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To analyse trends in energy and nutrient intakes and nutritional adequacy from 1992 to 2003.
Two consecutive cross-sectional studies carried out on random samples of the Catalan population ENCAT 1992–93 and ENCAT 2002–03. Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour recalls on non-consecutive days. Spanish food consumption tables were used. Energy and nutrient data were adjusted for intraindividual variability, and the Spanish recommend nutrient intakes (RNIs) were used in the analysis.
Catalonia region, North Eastern Spain.
Analysis is based on a total of 4701 individuals; 2641 from ENCAT 1992–93 (1210 men and 1431 women) and 2060 from ENCAT 2002–03 (954 men and 1106 women), aged 10–75 years.
No relevant changes in energy intake trends were observed, although a decrease was observed in the daily consumption of proteins (−7 g), cholesterol (−56 mg), potassium (−245 mg), vitamin A (−283 RE μg), retinoids (−71 μg), carotenoids (−1520 μg), niacin (−29 mg), folates (−15 μg), vitamin B12 (−1.6 μg) vitamin D (−0.5 μg), fibre and iron, and an increase in the consumption of calcium (+57 mg) and a slight increase in lipids and fatty acids (% energy). In general, the most outstanding trends were those of vitamin A (as a result of the decreased consumption of offal), proteins, vitamin D and B12 (due to the decreased consumption of meat and fish) and calcium (as a consequence of the increased consumption of dairy products).
No changes were observed in the energy intake of males or females; therefore, the obesity changes may possibly be attributed to changes in physical activity patterns. However, an increase in energy sources of a poorer nutritional profile has been identified, especially for between meal snacks.
To analyse the degree of compliance with the nutrition objectives and population-based food guides and to indicate possible recommendations for their development within the framework of a Nutrition and Health Policy in Catalonia.
Using data derived from the latest Catalan Nutrition Survey (ENCAT 2002–03) conducted by the Department of Health, compliance was analysed with respect to the recommendations derived as a result of a previously conducted Survey. In addition, compliance to the recommendations elaborated by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) was also evaluated.
Catalonian region located in the Northeast of Spain.
Analysis is based on a total of 2160 individuals (996 males and 1164 females) aged 10–80 years interviewed in 2002–03.
The analysis of compliance with the recommendations established in 1995 showed: (a) recommendation to maintain and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables was not achieved; (b) continued use of olive oil as the dietary fat of choice was met; (c) incomplete compliance with maintaining the Mediterranean diet traditions, especially in the younger cohorts; (d) compliance with the recommendation to decrease consumption of red meat and sausages, but non-compliance with guidance to maintain or increase fish consumption and (e) compliance with partially substituting whole milk and dairy for low-fat products.
Compliance with the SENC Healthy Eating Guide revealed that those food groups with the worst results were meat and sausages (excessive), pulses (below recommendations) and fruits and vegetables (below recommendations).
Compliance with dietary guidelines is low in Catalonia, and reflects the need for an effective nutrition policy in the region defined by the Autonomous Government as the Plan for the Promotion of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating (PAAS).
To analyse trends in food habits and food consumption from 1992 to 2003.
Two consecutive cross-sectional nutrition surveys were carried out on random samples of the Catalan population (Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Catalonia (ENCAT) 1992–93 and ENCAT 2002–03). Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour recalls on non-consecutive days and a food frequency questionnaire was used to ascertain tendencies in the frequency of food consumption.
Catalonia region, Northeastern Spain.
Analysis is based on a total of 4701 individuals: 2641 from ENCAT 1992–93 (1210 men and 1431 women) and 2060 from ENCAT 2002–03 (954 men and 1106 women), aged 10–75 years.
The trends from 1992 to 2003 showed an increase in eating between meals and outside the home. There was also an upsurge in consumers for fast food, especially among young adults. Notable decreases in fruit consumption (from 301 to 224 g day−1) as well as in vegetables, potatoes, meat (red meat and chicken), fish (whitefish and seafood) and offals were observed. In contrast, there was an increase in dairy product consumption, in general (from 255 to 312 g day−1), as well as low fat and skim milk derivatives. Fruit juice, nuts and olive oil consumption also increased, the latter being consumed daily by 96% of the population. Little variation was observed for the rest of the food groups in the period studied. Overall, Catalonia is characterised by a model of consumption that is quite favourable, inherent to Mediterranean countries but with important differences according to age.
Based on the food consumption trends observed in Catalonia, an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as wholegrain cereals and fish, should be promoted, along with a reduction in the consumption of meat and sausages.
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the modification of knowledge, opinions and attitudes to healthy eating, weight perception and dieting practices and preventive habits over a 10-year trend in the Catalan population from 1992 to 2003.
Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Catalonia, Spain, during 1992–93 and 2002–03.
In all, 2361 individuals in the ENCAT 1992–93 nutritional survey and 2061 individuals in the ENCAT 2002–03 health survey. The subjects’ ages ranged from 10 to 75 years old.
Lettuce and carrots, fish and olive oil were chosen as the healthiest foods in the two Catalan Nutritional Surveys. Although some improvement was reported, a high percentage of the population still thought that bread (31%), potatoes (23%) or olive oil (19%) should be moderated to prevent high blood cholesterol, especially among the youngest individuals. The perception of being overweight increased among males and decreased among females. There was an increase in the percentage of the population following a diet (from 13% to 17%). An increase in the consumption of iodine-enriched salt (from 26% to 40%) was observed as well as of diet supplements, especially among females (from 6% to 13%). The prevalence of males with diabetes increased from 3.4% to 4.5% and the number of individuals with diabetes not following any treatment decreased.
The Catalan population has improved their knowledge of healthy food and health-related attitudes. Nutrition policy should focus on young adults as a key age group for primary prevention of future nutrition-related chronic diseases.
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