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CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848). Dietary intake was measured by 7-d food diary and metabolic risk using waist circumference, BMI, blood lipid profile, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and blood pressure measurements. Diet quality was assessed using the novel DRV index and NP model. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk were analysed via multivariate linear models and logistic regression. A two-point increase in NP score was associated with total cholesterol (β −0·33 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·01 %, P<0·0001). A two-point increase in DRV score was associated with waist circumference (β −0·56 cm, P<0·0001), BMI (β −0·15 kg/m2, P<0·0001), total cholesterol (β −0·06 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·02 %, P=0·002). A one-point increase in DRV score was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR 0·94, P=0·01) and obesity (OR 0·95, P<0·0001). The DRV index is associated with overall diet quality and risk factors for CVD and T2D, supporting its application in nutritional epidemiological studies investigating CVD risk in a UK population.
Two rearing records from trap nests set in São Paulo State, Brazil and one oviposition observation show that the parasitoid wasp Phlebopenes longicaudata (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) parasitises the nests of oil-collecting bees of the genus Tetrapedia Klug (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Based on this and one previously published host record, species of Phlebopenes Perty are newly hypothesised to be parasitoids of solitary wasps and bees rather than wood-boring Coleoptera. Other Eupelmidae reported as parasitoids of aculeate wasps are summarised.
The first English language newspaper in India began publication in 1780; by 1857, almost two hundred papers and periodicals had appeared – and many had quickly disappeared. An 1839 article in the Calcutta Literary Gazette partially attributed this high mortality rate to a lack of talented writers and to a desire among colonists for news from England:
There is not here as there is in London, a class of professional literati, always ready to prepare a certain supply of matter. . . . [T]he London paying system has been introduced, but the writer whose contributions are worth paying for, are a very small body. . . . To all the drawbacks already mentioned we must mention another of no trifling influence; we allude to the disposition in our countrymen to look homewards for their literature. (Chanda xviii-xxi)
Indeed, English newspapers of the time featured the contributions of literati such as Charles Dickens, Benjamin Disraeli, George Eliot, Leigh Hunt, Douglas Jerrold, Henry Mayhew, and William Makepeace Thackeray, but of these figures only Thackeray wrote purposely for an Indian periodical.
The first objective was to examine the outcome of how comfortable a potential EMS-caller would be receiving care from an out-of-hospital-care EMS professional who might have a legal conviction. A second objective was to test for correlates that would explain this outcome.
In the autumn of 2010, a structured phone survey was conducted. To maximize geographical representation across the contiguous United States, a clustered, stratified sampling strategy was used based upon US Postal Service zip codes.
Of the 2,443 phone calls made, 1,051 (43%) full survey responses were obtained. Data cleaning efforts reduced the total to 929 in the final model regression analysis. Results revealed significant public discomfort in receiving care from EMS professionals who may have such a conviction. In addition, respondents who are less educated and older more strongly (1) agree that EMS professionals should have their licenses revoked for wrongdoing; (2) agree EMS professionals should be screened before being hired; (3) perceive EMS credentials to be important; (4) support a lawsuit for improper care; and (5) are collectively less comfortable with being cared for by an EMS professional who may have a legal conviction. Reliable scales were found for future research use.
There is significant public discomfort in receiving care from EMS professionals who may have a legal conviction. The results of this study provide increased impetus for the careful screening of EMS professionals before they are hired or allowed to be volunteers. Beyond this due diligence, the results serve as a reminder for increased EMS provider awareness of the importance of exhibiting professionalism when dealing with the public.
Blau G, Gibson G. Correlates of perceived care comfort with an EMS professional having a legal conviction. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(4):1-6.
