Herbicide-resistant cultivars may improve some aspects of weed management in wheat. However, negative consequences such as gene transfer among species, increased development of resistant weeds, or less effective volunteer wheat control may result from their use. Therefore, we reviewed literature on volunteer (self-sown) wheat seedling emergence and seed longevity in soil for insight in managing herbicide-resistant wheat. Data from classical burial studies suggested that wheat seeds were short-lived in soil, persisting less than 1 yr. Yet, in field studies, volunteer wheat seedlings were still emerging 16 mo after harvest; occasionally, seedlings have been observed 2 yr after harvest. Volunteer wheat emergence was extremely variable; causes of the variability are numerous and include genotypic, environmental, and production factors. This variability makes it difficult to predict volunteer wheat infestations in future years. Diverse cropping systems will enable producers to accrue the benefits of herbicide-resistant cultivars and yet still manage wheat volunteers, minimize gene flow by pollen, and avoid transfer of herbicide resistance. In regions where alternative crops are not viable, a key concern will be controlling volunteers and gene transfer in the next wheat crop.