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Immature fruit fly stages of the family Tephritidae are commonly intercepted on breadfruit from Pacific countries at the New Zealand border but are unable to be identified to the species level using morphological characters. Subsequent molecular identification showed that they belong to Bactrocera xanthodes, which is part of a species complex that includes Bactrocera paraxanthodes, Bactrocera neoxanthodes and an undescribed species. To establish a more reliable molecular identification system for B. xanthodes, a reference database of DNA barcode sequences for the 5’-fragment of COI gene region was constructed for B. xanthodes from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. To better understand the species complex, B. neoxanthodes from Vanuatu and B. paraxanthodes from New Caledonia were also barcoded. Using the results of this analysis, real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of B. xanthodes complex and for the three individual species of the complex were developed and validated. The assay showed high specificity for the target species, with no cross-reaction observed for closely related organisms. Each of the real-time PCR assays is sensitive, detecting the target sequences at concentrations as low as ten copies µl−1 and can be used as either singleplex or multiplex formats. This real-time PCR assay for B. xanthodes has been successfully applied at the borders in New Zealand, leading to the rapid identification of intercepted Tephritidae eggs and larvae. The developed assays will be useful biosecurity tools for rapid detection of species in the B. xanthodes complex worldwide.
Napiergrass has potential as a cellulosic biofuel crop because of its rapid growth habit in the southern United States. However, it is also listed as a potential invasive species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. For field renovation, information about napiergrass control in response to tillage and herbicides is required. Field studies were initiated to evaluate control of napiergrass established in fields for over 3 yr at Plains, GA, and Tifton, GA. For tillage and POST herbicides, imazapyr plus glyphosate consistently controlled napiergrass relative to diclosulam plus glyphosate, sulfentrazone plus glyphosate, or tillage in terms of visual injury, stem height and dry biomass reduction. One application of imazapyr plus glyphosate controlled napiergrass 74 and 94%, and reduced plant stem height to 6 and 15% of the nontreated control. When diclosulam plus glyphosate, sulfentrazone plus glyphosate, or tillage was used alone with no sequential herbicides, napiergrass control ranged from 12 to 33%; when these control tactics were followed by two sequential applications of either sethoxydim or glyphosate, napiergrass control varied from 45 to 99%. Reductions in plant heights were reflective of injury 47 d after final herbicide applications (May/June). Napiergrass yield in dry biomass production was reduced by imazapyr plus glyphosate ≥ 86% relative to the nontreated control (NTC). Diclosulam plus glyphosate, sulfentrazone plus glyphosate, or tillage alone was not effective in reducing napiergrass dry biomass yields ranging from 1 to 47% compared with the NTC; when these treatments were followed by sequential applications of sethoxydim or glyphosate, napiergrass dry biomass was reduced 46 to 91% compared with the NTC. Tillage plus two applications of sethoxydim or glyphosate exhibited control potential because they provided levels of napiergrass control similar to imazapyr-based treatments. Tillage plus multiple applications of sethoxydim or glyphosate offers flexibility to crop rotations as compared with the residual herbicide imazapyr, which has many crop rotation restrictions because of carryover concerns.
The nature of depression has recently been reconceptualized, being conceived as the clinical expression of activated immune-inflammatory, oxidative, and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, including tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT), autoimmune, and gut–brain pathways. IO&NS pathways are similarly integral to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The increased depression prevalence in IBD associates with a lower quality of life and increased morbidity in IBD, highlighting the role of depression in modulating the pathophysiology of IBD.This review covers data within such a wider conceptualization that better explains the heightened co-occurrence of IBD and depression. Common IO&NS underpinning between both disorders is evidenced by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, eg, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 trans-signalling; Th-1- and Th-17-like responses; neopterin and soluble IL-2 receptor levels; positive acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and C-reactive protein); lowered levels of negative acute phase reactants (albumin, transferrin, zinc) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β); increased O&NS with damage to lipids, proteinsm and DNA; increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase; lowered plasma tryptophan but increased TRYCAT levels; autoimmune responses; and increased bacterial translocation. As such, heightened IO&NS processes in depression overlap with the biological underpinnings of IBD, potentially explaining their increased co-occurrence. This supports the perspective that there is a spectrum of IO&NS disorders that includes depression, both as an emergent comorbidity and as a contributor to IO&NS processes. Such a frame of reference has treatment implications for IBD when “comorbid” with depression.
