
There is a broad set of human beliefs, attitudes and behaviours around the issue of magical animals, referring to both mythical animals not recognized by science and extant animals that are recognized by science but have magical properties. This is a broad issue ranging from spiritual beliefs around mythical animals living in Malagasy forests, to cultural heritage associated with the Loch Ness Monster in Scotland. Beliefs and behaviours around magical animals can have positive and negative impacts on biodiversity conservation goals. Yet, so far, the discipline of conservation biology has not adequately considered magical animals, neglecting to account for the broader knowledge from outside the natural sciences on this issue, and taking a narrow, utilitarian approach to how magical animals should be managed, without necessarily considering the broader impacts on conservation goals or ethics. Here we explore how magical animals can influence conservation goals, how conservation biology and practice has thought about magical animals, and some of the limitations of current approaches, particularly the failure to consider magical animals as part of wider systems of belief and culture. We argue that magical animals and their implications for conservation merit wider consideration.
We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a human half of Earth. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Growing crops that exhibit a high level of competition with weeds increases opportunities to practice integrated weed management and reduce herbicide inputs. The recent development and market dominance of hybrid canola cultivars provides an opportunity to reassess the relative competitive ability of canola cultivars with small-grain cereals. Direct-seeded (no-till) experiments were conducted at five western Canada locations from 2006 to 2008 to compare the competitive ability of canola cultivars vs. small-grain cereals. The relative competitive ability of the species and cultivars was determined by assessing monocot and dicot weed biomass at different times throughout the growing season as well as oat (simulated weed) seed production. Under most conditions, but especially under warm and relatively dry environments, barley cultivars had the greatest relative competitive ability. Rye and triticale were also highly competitive species under most environmental conditions. Canada Prairie Spring Red wheat and Canada Western Red Spring wheat cultivars usually were the least competitive cereal crops, but there were exceptions in some environments. Canola hybrids were more competitive than open-pollinated canola cultivars. More importantly, under cool, low growing degree day conditions, canola hybrids were as competitive as barley, especially with dicot weeds. Under most conditions, hybrid canola growers on the Canadian Prairies are well advised to avoid the additional selection pressure inherent with a second in-crop herbicide application. Combining competitive cultivars of any species with optimal agronomic practices that facilitate crop health will enhance cropping system sustainability and allow growers to extend the life of their valuable herbicide tools.
Milling behaviour is problematic when using hydroacoustics to estimate the
number of migrating fish in rivers. Milling behaviour was observed for adult
sockeye salmon migrating upstream in the Wannock River, to their spawning
grounds in the tributaries of Owikeno Lake in the central coast area of
British Columbia, Canada. We classified the acoustic salmon tracks to
separate the milling fish from the actively migrating fish in an attempt to
obtain an estimate of sockeye salmon flux as they migrate to their spawning
grounds. We used discriminant function analysis and found that three
variables measured on each track were sufficient for the classification of
the acoustic tracks into milling and non-milling categories with an
approximate classification accuracy of 98%. The method we present can
also be used to separate tracks of targets of interest from noise or debris
tracks that occur in the acoustic data, if discrete track characteristics
There is no published information on the impact of volunteer barley on wheat yield loss or on the economics of controlling barley with a herbicide. With the registration of imazamox-resistant wheat, it is now possible to control volunteer barley in wheat. Thus, the likelihood of growing wheat in rotation with barley may increase. Field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 at Beaverlodge, Lacombe, and Edmonton, AB, Canada, and Saskatoon, SK, Canada, to determine the impact of volunteer barley on yield of imazamox-resistant spring wheat seeded at relatively low (100 kg ha−1) and high (175 kg ha−1) rates. Barley was seeded at different densities to simulate volunteer barley infestations. Regression analysis indicated that wheat-plant density influenced the effects of volunteer barley interference on wheat yield loss, economic threshold values, and volunteer barley fecundity among locations and years. Economic thresholds varied from as few volunteer barley plants as 3 m−2 at Beaverlodge in 2003 and 2004 to 48 m−2 at Lacombe in 2003. In most cases, wheat yield loss and volunteer barley fecundity were lower and economic thresholds were higher when wheat was seeded at the higher rate. For example, averaged over both years at Beaverlodge initial slope values (percentage of wheat yield loss at low barley density) were 4.5 and 1.7%, and economic threshold values of volunteer barley plants were 3 m−2 and 8 m−2 at low and high wheat seeding rates, respectively. Results indicate that volunteer barley can be highly competitive in wheat, but yield losses and wheat seed contamination due to volunteer barley can be alleviated by seeding wheat at a relatively high rate.
