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Differences in pipe wall microstructure at various positions throughout the wall thickness of high strength aluminum alloy thick-wall pipes produced by reverse hot extrusion were investigated. The microstructures of the inner wall (IW), outer wall (OW), and half wall (HW) were compared. Further, heterogeneity in the mechanical properties of the pipe throughout the wall thickness was also investigated. Results revealed that the volume fraction of precipitation was highest at the HW position because of the higher Zn and Mg contents. Further, approximately 26% of grains were recrystallized in the OW position due to the greater strain during extrusion, while the recrystallization fractions of the IW and HW positions were 13% and 21%, respectively. The effects of precipitation strengthening and deformation strengthening contribute to the highest ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness of the HW position, and to the higher elongation of the IW and OW positions.
A kind of nickel–aluminum bronze (Cu–10Al–4Fe–4Ni) prepared by centrifugal casting (CC) and gravity casting (GC), respectively, were investigated. The results indicate that CC alloy, which is totally different from GC alloy, consists of α, κI, κII, κIII, κIV, and β′ phases and the microstructures of CC alloy shows nonuniformities from external to internal layer mainly because the distribution of iron and nickel are influenced by centrifugal force. Besides, it is noted that comprehensive mechanical properties of CC alloy are superior to those of GC alloy. Additionally, heat treatments were performed on CC alloy. The results demonstrate the optimal heat treatment is aging at 450 °C/1 h by air cooling after solution treated at 890 °C/1 h by water quench. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness are increased by about 10% and 56%, respectively, and wear resistance is also greatly improved. However, the elongation is decreased by 53%.
Suction casting (SC) and centrifugal casting (CC) are two common special casting processes. The influences of SC and CC on the microstructural development of Cu–10Al–4Fe–4Ni aluminum bronzes were investigated with continuous cooling method. The results indicate that α, β′, KII, and KIII phases are observed in the quasicast microstructure via the SC process with the precipitation sequence of KII → α → KIII. Additionally, KI and KIV are observed in the quasicast microstructure via the CC process with the precipitation sequence of α + KⅠ → KII → KIV → KIII. Phase initial precipitation temperatures of the CC process are higher than that of the SC process, especially for α phase. As the quenching temperature decreases, the hardness of both alloys shows a rapid decline trend and finally reaches a steady state. It is found that the eutectoid decomposition (β → α + KIII) barely affects the hardness of the alloys.
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