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Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Atom probe tomography (APT) of a nanocrystalline Cu–7 at.% V thin film annealed at 400°C for 1 h revealed chemical partitioning in the form of solute segregation. The vanadium precipitated along high angle grain boundaries and at triple junctions, determined by cross-correlative precession electron diffraction of the APT specimen. Upon field evaporation, the V2+/(V1+ + VH1+) ratio from the decomposed ions was ~3 within the matrix grains and ~16 within the vanadium precipitates. It was found that the VH1+ complex was prevalent in the matrix, with its presence explained in terms of hydrogen's ability to assist in field evaporation. The change in the V2+/(V1+ + VH1+) charge-state ratio (CSR) was studied as a function of base temperature (25–90 K), laser pulse energy (50–200 pJ), and grain orientation. The strongest influence on changing the CSR was with the varied pulse laser, which made the CSR between the precipitates and the matrix equivalent at the higher laser pulse energies. However, at these conditions, the precipitates began to coarsen. The collective results of the CSRs are discussed in terms of field strengths related to the chemical coordination.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is currently the major limitation for the power scaling of single-frequency/narrow linewidth fiber laser systems. A single-mode linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier system is set up to investigate SBS effect in triple-frequency high-power amplifiers. With this amplifier, up to 302 W output power with 83% slope efficiency is achieved and the SBS threshold is scaled up to 12 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of multifrequency laser from a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Good spectral properties and high brightness make this laser source available for the application of second harmonic generation, coherent beam combining.
In the past few years, we have performed a 22 GHz H2O maser survey towards hundreds of BGPS sources using the 25-meter Nanshan Radio Telescope (NSRT) of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, and detected more than one hundred masers. Our aim is to study star formation activities associated with these sources, as well as search for any correlations that may exist between 22 GHz H2O masers and the evolutionary stage of high-mass star formation regions. The NSRT has been upgraded and have now an effective diameter of 26 meter. Besides, cryogenically cooled dual-beam receiver systems covering seven millimeter-wave observing bands have been installed on the NSRT. For the next step of maser observation, we will continue to do H2O and SiO masers survey of massive dust clumps and monitor some maser sources.
Phosphorene is a new-emerging two-dimensional material with many fascinating electronic and thermal properties. Using nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of phosphorene in the ballistic transport regime. We find that while the electronic conductance and thermal conductance of phosphorene are highly anisotropic, the Seebeck coefficient is isotropic. The maximum predicted thermopower reaches 2500 μV/K. We also find that the Wiedemann–Franz law is valid only when the chemical potential is inside valence band or conduction band. When the chemical potential is near the valence band maximum or conduction band minimum; however, the Wiedemann–Franz law becomes invalid, and interestingly, the figure of merit ZT reaches its maximum value. We also find that figure of merit ZT increases with the increase of temperature, and ZT in the armchair direction is much higher than that in the zigzag direction. By analyzing the various effects on ZT, we discuss the possible routines to enhance figure of merit ZT.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
The Nonggang Babbler Stachyris nonggangensisis a new species of Timaliidae which was discovered in the Sino-Vietnamese border region in 2008. The species was initially classified as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red List and was believed to occur only in Nonggang Nature Reserve, where the type specimen was collected and where c.200 individuals were recorded. These few observations, and suggestions of a declining population, prompted us to initiate an extensive survey over the whole potential distribution range of this species in China from June 2009 to May 2011, during both dry and wet seasons. We conducted the survey in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province and selected 19 reserves and forest areas where similar habitat to that in the Nonggang Reserve is known to occur. We used transects combined with playback to survey for this species. Nonggang Babbler was recorded at four new sites in the Sino-Vietnamese border region: two areas of the Nonggang Reserve (Nonggang and Longhu), Bangliang Gibbon Nature Reserve and Chunxiu Nature Reserve. The estimated population size of Nonggang Babbler was about 1,300 individuals in the four sites. Nonggang Babbler is also assumed to occur in the Trung Khanh Gibbon Reserve of Vietnam which adjoins Bangliang Gibbon Reserve. The estimated population in Trung Khanh is c.200 individuals. In total we estimate that the global population size of Nonggang Babbler is c.1,500 individuals. The Nonggang Babbler is restricted to karst forests, and its activities, foraging and nesting strictly rely on this habitat. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the main threats.
