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This paper introduces and analyzes a new form of contingent convertible: a call option enhanced reverse convertible (COERC). If an issuing bank’s market value of capital breaches a trigger, COERCs convert to many new equity shares that would heavily dilute existing shareholders, except that shareholders have the option to purchase these shares at the bond’s par value. COERCs have low risk: They are almost always fully repaid in cash. Yet, they reduce government bailouts by replenishing a bank’s capital. COERCs’ design also avoids problems with market-value triggers, such as manipulation or panic, while reducing moral hazard and debt overhang.
We have heard much in recent times of the decrease of tuberculosis and of the increase in mortality from cancer. I propose on the basis of data from some great cities and other areas of the German-speaking world to ascertain whether, if attention is paid to age distribution, cancer really presents so striking a contrast with other causes of mortality. With a view to solving the problem let us enquire whether the undoubted absolute increase may not be a mere function of the ageing of the population, a feature common to all civilised countries. Most weight will be placed upon the statistical data derived from cities because of the greater reliability of the diagnoses in hospitals, and because, as a rule, the death certificate is filled up by the practitioner who actually attended the patient.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The dominant lipids of seven species of abyssal holothurians (Oneirophanta mutabilis, Pseudostichopus villosus, Psychropotes longicauda, Deima validium, Parariza prouhoi, Amperima rosea and Molpadia blakei) have been examined in detail. Fatty acid compositions are qualitatively similar to those of shallow-water holothurians, but relatively higher amounts of unsaturated compounds in the deep sea animals are ascribed to an adaptation of the latter to maintain membrane fluidity at high pressure and low temperature. The sterol distributions of abyssal holothurians are complex, with mixtures of C26–C30 sterols being present in all of the animals. These are most likely to be dietary in origin; the holothurians substitute Δ5 with Δ7 unsaturation, via Δ5,7 or Δ0 intermediates. 14α-methylcholest-9(11)-enol, which is a common product of de novo biosynthesis in shallow-water holothurians is absent in all of the deep-water species. Furthermore, cholest-7-enol, the dominant product of de novo biosynthesis in shallow water animals, is a relatively minor component in all of the species, except A. rosea. This holothurian is also the only one that appears to assimilate 4α-methylsterols directly and contains high amounts of steryl sulphates. There are significant interspecies differences in the free sterol distributions which may reflect their different feeding strategies or niches.
Extremal arrival processes, in the sense of increasing convex order of waiting time of queueing systems, are investigated. Two types of extremal processes are proposed: one in the class of processes that have identical marginal distributions and the other in the class of bounded stochastic processes that have the same mean and covariance structure. The worst performance with regard to waiting time in the sense of increasing convex order is guaranteed when these extremal processes are fed into a first in-first out single-server queue.
In a partly retrospective, partly follow-up study, 27 patients aged 1 year 10 months to 16 years 2 months with reversible somatotropin deficiency, showed a relationship between the rate of statural growth and sleep, graded as good, poor, or mixed. During periods of good sleep the overall growth rate averaged 1·04 cm per month, and during periods of poor sleep it averaged 0·34 cm per month (t=8·46, df=32, P<0·001). Presumably, good growth, good sleep, and optimal nocturnal somatotropin release intercorrelate in this syndrome of dwarfism, but the data with regard to nocturnal somatotropin release remain to be demonstrated empirically.
All school teachers of the world who are interested in the development of the teaching of mathematics in general and of the teaching of geometry in particular know the three stages A, B, c which are prescribed for the teachers of geometry in England. The father of this splendid idea is W C. Fletcher, formerly Chief Inspector of the Board of Education in London. He issued in March 1909, as Circular 711, a famous regulation: Teaching of Geometry and Graphic Algebra in Secondary Schools.
[At the evening meeting of the Annual Meeting of the Mathematical Association on 5th January, 1937, Mr. A. W. Siddons took the chair, and in calling upon Professor Wolff for his paper said: Professor Georg Wolff came to England in 1913, and I believe I am right in saying that Harrow was the first school to which he came and that the last educational institute he was at in England was this Institute of Education in Southampton Row, where he talked with Sir Percy Nunn. When he was in England on that occasion Professor Wolff spent much of his time learning about the teaching of mathematics in this country. He has more recently been lecturing at Columbia University, New York.]
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