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With every connected graph G there is associated a metric space M(G) whose points are the vertices of the graph with the distance between two vertices a and b defined as zero if a = b or as the length of any shortest arc joining a and b if a ≠ b. A metric space M is called a graph metric space if there exists a graph G such that M = M (G), i.e., if there exists a graph G whose vertex set can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the points of M in such a way that the distance between every two points of M is equal to the distance between the corresponding vertices of G.
It is proved that if G is a connected cubic graph of order p all of whose bridges lie on r edge-disjoint paths of G, then every maximum matching of G contains at least P/2 − └2r/3┘ edges. Moreover, this result is shown to be best possible.
A near 1-factor of a graph of order 2n ≧ 4 is a subgraph isomorphic to (n − 2) K2 ∪ P3 ∪ K1. Wallis determined, for each r ≥ 3, the order of a smallest r-regular graph of even order without a 1-factor; while for each r ≧ 3, Chartrand, Goldsmith and Schuster determined the order of a smallest r-regular, (r − 2)-edge-connected graph of even order without a 1-factor. These results are extended to graphs without near 1-factors. It is known that every connected, cubic graph with less than six bridges has a near 1-factor. The order of a smallest connected, cubic graph with exactly six bridges and no near 1-factor is determined.
A graph G, every vertex of which has degree at least three, is randomly 3-axial if for each vertex v of G, any ordered collection of three paths in G of length one with initial vertex v can be cyclically randomly extended to produce three internally disjoint paths which contain all the vertices of G. Randomly 3-axial graphs of order p > 4 are characterized for p ≢ 1 (mod 3), and are shown to be either complete graphs or certain regular complete bipartite graphs.
A class of graphs called randomly k-axial graphs is introduced, which generalizes randomly traceable graphs. The problems of determining which bipartite graphs and which complete n-partite graphs are randomly k-axial are studied.
A graph G (finite, undirected, and without loops or multiple lines) is n-connected if the removal of fewer than n points from G neither disconnects it nor reduces it to the trivial graph consisting of a single point. We present in this note a sufficient set of conditions on the degrees (valences) of the points of a graph G so that G is n-connected.
With every graph G (finite and undirected with no loops or multiple lines) there is associated a graph L(G), called the line-graph of G, whose points correspond in a one-to-one manner with the lines of G in such a way that two points of L(G) are adjacent if and only if the corresponding lines of Gare adjacent. This concept was originated by Whitney (3). In a similar way one can associate with G another graph which we call its total graph and denote by T(G). This new graph has the property that a one-to-one correspondence can be established between its points and the elements (the set of points and lines) of G such that two points of T(G) are adjacent if and only if the corresponding elements of G are adjacent (if both elements are points or both are lines) or theyare incident
The line - graph of an ordinary graph G is that graph whose points can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the lines of G in such a way that two points of are adjacent if and only if the corresponding lines of G are adjacent. This concept originated with Whitney [ 5 ], has the property that its (point) chromatic number equals the line chromatic number of G, where the point (line) chromatic number of graph is the minimum number of colors required to color the points (lines) of the graph such that adjacent points (lines) are colored differently.
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