Psychiatry in the UK and in many other countries is facing a fundamental crisis in attracting new graduates. This poorly understood problem may be related to negative undergraduate experiences. Many clinicians have learnt through an ‘apprenticeship’ model and few are formally taught how to teach students in a modern clinical setting. Learning theory provides useful models for learning and teaching that can improve undergraduate clinical experiences. A variety of means are available to help teaching clinicians apply these theories, including self-help using published literature and gaining teaching qualifications. As the majority of modern undergraduate psychiatry teaching occurs during clinical placements, the incorporated techniques will need to be sensitive to the teaching environment. Application of these principles to day-to-day teaching practice may help to reverse the current staff shortages.
As a weed, wheat has recently gained greater profile. Determining wheat persistence in cropping systems will facilitate the development of effective volunteer wheat management strategies. In October of 2000, glyphosate-resistant (GR) spring wheat seeds were scattered on plots at eight western Canada sites. From 2001 to 2003, the plots were seeded to a canola–barley–field-pea rotation or a fallow–barley–fallow rotation, with five seeding systems involving seeding dates and soil disturbance levels, and monitored for wheat plant density. Herbicides and tillage (in fallow systems) were used to ensure that no wheat plants produced seed. Seeding systems with greater levels of soil disturbance usually had greater wheat densities. Volunteer wheat densities at 2 (2002) and 3 (2003) yr after seed dispersal were close to zero but still detectable at most locations. At the end of 2003, viable wheat seeds were not detected in the soil seed bank at any location. The majority of wheat seedlings were recruited in the year following seed dispersal (2001) at the in-crop, prespray (PRES) interval. At the PRES interval in 2001, across all locations and treatments, wheat density averaged 2.6 plants m−2. At the preplanting interval (PREP), overall wheat density averaged only 0.2 plants m−2. By restricting density data to include only continuous cropping, low-disturbance direct-seeding (LDS) systems, the latter mean dropped below 0.1 plants m−2. Only at one site were preplanting GR wheat densities sufficient (4.2 plants m−2) to justify a preseeding herbicide treatment in addition to glyphosate in LDS systems. Overall volunteer wheat recruitment at all spring and summer intervals in the continuous cropping rotation in 2001 was 1.7% (3.3 plants m−2). Despite the fact that volunteer wheat has become more common in the central and northern Great Plains, there is little evidence from this study to suggest that its persistence will be a major agronomic problem.
This article focuses on the complex issues surrounding the need for adequate training in medical education for all clinicians. Many recent landmark papers, including guidance from the General Medical Council, have expressed the importance of formal training. Although the article points out that the majority of clinicians will probably not need to attend such courses, a few generic skills in teaching large and small groups may be of benefit to most. The authors call for the recognition of teaching duties in psychiatrist's contracts and discuss the wider implications of sound medical teaching for the recruitment and retention crisis in psychiatry.
Sedimentological, faunal, and archaeological investigations at the Sunshine Locality, Long Valley, Nevada reveal a history of human adaptation and environmental change at the last glacial–interglacial transition in North America's north-central Great Basin. The locality contains a suite of lacustrine, alluvial, and eolian deposits associated with fluvially reworked faunal remains and Paleoindian artifacts. Radiocarbon-dated stratigraphy indicates a history of receding pluvial lake levels followed by alluvial downcutting and subsequent valley filling with marsh-like conditions at the end of the Pleistocene. A period of alluvial deposition and shallow water tables (9,800 to 11,000 14C yr B.P.) correlates to the Younger Dryas. Subsequent drier conditions and reduced surface runoff mark the early Holocene; sand dunes replace wetlands by 8,000 14C yr B.P. The stratigraphy at Sunshine is similar to sites located 400 km south and supports regional climatic synchroneity in the central and southern Great Basin during the terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene. Given regional climate change and recurrent geomorphic settings comparable to Sunshine, we believe that there is a high potential for buried Paleoindian features in primary association with extinct fauna elsewhere in the region yet to be discovered due to limited stratigraphic exposure and consequent low visibility.
