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There is inconsistent evidence regarding the influence of general
cognitive abilities on the long-term course of depression.
To investigate the association between general childhood cognitive
abilities and adult depression outcomes.
We conducted a cohort study using data from 633 participants in the New
England Family Study with lifetime depression. Cognitive abilities at age
7 were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
Depression outcomes were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews
administered up to four times in adulthood between ages 17 and 49.
In analyses adjusting for demographic factors and parental psychiatric
illness, low general cognitive ability (i.e. IQ<85 v.
IQ>115) was associated with recurrent depressive episodes (odds ratio
(OR) = 2.19, 95% CI 1.20–4.00), longer episode duration (rate ratio 4.21,
95% CI 2.24–7.94), admission to hospital for depression (OR = 3.65, 95%
CI 1.34–9.93) and suicide ideation (OR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.79–8.02) and
attempt (OR = 4.94, 95% CI 1.67–14.55).
Variation in cognitive abilities, predominantly within the normal range
and established early in childhood, may confer long-term vulnerability
for prolonged and severe depression. The mechanisms underlying this
vulnerability need to be established to improve the prognosis of
depression among individuals with lower cognitive abilities.
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