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In the era of knowledge networking, the structure and production mode of knowledge are constantly changing. This article creatively introduces the knowledge mapping method in design research, and based on the perspective of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) to compile literature, uses word frequency analysis, co-word analysis, and citation analysis to construct knowledge graphs of design science. This study graphically shows the distribution and flow law of knowledge within design discipline and probes into the research frontier and evolution trend of Chinese design science.
Small additions of boron can remarkably improve the long-term creep resistance of 9–12% Cr steels. The improvement has been attributed to boron segregation to grain boundaries during quenching, and subsequent boron incorporation into certain families of precipitates during tempering. However, the detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Atom probe tomography (APT) is an excellent technique for gaining insights into boron distribution, however, in order to acquire accurate analysis of boron in 9–12% Cr steels using APT, there are several key challenges. In order to better understand and address these challenges, we developed a novel method for site-specific APT specimen preparation, which enables convenient preparation of specimens containing specifically selected grain boundaries positioned approximately perpendicular to the axis of the APT tip. Additionally, when analyzing boron at boundaries and in carbides (as diluted solute) and borides, a widening of the profile of boron distribution compared to other elements was repeatedly observed. This phenomenon is particularly analyzed and discussed in light of the evaporation field of different elements. Finally, the possible effects of detector dead-time on quantitative analysis of boron in metal borides are discussed. A simple method using 10B correction was used to obtain good quantification.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives: To determine genes that are shared between human and obese Zucker rat hypertrophic hearts, in order to identify potential early biomarkers and drug target for heart failure. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Four age-paired lean and obese Zucker rats were used. The human data are derived from doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00122.2016. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to find genes that are upregulated and downregulated in Zucker rats and humans that present cardiac hypertrophy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The genes and proteins determined from this study will provide future directions in order to determine whether obese Zucker rats are a valid model organism for the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
The Chinese Solar and Geophysical Data (CSGD) was first issued at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now the headquarter of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1971, when China’s satellite-industry was booming. CSGD covers the observational data (observations of the sunspots, solar flares, solar radio bursts, ionospheric storm and geomagnetic storm) from a couple of domestic observatories and the forecast data. The compiler of CSGD still keeps the data exchange with other institutes worldwide. The type of the dataset includes texts, tables, figures and so on. Up to now, we have electronized all the historic archives, making them easily accessible to people who are interested in them.
The present research focuses on glacier changes in the southeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, where most of the temperate glaciers in China are located. Our results show that the 102 measured glaciers in the region have all retreated between 1915 and 1980, with total area and volume decreases of 47.9 km2 and 6.95 km3, respectively. The extrapolated mass loss of all glaciers in the Gangrigabu mountains amounted to 27 km3, 9.8% of the ice mass in 1915. Between 1980 and 2001, glaciers in the region have also experienced a general retreat; however, up to 40% of the glaciers were advancing. Our analysis demonstrates that precipitation in the studied area has increased substantially since the mid-1980s. This precipitation increase is likely to bring about a positive mass balance for glaciers in the region, so that the retreat of retreating glaciers might slow down or even turn into advance. Considering the sensitivity of the temperate glaciers in the region and the uncertainty in climate projections, more attention must be paid to glacier changes in the southeast Tibetan Plateau region.
The shear-band propagation in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) during deformation plays a key role in determining their macroscopic ductility. In this work, the shear band propagation during plastic deformation was investigated in the Cu46Zr46Al8 BMG and its in situ or ex situ prepared BMG composites. Compared with the brittle BMG, both types of ductile BMG composites show a more stable shear banding behavior as revealed by a larger power-law scaling exponent obtained from statistical analysis of serrations recorded in compressive curves. A higher cut-off elastic energy density (δc) linked with the multiplication of shear bands is observed for the in situ prepared BMG composites. However, the ex situ fabricated BMG composites show an almost equivalent or slightly larger δc since the dominant shear band but not multiple shear bands mainly governs their deformation. Such observations imply that the shear banding stability of BMGs during deformation is enhanced not only by inducing multiple shear bands but also by obstructing the movement of the dominant shear band at its driven path.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.
From September 2009 to September 2010 we undertook a survey of the Endangered François’ langur Trachypithecus francoisi in south-east Chongqing to compare the species' present status with historical records from the 1990s. Based on a literature review, interviews with local people and our survey we found François’ langurs in only three isolated sites, across four counties, with a total area of occurrence of c. 57 km2. The total population was estimated to be c. 200 individuals in 27 mixed sex groups. There were 21 groups (149 individuals) within a reserve (Jinfoshan), and four groups (36) in Furongjiang and two groups (13) in Heishangu were not within any reserve. The primary threat to the langur is habitat loss caused by traditional firewood use and agricultural encroachment but there is also increasing loss of forest to hydroelectric projects and construction of tourism infrastructure and facilities such as highways, hotels and telephone lines. The three sites in southern Chongqing province are adjacent to four areas in north-east Guizhou province that contain c. 60% of the wild population of the species in China. The seven sites combined are the main stronghold of this species and the geographical proximity of the sites raises the possibility of setting up ecological corridors between some of them.
