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Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in open angle glaucoma (OAG) may lead to optic nerve damage due to progressive obstruction of aqueous humor drainage. Among surgery options, trabecular micro-bypass stent (iStent®) was recently introduced. This Health Technology Assessment (HTA) aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of iStent®, combined or not with cataract surgery, in patients with mild-to-moderate OAG.
A systematic review (SR) was performed from 2000 to August 2016. Studies reporting data at three months or more on IOP and hypotensive medication use following iStent® implant were eligible. Governmental databases on safety issues were reviewed. The project involved an interdisciplinary group of experts.
Two HTA reports, one SR, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nine observational studies (OSs) were included. Compared to cataract surgery alone, implantation of iStent®combined with cataract surgery was associated with a decrease in IOP at 12 months in RCTs (-1.37 mmHg; 95 percent Confidence Interval, CI: - 2.76 to .03 mmHg, p = .055). Results from RCTs and OSs on the effect of iStent® combined or not with cataract surgery suggest also a 12-month positive effect on IOP (mean reduction: 1.5 to 9.5 mmHg) and on mean number of medications (reduction: .3 to 2.0) compared to baseline. Scattered results were found on the proportion of patients who no longer use glaucoma medications. Small sample size, short duration of follow-up, and potential conflicts of interest were among studies limitations. The most common adverse events reported were posterior capsular opacification, decrease in visual acuity, and stent obstruction or malposition.
Appraisal of the effectiveness and safety suggests that iStent® implantation combined to cataract surgery in mild-to-moderate OAG is an emerging practice. Uncertainties related to clinical benefits, safety and care organization need to be clarified before an introduction as a standard of medical practice.
To validate an FFQ for the assessment of dietary EPA and DHA against their relative concentrations in red blood cells (RBC).
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data. Intakes of marine food products and EPA and DHA were estimated by FFQ on the basis of consumption of marine food products in the last month. Fatty acid composition of RBC membranes was quantified by GC.
Saint-François d’Assise Hospital, Québec, Canada.
A total of sixty-five middle-aged women who participated in a randomized clinical trial.
Spearman’s correlation coefficient between intake of EPA, DHA and EPA + DHA and their corresponding concentration in RBC was 0·46, 0·40 and 0·42, respectively (all P < 0·05). Multiple regression analysis of EPA+DHA intake and RBC EPA + DHA concentration indicated positive and significant correlations for oily fish (β = 0·44, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·72, P = 0·0027), total fish (β = 0·42, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·64, P = 0·0005) and marine food products (β = 0·42, 95 % CI 0·20, 0·64, P = 0·0003). No other marine food products significantly predicted RBC EPA + DHA concentration.
Although the present validation study was undertaken among middle-aged women with low consumption of marine food products (<3 servings/week), our FFQ provided estimates of EPA and DHA intakes that correlated fairly well with their RBC concentrations. However, the absence of correlations between EPA + DHA intakes from different marine species suggests that a minimum EPA + DHA intake is necessary to observe a relationship with RBC EPA + DHA concentrations.
To quantify marine food product consumption and EPA + DHA intake among Quebecers, and to compare the results with the most recent recommendations.
Data were obtained from a representative cross-sectional telephone survey (June 2006). Intakes of marine food product species and EPA + DHA were estimated from a validated FFQ on the consumption of marine food products during the previous month. Prevalence of fish oil consumption in the last 6 months was also assessed.
Province of Quebec (Canada).
A representative sample (n 1001) of adults in the province of Quebec. Of these, eight were excluded from the present analysis (n 993).
Mean and median EPA + DHA intakes for all participants were estimated to be 291 mg/d (sem 11) and 207 mg/d, respectively. 85·0 % (95 % CI 82·7, 87·3) of Quebecers had an EPA + DHA intake lower than 500 mg/d, which is the amount internationally recommended for the prevention of CVD. Mean and median DHA intakes among women of childbearing age (n 128, 18–34 years) were estimated to be 169 mg/d (sem 17) and 126 mg/d, respectively. Of these women, 27·7 % had a daily intake >200 mg DHA and 15·9 % had an intake >300 mg DHA. We noted that 13 % of Quebecers take ≥1 capsule of fish oil/d.
Consumption of marine food products and EPA + DHA among Quebecers clearly appears to be lower than international recommendations. Since EPA + DHA confer health benefits and may reduce health costs, strategies to increase their consumption should be implemented to improve public health in Quebec.
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