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We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a Phased Array Feed (PAF) receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility (PTF). These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the PAF beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using PAF technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 12 December 2016. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks.
We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a phased array feed receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility. These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the phased array feed beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using phased array feed technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 2016 December 12. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks. We discuss the implications of this for monitoring pulsars using phased array feeds on single dish telescopes.
Objectives: Blast explosions are the most frequent mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in recent wars, but little is known about their long-term effects. Methods: Functional connectivity (FC) was measured in 17 veterans an average of 5.46 years after their most serious blast related TBI, and in 15 demographically similar veterans without TBI or blast exposure. Subcortical FC was measured in bilateral caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. The default mode and fronto-parietal networks were also investigated. Results: In subcortical regions, between-groups t tests revealed altered FC from the right putamen and right globus pallidus. However, following analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with age, depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom (PTSD Checklist – Civilian version) measures, significant findings remained only for the right globus pallidus with anticorrelation in bilateral temporal occipital fusiform cortex, occipital fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum, as well as the right occipital pole. No group differences were found for the default mode network. Although reduced FC was found in the fronto-parietal network in the TBI group, between-group differences were nonsignificant after the ANCOVA. Conclusions: FC of the globus pallidus is altered years after exposure to blast related TBI. Future studies are necessary to explore the trajectory of changes in FC in subcortical regions after blast TBI, the effects of isolated versus repetitive blast-related TBI, and the relation to long-term outcomes in veterans. (JINS, 2016, 22, 631–642)
The implementation in Ontario of 15 primary-care–based interprofessional memory clinics represented a unique model of team-based case management aimed at increasing capacity for dementia care at the primary-care level. Each clinic tracked referrals; in a subset of clinics, charts were audited by geriatricians, clinic members were interviewed, and patients, caregivers, and referring physicians completed satisfaction surveys. Across all clinics, 582 patients were assessed, and 8.9 per cent were referred to a specialist. Patients and caregivers were very satisfied with the care received, as were referring family physicians, who reported increased capacity to manage dementia. Geriatricians’ chart audits revealed a high level of agreement with diagnosis and management. This study demonstrated acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of the primary-care memory clinic model. Led by specially trained family physicians, it provided timely access to high-quality collaborative dementia care, impacting health service utilization by more-efficient use of scarce geriatric specialist resources.
Collimated outflows (jets) are ubiquitous in the universe, appearing around sources as diverse as protostars and extragalactic supermassive black holes. Jets are thought to be magnetically collimated, and launched from a magnetized accretion disk surrounding a compact gravitating object. We have developed the first laboratory experiment to address time-dependent, episodic phenomena relevant to the poorly understood jet acceleration and collimation region (Ciardi et al., 2009). The experiments were performed on the MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.5 MA, 250 ns) at Imperial College. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. The results provide a unique view of the possible transition from a relatively steady-state jet launching to the observed highly structured outflows.
Cases of paratyphoid fever are often not diagnosed until the second, third or subsequent weeks of illness. When calculating clearance rates of a series of cases the calculations must be based only on the numbers known to be positive at the week under consideration. If based throughout on the total number of cases the rates of clearance in the early weeks are greatly reduced.
Cases for which laboratory records are incomplete must not be entirely rejected when calculating clearance rates but must be retained in the population for as long as they were known to be positive.
Analyses designed to show the duration of infection in paratyphoid fever can only be made with accuracy under the most favourable conditions.
A large number of cases of paratyphoid fever were repeatedly examined bacteriologically to establish the duration of the infection as distinct from the clinical illness. After an initial lag the proportion of cases remaining infected fell logarithmically until the carriers revealed themselves.
We are grateful to many medical officers for information about their cases, and to Dr Lewis Fanning and Dr Ian Sutherland for much helpful criticism.
David Krasner: In surveying contemporary London theatre, New York Times critic Ben Brantley reported that the Tricycle Theatre had
inaugurated a season of African-American plays with the commandingly titled but obscure Walk Hard, Talk Loud, a play by Abram Hill from the early1940's. Abram who? The name meant nothing to me, but Abram Hill (1910–1986) was a founder and director of the American Negro Theater in New York (1940–1951) and a playwright, it seems, of considerable verve.3
That Abram Hill and the American Negro Theatre—the most important black theatre company during the mid-twentieth century—has flown below the radar is indicative of how much work still needs to be accomplished.
LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30–240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering makes retrospective imaging of explosive short-term events possible. The scientific focus of LOFAR will initially be on four key science projects (KSPs): (i) Detection of the formation of the very first stars and galaxies in the universe during the so-called epoch of reionization by measuring the power spectrum of the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line (Shaver et al. 1999) on the ∼ 5′ scale; (ii) Low-frequency surveys of the sky with of order 108 expected new sources; (iii) All-sky monitoring and detection of transient radio sources such as γ-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and exo-planets (Farrell et al. 2004); and (iv) Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (Falcke & Gorham 2003) allowing for the first time access to particles beyond 1021 eV (Scholten et al. 2006). Apart from the KSPs open access for smaller projects is also planned. Here we give a brief description of the telescope.
