Over the last 20 years surveys of the population of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus in Doñana National Park and its surroundings in Spain have produced estimates of a total population of 50–60 in fragmented patches. The population was estimated to be 26 adults in 2002–2003. Use of camera trapping and other field methods during 2004–2008 allowed us to determine the abundance of the lynx and to estimate demographic statistics. Estimated annual abundance of adult and subadult lynxes averaged 38 individuals (range 35–43). Although the population exhibited a continuous distribution it was concentrated in three major areas, including Doñana National Park, with an average area occupied of 620 km2. Our results suggest that the Doñana Iberian lynx population now has a different structure from that in the 1990s and in particular a more continuous spatial distribution. These results indicate an improved, but not secure, scenario for the population. The continuous geographical distribution suggests the population is currently less vulnerable to extinction than 10 years ago. Conservation actions now need to focus outside Doñana National Park on the reconversion of pine plantations into original Mediterranean scrubland habitat, and the continuity and intensification of ongoing restocking with rabbits in fenced areas.