In recent years our team has performed H2CO(110 − 111) observations towards GMCs and HII regions with the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS. Here, we provide a summary of these observations. More than 200 new formaldehyde sources are detected, 8 extended GMC have been mapped, kinetic distances, Galactic structure and a related discussion are provided.
Based on the samples collected in Chinese scientific surveys off the Costa Rica Dome from July to August in 2009, statolith microstructure of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, was analysed for studying their age, growth and population structure. Three typical growth zones (postnuclear, dark and peripheral zones), abnormal increments (checks) and aberrant microstructure (additional centre and additional rings) were found in the statoliths examined. Squid sizes ranged from 205 to 429 mm dorsal mantle length (ML) with ages no more than 10 months for females and 8 months for males. Back-calculated hatching dates were from November 2008 to April 2009. Growth in ML was best described by a linear function for both the sexes, while growth in body weight was best quantified by an exponential function for females and a power curve for males. The maximum absolute daily growth rates and instantaneous growth rate in ML were reached during 181–210 and 151–180 days for females and males, respectively. The Costa Rica Dome and its adjacent waters were considered as a potential spawning ground because of presence of not only high proportion of mature squid but also rhynchoteuthion paralarvae, and high primary productivity from the strong upwelling. This study suggests that D. gigas have complicated intra-specific population structure and large spatial variability in the key life history parameters.
We collect all published OH, H2O, SiO and CH3OH masers in the literature. The associated infrared sources of these four masers were identified with MSX PSC catalogues. We look for common infrared properties among the sources associated with four masers and make a statistical study. The MSX sources associated with stellar OH, stellar H2O and SiO masers concentrated in a small regions and the MSX sources associated with interstellar OH, interstellar H2O and CH3OH masers also concentrated in a small regions in an [A]-[D].vs.[A][-[E] diagram. These results give us new criterion to search for coexisting stellar maser samples for OH, H2O and SiO masers and interstellar maser samples for OH, H2O and CH3OH masers.
Water masers are good tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. Water maser VLBI observations provide a good probe for studying high-mass star formation and galactic structure. We plan to make a blind survey toward the northern Galactic plane in future years using the 25 m radio telescope of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. We will select some water maser sources discovered in the survey and perform high resolution observations to study the gas kinematics close to high-mass protostars.
In general, multiplication of operators is not essentially commutative in an algebra generated by integral-type operators and composition operators. In this paper, we characterize the essential commutativity of the integral operators and composition operators from a mixed-norm space to a Bloch-type space, and give a complete description of the universal set of integral operators. Corresponding results for boundedness and compactness are also obtained.
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital for retinal health. However, they are susceptible to injury with ageing and exposure to excessive light, including UV (100–380 nm) and visible (380–760 nm) radiation. To evaluate the protective effect of blueberry anthocyanins on RPE cells, in vitro cell models of replicative senescent and light-induced damage were established in the present study. After purification and fractionation, blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BAE) were yielded with total anthocyanin contents of 31·0 (sd 0·5) % and were used in this study. Replicative senescence of RPE cells was induced by repeatedly passaging cells from the fourth passage to the tenth. From the fifth passage, cultured RPE cells began to enter a replicative senescence, exhibiting reduced cell proliferation along with an increase in the number of β-galactosidase-positive cells. RPE cells maintained high cell viability (P < 0·01) and a low (P < 0·01) percentage of β-galactosidase-positive cells when treated with 0·1 μg/ml BAE. In contrast, after exposure to 2500 (sd 500) lx light (420–800 nm) for 12 h, RPE cells in the positive control (light exposure, no BAE treatment) exhibited premature senescence, low (P < 0·01) cell viability and increased (P < 0·01) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release compared with negative control cells, which were not subjected to light irradiation and BAE exposure. Correspondingly, BAE is beneficial to RPE cells by protecting these cells against light-induced damage through the suppression of ageing and apoptosis as well as the down-regulation of the over-expressed VEGF to normal level. These results demonstrate that BAE is efficacious against senescence and light-induced damage of RPE cells.