There is an increased interest in investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota and energy homeostasis. Probiotics are health beneficial microbes mainly categorised under the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host, and have been implicated in various physiological functions. The potential role of probiotics in energy homeostasis is a current and an emerging area of research. In the present study, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 13 was used to evaluate its anti-obesity potential in diet-induced obese (C57BL/6) mice. The probiotic bacterial culture was administered in Indian yogurt preparation called ‘dahi’, prepared using native starter cultures, and compared with control dahi containing only dahi starter cultures. The dietary intervention was followed for 8 weeks, and whole-body fat composition, and liver and muscle adiposity were measured using MRI. Changes in gut microbiota were assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation in faeces and caecal contents. The feeding of the probiotic brought no changes in body-weight gain, food and dahi intake when compared with the control dahi-fed animals. No significant changes in body fat composition, liver and muscle adiposity were also observed. At the end of the dietary intervention, a significant increase (P < 0·05) in the number of total Bifidobacterium was observed in both faeces and caecal contents of mice as a result of probiotic dahi administration. Thus, L. acidophilus NCDC 13 supplementation could be beneficial in shifting the gut microbiota balance positively. However, its anti-obesity potential could not be established in the present study and warrants further exploration.
Recently, tremendous progress has been made toward the application of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in full color flat panel displays and other devices. This article reviews and discusses our recent progress in extended development of emissive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (E-semi-IPNs) and hybrid quantum dots (QDs)–polymer nanocomposites for use in multicolor and multilayer OLED pixels through low-cost solution processing. Our semi-IPNs with high solvent resistance, containing an inert polymer network and conjugated polymers, served in different layers of OLED devices. These semi-IPNs do not require complicated chemical modification to OLED materials; therefore, many state-of-the-arts conjugated polymers can be utilized to achieve red–green–blue and white OLEDs by tuning formulations. Our research findings on hybrid QD–oligomer nanocomposites lead to the successful design and synthesis of QD–polymer hybrid nanocomposites, which were used to build proof-of-the-concept devices showing good promise in providing excellent color purity and stability from QDs and solution processability from hybrid nanocomposites.
Spalangia dozieri Burks is newly recorded as a gregarious parasitoid in the puparia of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), C. putoria (Wiedemann), Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), and L. sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and represents the first report of gregariousness in Spalangia Latreille. The previously unknown males of S. dozieri are described and compared with females. Males have highly modified legs and several other sexually dimorphic features that differ from those of other Spalangia species. Most of the unusual features are hypothesized to be adaptations for grasping and holding and it is suggested that males either are phoretic on adults of their dipteran hosts or, possibly, that males exhibit aggressive or other atypical behaviour toward siblings that is correlated with being gregarious. Barbados, Brazil, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Trinidad are recorded as new country distribution records for S. dozieri.
Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) show great promise of revolutionizing display technologies. The archetypical multilayer PLED heterostructure introduces numerous chemical and physical challenges to the develoment of efficient and robust devices. These layered structure are formed from solution based spin-casting or printing with subsequesnt removal of the solvent. However, solvent from the freshly deposited film may dissolve or partially dissolve the underlying layer resulting in loss of the desired structure and corresponding device functionality. Undesirable changes in the morphology and interfaces of the polymer films are another detrimental effect associated with solvent removal. Herein, we demonstrated that by embedding hole transporting materials (HTLs) in a cross-linked polymer matrix, the total luminance and external quantum efficiency were greatly improved over devices without this HTL layer.
Six species of Trichomalus Thomson were reared as parasitoids of Ceutorhynchinae hosts in Europe during surveys in 2000–2004. Trichomalus rusticus (Walker) is treated as a valid species, resurrected from synonymy under T. lucidus (Walker), and T. lyttus (Walker) is transferred from synonymy under T. lucidus and newly placed in synonymy with T. rusticus. Illustrated keys to females and males are given to differentiate the six species (T. bracteatus (Walker), T. campestris (Walker), T. gynetelus (Walker), T. lucidus, T. perfectus (Walker), and T. rusticus) except for males of T. bracteatus and T. gynetelus. A lectotype female is designated for T. rusticus. Trichomalus campestris is newly recorded as a parasitoid of Ceutorhynchus cardariae Korotyaev. Implications of the host-parasitoid associations recovered by the surveys are discussed relative to introduction of species to North America for classical biological control.
