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Studies to evaluate the effect of application time of day (TOD) and protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide–resistant Palmer amaranth on the efficacy of commonly used herbicides was conducted in Tennessee in 2017 and 2018. Treatments of fomesafen, lactofen, acifluorfen, paraquat, glufosinate, glufosinate plus fomesafen, paraquat plus fomesafen, and paraquat plus metribuzin were applied to PPO-resistant (PPO-R) and PPO-susceptible (PPO-S) Palmer amaranth at sunrise and midday. Control of Palmer amaranth with acifluorfen, glufosinate, and glufosinate plus fomesafen was greater with the midday application. However, control of Palmer amaranth with paraquat-based treatments was greater with the sunrise application. TOD effects on PPO-inhibiting herbicides and paraquat-based treatments were more prominent for the PPO-R Palmer amaranth biotype. The TOD effect observed when applying glufosinate in early morning hours on PPO-S Palmer amaranth can be minimized by adding fomesafen to the tank mix. However, this strategy did not provide consistent performance on PPO-R Palmer amaranth. The percentages of living Palmer amaranth plants and control were greater when paraquat plus metribuzin was applied to both biotypes. These results highlight the necessity of at least two effective herbicide sites of action for POST applications intended for controlling PPO-R Palmer amaranth. In addition, the timing of herbicide applications can affect their activity in both PPO-R and PPO-S Palmer amaranth populations.
Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicides (WSSA Group 14) have been used in agronomic row crops for over 50 yr. Broadleaf weeds, including glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, have been controlled by this herbicide site of action PRE and POST. Recently, Palmer amaranth populations were reported resistant to PPO inhibitors in 2011 in Arkansas, in 2015 in Tennessee, and in 2016 in Illinois. Historically, the mechanism for this resistance involves the deletion of a glycine at position 210 (ΔG210) in a PPO enzyme encoded by the PPX2 gene; however, the ΔG210 deletion did not explain all PPO inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth in Tennessee populations. Recently, two new mutations within PPX2 (R128G, R128M) that confer resistance to PPO inhibitors were identified in Palmer amaranth. Therefore, research is needed to document the presence and distribution of the three known mutations that confer PPO inhibitor resistance in Tennessee. In 2017, a survey was conducted in 18 fields with Palmer amaranth to determine whether resistance existed and the prevalence of each known mutation in each field. Fomesafen was applied at 265 g ai ha–1 to Palmer amaranth infestations within each field to select for resistant weeds for later analysis. Where resistance was described (70% of surviving plants), the ΔG210 mutation was detected in 47% of resistant plants. The R128G mutation accounted for 42% of resistance, similar to the frequency of the ΔG210 mutation. The R128M mutation was less frequent than the other two mutations, accounting for only 10% of the resistance. All mutations detected in this study were heterozygous. Additionally, no more than one of the three PPX2 mutations were detected in an individual surviving plant. Similar to previous research, about 70% of PPO resistance was accounted for by these three known mutations, leaving about 30% of resistance not characterized in Tennessee populations. Survivors not showing the three known PPO mutations suggest that other resistance mechanisms are present.
Recently, several incidents of glyphosate failure on junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] have been reported in the midsouthern United States, specifically in Mississippi and Tennessee. Research was conducted to measure the magnitude of glyphosate resistance and to determine the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in E. colona populations from Mississippi and Tennessee. ED50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for a resistant MSGR4 biotype, a resistant TNGR population, and a known susceptible MSGS population were 0.8, 1.62, and 0.23 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate, respectively. The resistance index calculated from the these ED50 values indicated that the MSGR4 biotype and TNGR population were 4- and 7-fold, respectively, resistant to glyphosate relative to the MSGS population. The absorption patterns of [14C]glyphosate in the TNGR and MSGS populations were similar. However, the MSGS population translocated 13% more [14C]glyphosate out of the treated leaf compared with the TNGR population at 48 h after treatment. EPSPS gene sequence analyses of TNGR E. colona indicated no evidence of any point mutations, but several resistant biotypes, including MSGR4, possessed a single-nucleotide substitution of T for C at codon 106 position, resulting in a proline-to-serine substitution (CCA to TCA). Results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that there was no amplification of the EPSPS gene in the resistant populations and biotypes. Thus, the mechanism of resistance in the MSGR population (and associated biotypes) is, in part, due to a target-site mutation at the 106 loci of the EPSPS gene, while reduced translocation of glyphosate was found to confer glyphosate resistance in the TNGR population.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds in Mississippi row crop production. Fall-applied residual herbicide applications are recommended for control of GR Italian ryegrass. However, carryover of residual herbicides applied in fields for rice production can have a negative impact on rice performance. Field studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of fall-applied residual herbicides on rice growth and yield. Herbicide treatments included suggested use rates (1×) of clomazone at 840 g ai ha–1, pyroxasulfone 170 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor 1,420 g ai ha–1, and trifluralin 1,680 g ai ha–1, and two times (2×) the suggested use rates in the fall before rice seeding. Pooled across application rate, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin injured rice to an extent 28% to 36% greater than clomazone 14 d after emergence (DAE). Rice seedling density and height 14 DAE and rice maturity were negatively affected by all fall-applied herbicides except clomazone. Applications at 2× rates reduced rough rice yields in plots treated with pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin compared with clomazone. Pyroxasulfone applied at the 2× rate reduced rough rice yield 22% compared with the 1× rate. Rough rice yield was 90% or greater of the nontreated control in plots treated with either rate of S-metolachlor, and these were comparable with rough rice yields from plots treated with both rates of trifluralin and the 1× rate of pyroxasulfone. Early-season injury and reductions in seedling density and height 14 DAE, would preclude even 1× applications of pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin from being viable options for residual herbicide treatments targeting GR Italian ryegrass in the fall before rice seeding. Of the herbicides evaluated, only clomazone should be utilized as a fall-applied residual herbicide treatment targeting GR Italian ryegrass before seeding rice.