We recently showed that rotation significantly affects most observable Cepheid quantities, and that rotation, in combination with the evolutionary status of the star, can resolve the long-standing Cepheid mass discrepancy problem. We therefore provide a brief overview of our results regarding the problem of Cepheid masses. We also briefly mention the impact of rotation on the Cepheid period-luminosity(-color) relation, which is crucial for determining extragalactic distances, and thus for calibrating the Hubble constant.
I report on the recent discovery of modulation in the radial velocity curves in four classical Cepheids. This discovery may enable significant improvements in the accuracy of Baade-Wesselink distances by revealing a not previously considered systematic source of uncertainty.
Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of herbicides on napiergrass growth and control. In greenhouse experiments, hexazinone, glyphosate, and imazapic were applied POST, and carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation was measured with the use of an open-flow gas-exchange system up to 22 d after treatment (DAT). Carbon dioxide assimilation was reduced to zero, indicating plant death, for hexazinone- and glyphosate-treated napiergrass by 2 and 12 DAT, respectively. Imazapic-treated napiergrass CO2 assimilation declined to a constant rate by 22 DAT, but never reached zero. Field studies at Chula and Ty Ty, Georgia, evaluated herbicides for napiergrass control. Herbicide treatments included autumn-only applications, autumn followed by spring applications, and spring-only applications. All autumn-applied treatments exhibited regrowth in the spring. Plants were not affected by cold winter temperatures. A spade tillage treatment was implemented in January 2010, but was not effective in controlling napiergrass. Spring treatments included split applications of autumn treatments and spring-only treatments of glyphosate, glyphosate plus sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Sequential autumn and spring treatments containing glyphosate at both locations failed to eradicate napiergrass. Imazapyr applied spring achieved 94% plant injury by 34 DAT, and indicated potential napiergrass control. Greenhouse results indicated multiple modes of action could be effective in reducing napiergrass growth, but were inconsistent with field results. Further field studies are needed to derive conclusive methods of napiergrass control.
At the end of the Second World War, there were only four functioning federations in the world – the United States, Switzerland, Canada and Australia. Today, there are some twenty-five to thirty federations, and federalism is being actively discussed in perhaps another half dozen countries. In addition, the European Union has emerged as one of the most ambitious and remarkable political innovations of the last half century – one with increasingly federal features and an active debate around federalism.
This proliferation of federations has been driven by a variety of factors. Foremost must be democratization. Germany and Austria returned to federalism with their return to democracy. Mexico, Brazil and Argentina became truly functioning federations with the end of one party or military rule. The death of Franco in Spain and the end of Apartheid in South Africa both uncorked democratic forces that resulted in those countries adopting what are effectively federal structures. A second factor was the end of the British Empire – India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Nigeria all emerged with federal structures on achieving independence. We have also seen the rise of identity politics and regional or communitarian stresses which have pushed Belgium into federalism and Italy well along the road in that direction, and tested a long-established federation such as Canada.
Of course, the story of federalism, like that of democracy more generally, includes failures and setbacks. A number of post-colonial federations that had been cobbled together by departing Imperial powers did not hold together.
The sensitivity of glaciers to climatic change is key information in assessing the response and sea-level implications of projected future warming. New Zealand glaciers are important globally as an example of how maritime glaciers will contribute to sea-level rise. A spatially distributed energy-balance model is applied to Brewster Glacier, New Zealand, in order to calculate glacier mass balance, run-off and sensitivity to climate change. The model successfully simulates four annual mass-balance cycles. Close to half (52%) of the energy available for melt on the glacier is supplied by turbulent heat fluxes, with radiation less important, except during the winter. Model sensitivity to temperature change is one of the largest reported on Earth, at −2.0 m w.e. a−1 °C−1. In contrast, a 50% change in precipitation is required to offset the mass-balance change resulting from a 1 °C temperature change. Meltwater runoff sensitivity is also very high, increasing 60% with a 1°C warming. The extreme sensitivity of mass balance to temperature change suggests that significant ice loss will occur with even moderate climate warming.