The species of Pteromalidae (Chalcidoidea) introduced to British Columbia, Canada, from Europe in 1949 as Trichomalus fasciatus (Thomson, 1878), Xenocrepis pura Mayr, 1904, and Habrocytus sp. for classical biological control of Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham, 1802) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are shown to be misidentifications of Trichomalus perfectus (Walker, 1835), Mesopolobus morys (Walker, 1848), and Stenomalina gracilis (Walker, 1834), respectively. Species reared subsequently from seedpods of Brassica spp. (Brassicaceae) in British Columbia and reported in the literature under the first three names are shown to be misidentifications of, respectively, Trichomalus lucidus (Walker, 1835), Mesopolobus moryoides Gibson, 2005, and one or both of Pteromalus puparum (L., 1758) and T. lucidus. There is no evidence that either T. perfectus or M. morys established in North America, but S. gracilis is newly recorded from southern British Columbia based on specimens reared from Brassicaceae seedpods in 2004 and 2005.
Previous identifications in North America of Trichomalus perfectus (Walker, 1835) and Mesopolobus morys (Walker, 1848) (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), the principal chalcid parasitoids of the cabbage seedpod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus Marsham, 1802) in Europe, are shown to be misidentifications of Trichomalus lucidus (Walker, 1835) and Mesopolobus (Xenocrepis) moryoidessp. nov., respectively. Necremnus duplicatus Gahan, 1941 (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) is synonymized formally under Necremnus tidius (Walker, 1839) syn. nov., confirming a previous, tentative synonymy. Both sexes of N. tidius, M. moryoides, and T. lucidus are illustrated and compared with those of similar species using macrophotography and scanning electron microphotography. Hypotheses are offered to explain why the principal chalcid parasitoids of the cabbage seedpod weevil differ between North America and Europe and how the three treated species came to be in North America.
Five species of Trichomalopsis Crawford associated with Haematobia irritans (L.) (horn fly), Musca domestica L. (house fly), Musca autumnalis DeGeer (face fly), and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (stable fly) in North America are reviewed. The species Trichomalopsis americana (Gahan), Trichomalopsis dubia (Ashmead), Trichomalopsis sarcophagae (Gahan), Trichomalopsis tachinae (Gahan), and Trichomalopsis viridescens (Walsh) are described, keyed, and differentiated from other recognized North American species. Lectotypes are designated for T. dubia, T. sarcophagae, and T. tachinae. Distribution and host associations are recorded for the species. Trichomalopsis americana and T. viridescens are newly recorded as parasitoids of M. domestica; T. dubia and T. sarcophagae are also newly recorded as parasitoids of Hypoderma lineatum (Villers) (common cattle grub) and Hypoderma bovis (L.) (northern cattle grub), respectively. Some previously published host associations and parasitoid identifications are corrected based on examination of voucher specimens. The known biology of each species is reviewed. The presence of Trichomalopsis albipilosa (Gahan) in North America is considered to be erroneous based on a misidentification of T. americana.
The world species of Urolepis Walker are reviewed and a key is given to differentiate females of Urolepis singularis (Ashmead) and males and females of Urolepis maritima (Walker) and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead). Lectotypes are designated for U. rufipes and U. singularis. Biological literature relating to parasitism of house flies and stable flies by U. maritima and U. rufipes is summarized, and known hosts of the three species and collection records within the Nearctic region are given. Urolepis maritima is recorded for the first time from the Nearctic region, and U. rufipes is confirmed from northern Europe (Denmark and Germany).
Fieldwork east of Oakham, Rutland has located evidence of prehistoric settlement, land use patterns, and ceremonial monuments. Part of this included the excavation of a cropmark site which has revealed an unusual sequence of Neolithic/Early Bronze Age pit circles and a burial area. This is complemented by a fieldwalking survey of the surrounding areas, allowing consideration of the relationship of juxtaposed flint scatters and the excavated ceremonial area.