A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.
A study to evaluate the effect of application time of day (TOD) on the efficacy of five burndown herbicides was conducted in Alabama and Tennessee. Treatments of 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, paraquat, and saflufenacil were applied at sunrise, midday, or sunset to a native population of horseweed and analyzed separately. Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed with 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, and saflufenacil was greatest from the midday application. Percentage of living horseweed counts for all of these herbicides followed a similar pattern. Control from paraquat was lowest at the midday timing and greatest from the sunset application with surviving horseweed plant populations reflecting those control ratings. Application TOD significantly affected all of the herbicides in this research. Applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, and saflufenacil are more efficacious when applied during the middle portion of the day, while paraquat is more efficacious when applied at sunset for maximum horseweed control.
Research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the response of the rice cultivars ‘Cheniere', ‘CL151′, ‘Caffey', ‘CL261′, and ‘CLXL745′ response to POST applications of saflufenacil. Treatments included a nontreated control, saflufenacil at 50 g ai ha−1, and carfentrazone at 35 g ai ha−1 applied mid-POST (MPOST) to rice in the three- to four-leaf stage. Pooled across cultivars, injury was greatest at 3 and 7 d after treatment (DAT), 21 and 17%, respectively. Rice injury was only 5% at 14 DAT and 1% at 28 DAT. Hybrid long-grain cultivar CLXL745 was injured more than inbred long-grain cultivars CL151 and Cheniere. Cheniere was more tolerant than inbred medium-grain cultivars CL261 and Caffey. All cultivars exhibited tolerance to saflufenacil as evidenced by similar normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), maturity, mature plant height, and rice yield (rough, whole, and total milled rice).
Palmer amaranth is the most common and troublesome broadleaf weed species of rice in Mississippi because of the effects of early-season interference and infestations on rice levees, and herbicides for residual or POST control of Palmer amaranth in rice are limited. Three studies were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate application rates and timings of saflufenacil in rice and to determine the influence of adjuvants when mixed with saflufenacil applied POST. In a PRE study, no injury occurred after saflufenacil PRE, and no control was observed from carfentrazone. Hemp sesbania and Palmer amaranth control increased with increasing saflufenacil rate when applied PRE. Hemp sesbania control with saflufenacil at any rate PRE was ≤ 25% at 35 d after treatment (DAT). Palmer amaranth and ivyleaf morningglory control with saflufenacil at 75 g ai ha−1 PRE was ≥ 94% 35 DAT. In a POST study, rice injury was influenced by application timing and rate of saflufenacil; however, efficacy was not. Rice injury with saflufenacil at 25 g ha−1 and carfentrazone early POST (EPOST) and late POST was similar 7 DAT. Saflufenacil at 50 and 75 g ha−1 EPOST were the most injurious 7 DAT. Control of hemp sesbania and ivyleaf morningglory was similar for all rates of saflufenacil and carfentrazone; however, Palmer amaranth control with saflufenacil at any rate was greater than that of carfentrazone 14 and 28 DAT. In an adjuvant study, rice injury was influenced by adjuvant and saflufenacil rate. Saflufenacil applied alone or in mixture with crop oil concentrate (COC) was least injurious, and saflufenacil at 50 g ha−1 was more injurious than saflufenacil at 25 g ha−1. Saflufenacil applied in combination with any adjuvant provided better control of hemp sesbania and Palmer amaranth than saflufenacil alone. On the basis of this research, saflufenacil should be applied PRE at 50 or 75 g ha−1, depending on weed spectrum, and POST applications should be made at 25 g ha−1 in combination with COC after the two-leaf rice growth stage.
Research was conducted in Mississippi in 2012 and 2013 to compare the efficacy of saflufenacil to other broadleaf herbicides applied in mixtures with imazethapyr in a Clearfield rice system. Saflufenacil at 50 g ai ha−1, carfentrazone at 35 g ai ha−1, a prepackaged mixture of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron at 35 plus 4 g ai ha−1, and a prepackaged mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb at 2,240 plus 2,240 g ai ha−1 were applied in mixture with imazethapyr at 70 g ai ha−1 early-POST (EPOST) to rice in the one- to two-leaf stage or late-POST (LPOST) to rice in the four-leaf to one-tiller stage. No differences in injury among the broadleaf herbicides or between application timings were detected at any evaluation. Imazethapyr combined with propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil provided the greatest control of barnyardgrass 7 and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Hemp sesbania, ivyleaf morningglory, and Palmer amaranth control was greatest and similar for imazethapyr combined with carfentrazone, propanil plus thiobencarb, and saflufenacil; however, rough rice yield was greatest for imazethapyr combined with propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil. Propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil can be used in a Clearfield rice system to achieve optimum weed control and highest rice yields.
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