The microstructural stability of a directionally-solidified NiA1–9 at.% Mo quasi-binary alloy was investigated under conditions of thermal cycling between the temperatures 973 K and 1473 K utilizing time-temperature heating and cooling profiles which approximate potential engine applications. Two different microstructures were examined: a cellular microstructure in which the faceted secondphase Mo rods in the NiAl matrix formed misaligned cell boundaries which separated aligned cells approximately 0.4 mm in width and 5–25 mm in length, and a nearly fault-free fully columnar microstructure well aligned along the  direction. Both microstructures resisted coarsening under thermal cycling, but plastic deformation induced by thermal stresses introduced significant specimen shape changes. Surprisingly, the cellular microstructure, for which the cell boundary region apparently acts as a deformation buffer, exhibited better resistance to thermal fatigue than the more fault-free and better aligned columnar microstructure.
Single crystals of -oriented NiAI single crystals were subjected to thermal fatigue by a method which employs induction heating of disk-shaped specimens heated in an argon atmosphere. Several time-temperature heating and cooling profiles were used to produce different thermal strain histories in specimens cycled between 973 K and 1473 K. After thermal cycling, pronounced shape changes in the form of diametrical elongations along <100> directions with accompanying increases in thickness at and near the <100> specimen axes were observed. The deformations were analyzed in terms of operative slip systems in tension and compression, ratchetting (cyclic strain accumulation), and the elastic properties of NiAl. The experimental results correlate best with thermal stresses associated with the large elastic anisotropy of NiAl.
Edward miller came from a background in the north of England which inclined him to an interest in the land and agriculture. It was not surprising therefore that his first book, The Abbey and Bishopric of Ely (1951), was a substantial study of a great medieval landowner, which investigated the economic and social history of the English countryside. That was published after he had been for some years a Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge (that position interrupted by five years of war service), and Director of Studies in History, a role which allowed him to begin to encourage the careers of younger historians. The work on Ely also sprang, of course, partly from the strong Cambridge tradition of medieval economic and social history recently enlivened by M.M. Postan, to which Ted was to contribute so much.
Those who were his pupils in those days (the present writer first saw him crossing second court in uniform; would that have been in 1946?) remember him as the liveliest and most invigorating of teachers, who fired their enthusiasm for the study of medieval economy and society. They remember his wife Fanny's kindness to them, and those who have become professional historians will remember also their young son, John, now also a professor of history. Much of the research for Ely must have been done before 1939, but Ted's enthusiasm both for research and for stimulating the young has remained undiminished in the 1990s as his bibliography shows.
Why did the Medici bank go downhill under the management of Lorenzo de' Medici, 1469 to 1492? The present article is about one section only, the London branch, but it may have some usefulness for illuminating the general problem. Since Lorenzo's servants were deeply involved in the trade and politics of London it may also shed some light on English history. The Medici bank was very fully and helpfully investigated by Raymond de Roover. De Roover quoted the general judgements of Machiavelli and Guicciardini that Lorenzo had no commercial luck and stood aside from the business of the bank, leaving it to his representatives. In the case of the English branch he attributed much importance to independent loans to King Edward IV parallel to the Bruges branch's loans to Charles the Bold duke of Burgundy. De Roover made a good deal of progress but his account is not final. There is a vast amount of documentary material relevant to the London branch in the Mediceo avanti il Principato collection in the Archivio di Stato, Florence, and in the exchequer records at the Public Record Office in London. De Roover did not use any of the unpublished London material, and did not refer to many of the relevant records in Florence. This article will not be final either – the Medici bank is an endlessly complicated subject with ramifications in so many areas of European history – but I hope to push a little further into the complex web of evidence and make the conclusions a little stronger.