We have used Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) to successfully grow films that are predominantly IrSi3 on both Si(111) and Si(100) substrates by codeposition of Si and Ir in a 3:1 ratio. Bragg-Brentano and Seemann-Bohlin x-ray diffraction reveal that polycrystalline IrSi3 films form as low as 450 °C. This is the lowest temperature yet reported for growth of this iridium silicide phase. These x-ray diffraction techniques, along with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) diffraction and in situ Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), show that at higher deposition temperatures codeposition can form IrSi3 films on Si(111) that consist predominantly of a single epitaxial growth orientation. Ion beam channeling and x-ray rocking curves show that the epitaxial quality of IrSi3 films deposited on Si(111) is superior to that of IrSi3 films deposited on Si(100). We also present evidence for several new epitaxial IrSi3 growth modes on Si(111) and Si(100).
The groundplan structure and homologies of the mesothoracic pleurosternum of Hymenoptera are postulated using the subcoxal theory of the origin of the pterothoracic pleura of insects, and the cryptosternite theory of an invaginated sternum in most holometabolous insects, based on a comparison of the skeletomusculature of Xyelidae (Hymenoptera) and Raphidiidae (Neuroptera). The following are hypothesized for Hymenoptera: (1) the mesosternum is invaginated except for the prepectus, which is a detached remnant of the presternum; (2) lines that delineate ventral regions on the mesepisternum of many Symphyta are secondarily evolved sulci and arc not pleurosternal sutures; (3) a basalar cleft and an anepisternum are present in the groundplan structure; (4) in Hymenoptera other than Xyelidae the basalar cleft and anapleural cleft intersect so the anepisternum is detached as a separate sclerite, the postspiracular sclerite; (5) the pre-episternum is enlarged secondarily at the expense of the katepisternum, resulting in the paracoxal suture and a narrow katepisternum closely paralleling the posteroventral margin of the episternum anterior to the mesocoxa; (6) the mesepimeron is not divided into an anepimeron and katepimeron by a paracoxal suture but in some taxa is divided secondarily into an upper and lower mesepimeron by marks that delineate the line of confluence between different sets of muscles; and (7) the trochantin is absent from the groundplan structure. Postulated homologies support the hypothesis that Xyelidae represent the basal lineage of Hymenoptera but do not support the hypothesis that the rest of Hymenopera had a biphyletic origin from Xyelidae. The study exemplifies the positive feedback relationship between morphology and systematics and demonstrates the necessity of systematics and phylogenctic hypotheses for testing hypotheses of homology derived through comparative morphology. Schematic figures illustrate the subcoxal theory of pleuron origin and the postulated groundplan of the hymenopteran mesopleuron; mesothoracic muscles that were studied to help homologize pleurosternal features between Xyelidae and Raphidiidae are tabulated and skeletomusculature is documented by scanning electron photomicrographs.
We discuss the measurement of the morphology of exposed surfaces and buried interfaces using plan view transmission electron microscopy techniques. We have observed the evolution of the silicon/oxide interface during both oxidation and oxygen etching of the Si (111) surface. We describe the interface morphology, the mechanisms of these oxidation reactions and the implications of these results for the processing of silicon surfaces.
A wide variety of conditions lead to delirium (i.e., metabolic encephalopathies) in human beings and animals. Despite the varied etiology the clinical consequences are relatively stereotyped which suggests that the diverse insults that cause delirium may act by common metabolic and cellular “final pathways.” Related molecular and cellular mechanisms may be involved in aging and Alzheimer's disease, conditions that predispose to the development of delirium. Animal models of delirium better reflect age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease than those that impair a single neurotransmitter system such as the cholinergic system; the metabolic encephalopathies produce global cognitive disturbance, which is more typical of these disorders. Thus, research related to delirium has far-reaching implications for normal and abnormal brain function.