Electrophoretic displays, the rewritable non-light-emitting display technology based on the movement of colored pigments inside a low dielectric liquid as a voltage is applied, have attracted a great deal of academic and commercial interests due to the combination of the advantages of both electronic displays and conventional paper, including paper-like high contrast appearance, ultra-low power consumption, thinness, flexibility etc. Fabrication of electrophoretic ink by microencapsulating the electrophoretic suspension into individual microcapsules is one way to realize such application. However, there are still some limitations for its commercial application, such as the dispersion and the electrophoretic mobility of charged particles due to the nano-particles aggregation, the barrier property and stability of microcapsule wall due to the suspension releasing, etc. In this presentation, systematic studies on the preparation of electrophoretic particles and microencapsulation by complex coacervation method were carried out to solve the mentioned problems. The obtained microcapsules can be quasi-monolayer coated on ITO/PET substrate and driven by static mode to obtain a matrix character display prototype.
Amorphous Gd-Fe alloy thin films were made by D.C. planar magnetron sputtering under various deposition conditions (e.g., film thickness, composition, working pressure of Ar, negative bias voltage and deposition rate). The stress, the film composition and the content of entrapped Ar in the films were measured respectively. The experimental results showed that in this case the working pressure of Ar and the negative bias voltage did not change the composition of the films, and the stresses were all compressive except for the films deposited in a very high working pressure of Ar. The origin of the compressive stress can be attributed to the atomic peening effect produced by fast neutral working gas atoms rebounded from the sputtering target. The magnitude of the compressive stress depends not only on the amount of Ar atoms incorporated in the films but also on the film microstructure such as the packing density.
We have fabricated a new ferroelectric memory FET, which consists of the Au/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/SiO2/Si gate structure. Ferroelectric PZT thin film with a thickness of 250~400 nm was prepared by using Excimer Laser Ablation Deposition. Silicon oxide successfully served as a buffer layer between ferroelectric and Si substrate to suppress the charge injection and prevent Pb interdiffusion. Electrical properties of the ferroelectric FET have been characterized through both the Capacitance vs. Voltage(C-V) and Current vs. Voltage(I-V) measurements, showing a typical memory characteristics of FET devices, i.e., the ON state and OFF state were nonvolatile for about thirty minutes and several hours, respectively.
Ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction is believed to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and almost all studies till now have mainly focused on the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to proteasome inhibition. However, in fact, there are many other types of neurons such as cholinergic ones involved in PD. In our present study, we attempt to figure out what effect the failure of ubiquitin proteasome function would execute on cholinergic cells in culture.
We treated cholinergic cells in culture with various doses of lactacystin. Then MTT assay was used to evaluate the cellular viability and the Annexin V-PI method was used to detect apoptosis. Both cellular soluble and insoluble polyubiquitinated proteins were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using JC-1 and the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the fluorescent probe CM-H2DCFDA.
We found that low doses of lactacystin were enough to induce significant apoptotic cell death, disturb the mitochondrial membrane potential, and cause oxidative stress. We also found that the amounts of polyubiquitinated proteins dramatically increased with high doses, although the loss of cells did not increase accordingly.
Our results suggest that cholinergic cells are sensitive to ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction, which exerts its toxic effect by causing mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress, not through polyubiquitinated proteins accumulation.
In this article, we investigated the defects introduced by surface mechanical attrition treatment by Doppler-broadening spectroscopy of positron annihilation radiation in surface-nanostructured 316L stainless steel. Through the measurement of different thinning layers in the samples treated for 15 min, the slope of line shape parameter S versus wing parameter W curves showed three different values with depth responding to the change of defect configuration. An unusual change of S and W parameters near the surface was mainly from the effect of quantum-dot-like state caused by the formation of nanoparticles. Based on the change of S ˜ W with depth, the martensite phase transformation induced by strain could be estimated to occur within a depth of 35 μm.