This study investigates the relationship between expressed consumption of proteins and attitudes towards GM foods. 600 shoppers in a city centre supermarket were surveyed concerning attitudes towards GM foods and the frequency of consumption of various proteins. In addition, various demographic variables were measured. In terms of demographics, sex was the best predictor of consumption and attitudes, followed by socioeconomic status and age. Attitudes were found to correlate positively with consumption of several proteins. Explanations are offered in terms of the theories of reasoned action, cognitive dissonance and attribution and the health belief model.
In a nuclear processing plant, four departments were compared using a 60-item questionnaire measuring safety attitudes and beliefs including the perception of managers' attitudes and behaviour, communication and risk-taking, and attitudes to taking personal responsibility for safety. Results suggest some differences at the conceptual level in addition to departmental differences and large grade differences. It is proposed that there are certainly two and possibly more differing safety cultures within this organization. The implications of this are discussed in terms of policy.
Laboratory studies of seven North American Choristoneura species and two subspecies from widely distributed locations demonstrate the low level of genetic separation among them. No differences were found in numbers (n = 30) or morphology of chromosomes among members of the group or in any of the hybrids examined. High levels of mating success were obtained in all inter se matings as well as in crosses and back-crosses. However, mating success was greater for crosses within host type and within pheromone type than for crosses between types. Viability and fertility were similar in all the hybrids and close to those of the inter se progenies. Mean weights of initial eggs varied by a factor of 2 from the lowest (C. pinus Freeman) to the highest (C. lambertiana ponderosana Obraztsov). Mean weights of initial eggs produced by hybrids were generally close to those of the parental species. However, when one parent was C. fumiferana (Clem.), mean weights of initial eggs were either much larger (male C. fumiferana) or much smaller (female C. fumiferana) than either parental type. These differences could affect survival of some progeny under harsh conditions. This evidence supports other studies in indicating that C. fumiferana is genetically distinct from other species in this group.
Giant foxtail, woolly cupgrass, and wild-proso millet infest millions of hectares of land devoted to corn production in the midwestern U.S. Control of these species and effects on corn grain yield were evaluated at various timings using POST applications of nicosulfuron vs. applications of various PRE herbicides at 17 locations across the midwestern U.S. in 1992 and 1993. Nicosulfuron applied to 5 to 10 cm giant foxtail and woolly cupgrass provided greater control than that observed with selected PRE herbicides. Giant foxtail control with nicosulfuron averaged 88%, and control of woolly cupgrass averaged 77% across all sites. Nicosulfuron, applied to 5 to 10 cm wild-proso millet, provided a level of control similar to that of selected PRE herbicides. Corn grain yield was greater when giant foxtail was controlled POST with nicosulfuron vs. PRE control with selected soil-applied herbicides. Corn grain yields were similar when nicosulfuron was applied POST to 5 to 10 cm woolly cupgrass or wild-proso millet vs. PRE control of these grass weeds. Across a broad range of geographical locations, nicosulfuron, applied POST to 5 to 10 cm tall grass, provided greater or similar levels of weed control vs. the selected PRE herbicides, with no deleterious effect on grain yield.
Genetic divergence among populations of cone beetles, Conophthorus banksianae McPherson, C. coniperda (Schwarz), and C. resinosae Hopkins, was assessed by isozyme electrophoretic data. All but one of the eight loci examined were polymorphic, and one locus (Pgi) was sex-linked for C. coniperda. Genotype frequencies generally met Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and fixation index (FST) values indicated low-to-moderate genetic differences among conspecific populations. Fixed allele differences were detected at two loci, Pgi and Dia-2, which separated C. resinosae from C. coniperda, and thus confirmed their specific status established previously by morphological, karyological, and other biochemical characters. Electrophoretic data strongly suggested C. coniperda does not attack red pine cones, and C. resinosae does not attack white pine cones. No diagnostic loci were found to separate C. resinosae from C. banksianae. Phenetic clustering and pairwise comparisons of genetic distance coefficients indicated very little genetic divergence between C. resinosae and C. banksianae. These data were interpreted as failing to reject the null hypothesis that C. resinosae and C. banksianae are one species, an interpretation consistent with available taxonomic evidence from ecological, karyological, and other biochemical characters.
Over the past several years a considerable body of evidence has accumulated, suggesting that extended radio sources are powered quasi-continuously from the nuclei of their parent galaxies. This view is supported by the recent discovery that several radio galaxies have narrow radio jets which connect their active nuclei with the large radio lobes and which often extend for several tens of kiloparsecs. Because of their presumed association with the energy transport outward from the active nuclei, radio jets are at present being intensively studied with high-resolution radio techniques.
The closest galaxy known to have a radio jet is the giant elliptical M87 (e.g., Wilkinson 1974), and in this case there is a well-known optical counterpart (e.g., Curtis 1918; de Vaucouleurs, Angione and Fraser 1968), This optical jet is highly polarized (Baade 1956), implying that at least part of the emission is non-thermal. This and the good agreement between the optical and radio structure suggests that these features are closely related.
The levels of four sets of pollutants (heavy-metals, artificial radionuclides, petroleum components, and halogenated hydrocarbons), have been measured in U.S. coastal waters, using bivalves as sentinel organisms. The strategies of carrying out this programme are outlined and the results from the first year's work are given. Varying degrees of pollution in U.S. coastal waters have been indicated by elevated levels of pollutants in the bivalves, which comprised certain species of mussels and oysters and were collected at over one hundred localities.