Several divergent sympatry mtDNA lineages have been described in redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus, and this high inter-lineage divergence raises questions about the taxonomic status of L. haematocheilus lineages in the north-western Pacific. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was employed to examine genetic structure of L. haematocheilus and estimate the level of independence of the different mtDNA lineages in the north-western Pacific. A total of 186 bands were amplified from 91 individuals among 8 populations by 4 primer combinations and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.74%. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean tree based on Nei genetic distance revealed two clusters (North Clade and South Clade). Molecular variance analysis and pairwise FST supported the separation of north and south populations of L. haematocheilus in the north-western Pacific. The incongruence between nuclear groups and mitochondrial lineages suggests the three distinct lineages do not represent cryptic species and the presence of divergent mitochondrial lineages in the same sample is a result of secondary contact after an extended period of isolation. The Pleistocene isolation and biological characteristics of species may be responsible for the genetic differentiation of L. haematocheilus.
We present our work on the spin relaxation of electrons confined in SiGe islands. Ge islands are grown on unstructured and structured Si(100) substrates by MBE, and lead to strain in the Si layer that is deposited on top. These quantum dot structures are investigated by photoluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, the latter both in continuous wave and pulsed mode. We observe a g-factor and an ESR line width that correspond to Si conduction band electrons with additional inhomogeneous broadening.
AlxGa1-xN layers grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates have been tested using the surface acoustic wave and guided optical wave techniques. Samples with molar fraction of Al up to 0.36 have been investigated. The parameters S11 of single surface acoustic wave transducers and S12 of two-port devices have been measured with the network analyzer. The values of the surface acoustic wave velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient for the layer-substrate structure have been extracted and calculated using material parameters available from literature. The attenuation of guided optical waves along the propagation track in AlxGa1-xN layers has been measured using the CCD imaging technique. The attenuation dependence on the mode order and layer thickness has been studied. Our results show that the properties of AlxGa1-xN that determine surface acoustic wave and guided optical wave propagation are similar to the properties of GaN films within a relatively wide range of x up to x =0.36.
The world's arid and semi-arid regions are severely affected by desertification. In China, wind erosion, water erosion, soil salinization and the freezing and melting processes have contributed to 2.64 million km2 of desertified land, covering 27.5% of the country's land surface (State Forestry Administration, Peoples' Republic of China 2005). Although climate change could be a reason for desertification, anthropogenic factors such as overgrazing and overcultivation also contribute to degradation in grassland areas (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005; Zheng et al. 2006). The Chinese government has adopted afforestation as the main measure to control desertification. Major projects, including the ‘Three North Shelterbelt Programme’ (also known as the ‘Green Great Wall’) and the ‘Sandstorm Source Control Project around Beijing and Tianjin’, are necessary to shield northern and eastern agricultural ecosystems against sand and dust (Zhou 2002). However, these countermeasures require substantial effort and investment, and, in the semi-arid and arid regions of Inner Mongolia, newly planted trees have often died of drought, while tree planting could also be responsible for exhausting the precious groundwater resources of these regions (Jackson et al. 2005). Alternative and more practical ways of combating desertification by using multi-disciplinary approaches observing both social and ecological principles are required. The Hunshandake Sandy Land restoration demonstration project conducted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences was an attempt to restore desertified grassland mainly through natural processes, and requiring limited investment.
A high degree of texture was observed in melt-spun Sm(Co0.68Fe0.22Cu0.08Zr0.02)7.7 ribbons prepared by single-roller melt spinning at low wheel speed; their easy magnetization axis was parallel to the ribbon plane. Magnetization studies showed an obvious magnetic anisotropy and a 90% higher remanance in ribbons for the field parallel to the longitudinal direction (8.5 kGs) than that for the field parallel to the wide direction (4.4 kGs); this was attributed to a dendritic structure of needle-size grains (2–3 × 10–40 μm) with their long axis parallel to the ribbon plane. This texture allowed the development of a new process for producing anisotropic permanent magnets. The domain structure was studied by magnetic-force microscope. A highly ordered and strip-shaped magnetic domain structure was observed on the surface of the ribbons. This was due to the preference for tetragonal c-axis orientation parallel to the surface of melt-spun ribbons. We calculated the domain wall energy γ and critical single-domain particle size Dc of Sm(Co0.68Fe0.22Cu0.08Zr0.02)7.7 ribbons.
In this paper we consider the MAP/G/1 queueing system with infinite capacity. In analysis, we use the supplementary variable method to derive the double transform of the queue length and the remaining service time of the customer in service (if any) in the steady state. As will be shown in this paper, our method is very simple and elegant. As a one-dimensional marginal transform of the double transform, we obtain the generating function of the queue length in the system for the MAP/G/1 queue, which is consistent with the known result.
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