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To determine the scope, source, and mode of transmission of a multifacility outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Residents and patients in skilled nursing facilities, long-term acute-care hospital, and acute-care hospitals.
A case was defined as the incident isolate from clinical or surveillance cultures of XDR Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to imipenem or meropenem and nonsusceptible to all but 1 or 2 antibiotic classes in a patient in an Oregon healthcare facility during January 2012–December 2014. We queried clinical laboratories, reviewed medical records, oversaw patient and environmental surveillance surveys at 2 facilities, and recommended interventions. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and molecular analysis were performed.
We identified 21 cases, highly related by PFGE or healthcare facility exposure. Overall, 17 patients (81%) were admitted to either long-term acute-care hospital A (n=8), or skilled nursing facility A (n=8), or both (n=1) prior to XDR A. baumannii isolation. Interfacility communication of patient or resident XDR status was not performed during transfer between facilities. The rare plasmid-encoded carbapenemase gene blaOXA-237 was present in 16 outbreak isolates. Contact precautions, chlorhexidine baths, enhanced environmental cleaning, and interfacility communication were implemented for cases to halt transmission.
Interfacility transmission of XDR A. baumannii carrying the rare blaOXA-237 was facilitated by transfer of affected patients without communication to receiving facilities.
To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
To establish a statewide network to detect, control, and prevent the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a region with a low incidence of CRE infection.
Implementation of the Drug Resistant Organism Prevention and Coordinated Regional Epidemiology (DROP-CRE) Network.
Setting and Participants.
Oregon infection prevention and microbiology laboratory personnel, including 48 microbiology laboratories, 62 acute care facilities, and 140 long-term care facilities.
The DROP-CRE working group, comprising representatives from academic institutions and public health, convened an interdisciplinary advisory committee to assist with planning and implementation of CRE epidemiology and control efforts. The working group established a statewide CRE definition and surveillance plan; increased the state laboratory capacity to perform the modified Hodge test and polymerase chain reaction for carbapenemases in real time; and administered surveys that assessed the needs and capabilities of Oregon infection prevention and laboratory personnel. Results of these inquiries informed CRE education and the response plan.
Of 60 CRE reported from November 2010 through April 2013, only 3 were identified as carbapenemase producers; the cases were not linked, and no secondary transmission was found. Microbiology laboratories, acute care facilities, and long-term care facilities reported lacking carbapenemase testing capability, reliable interfacility communication, and CRE awareness, respectively. Survey findings informed the creation of the Oregon CRE Toolkit, a state-specific CRE guide booklet.
A regional epidemiology surveillance and response network has been implemented in Oregon in advance of widespread CRE transmission. Prospective surveillance will determine whether this collaborative approach will be successful at forestalling the emergence of this important healthcare-associated pathogen.
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