Kenneth L. Tanaka, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff,
Robert Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
James M. Dohm, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson,
Vicki L. Hansen, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth,
George E. McGill, University of Massachusetts, Amherst,
Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
Richard A. Schultz, Geomechanics – Rock Fracture Group, Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno,
Thomas R. Watters, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
As on Earth, other solid-surfaced planetary bodies in the solar system display landforms produced by tectonic activity, such as faults, folds, and fractures. These features are resolved in spacecraft observations directly or with techniques that extract topographic information from a diverse suite of data types, including radar backscatter and altimetry, visible and near-infrared images, and laser altimetry. Each dataset and technique has its strengths and limitations that govern how to optimally utilize and properly interpret the data and what sizes and aspects of features can be recognized. The ability to identify, discriminate, and map tectonic features also depends on the uniqueness of their form, on the morphologic complexity of the terrain in which the structures occur, and on obscuration of the features by erosion and burial processes. Geologic mapping of tectonic structures is valuable for interpretation of the surface strains and of the geologic histories associated with their formation, leading to possible clues about: (1) the types or sources of stress related to their formation, (2) the mechanical properties of the materials in which they formed, and (3) the evolution of the body's surface and interior where timing relationships can be determined. Formal mapping of tectonic structures has been performed and/or is in progress for Earth's Moon, the planets Mars, Mercury, and Venus, and the satellites of Jupiter (Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io).
Genomics programs in the weed science community have not developed as rapidly as that of other crop, horticultural, forestry, and model plant systems. Development of genomic resources for selected model weeds are expected to enhance our understanding of weed biology, just as they have in other plant systems. In this report, we describe the development, characteristics, and information gained from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database for the perennial weed leafy spurge. ESTs were obtained using a normalized cDNA library prepared from a comprehensive collection of tissues. During the EST characterization process, redundancy was minimized by periodic subtractions of the normalized cDNA library. A sequencing success rate of 88% yielded 45,314 ESTs with an average read length of 671 nucleotides. Using bioinformatic analysis, the leafy spurge EST database was assembled into 23,472 unique sequences representing 19,015 unigenes (10,293 clusters and 8,722 singletons). Blast similarity searches to the GenBank nonredundant protein database identified 18,186 total matches, of which 14,205 were nonredundant. These data indicate that 77.4% of the 23,472 unique sequences and 74.7% of the 19,015 unigenes are similar to other known proteins. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that 2,950, or 15.5%, of the unigenes have previously not been identified suggesting that some may be novel to leafy spurge. Functional classifications assigned to leafy spurge unique sequences using Munich Information Center for Protein or Gene Ontology were proportional to functional classifications for genes of arabidopsis, with the exception of unclassified or unknowns and transposable elements which were significantly reduced in leafy spurge. Although these EST resources have been developed for the purpose of constructing high-density leafy spurge microarrays, they are already providing valuable information related to sugar metabolism, cell cycle regulation, dormancy, terpenoid secondary metabolism, and flowering.
David Krasner: In surveying contemporary London theatre, New York Times critic Ben Brantley reported that the Tricycle Theatre had
inaugurated a season of African-American plays with the commandingly titled but obscure Walk Hard, Talk Loud, a play by Abram Hill from the early1940's. Abram who? The name meant nothing to me, but Abram Hill (1910–1986) was a founder and director of the American Negro Theater in New York (1940–1951) and a playwright, it seems, of considerable verve.3
That Abram Hill and the American Negro Theatre—the most important black theatre company during the mid-twentieth century—has flown below the radar is indicative of how much work still needs to be accomplished.
Eudarluca caricis is assumed to be a nonspecific mycoparasite of rust fungi. The evidence for its mycoparasitism has rested on constant association with uredinia. In this study, stable isotopes provided additional evidence of mycoparasitism, as E. caricis was enriched with 15N relative to its associated rust fungus, as were parasites and mycoparasites generally with respect to their hosts. Host specificity was directly tested in inoculations in the greenhouse. Isolates of E. caricis from Puccinia on two Eurasian grasses (i.e. Holcus lanatus and Phalaris arundinacaea) did not infect Melampsora on Populus that, in contrast, was successfully infected by a poplar isolate of E. caricis. An isolate from M. medusae on P. deltoides infected a significantly greater percentage of uredinia of M. medusae on P. deltoides than uredinia of M. occidentalis on P. trichocarpa. The host specificity of the three isolates was reflected in their divergence in a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that mycoparasites of rust and powdery mildew fungi have evolved from a common ancestor.