To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Combat exposure is associated with elevated risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite considerable research on PTSD symptom clustering, it remains unknown how symptoms of PTSD re-organize following combat. Network analysis provides a powerful tool to examine such changes.
A network analysis approach was taken to examine how symptom networks change from pre- to post-combat using longitudinal prospective data from a cohort of infantry male soldiers (Mage = 18.8 years). PTSD symptoms measured using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) were assessed after 6 months of combat training but before deployment and again after 6 months of combat (Ns = 910 and 725 at pre-deployment and post-combat, respectively)
Stronger connectivity between PTSD symptoms was observed post-combat relative to pre-deployment (global strength values of the networks were 7.54 pre v. 7.92 post; S = .38, p < 0.05). Both the re-experiencing symptoms cluster (1.92 v. 2.12; S = .20, p < 0.03) and the avoidance symptoms cluster (2.61 v. 2.96; S = .35, p < 0.005) became more strongly inter-correlated post-combat. Centrality estimation analyses revealed that psychological reaction to triggers was central and linked the intrusion and avoidance sub-clusters at post-combat. The strength of associations between the arousal and reactivity symptoms cluster remained stable over time (1.85 v. 1.83; S = .02, p = .92).
Following combat, PTSD symptoms and particularly the re-experiencing and avoidance clusters become more strongly inter-correlated, indicating high centrality of trigger-reactivity symptoms.
Previous work suggests that the association between urbanicity and schizophrenia may be greatest in those with pre-existing vulnerability.
To test for synergism in risk of schizophrenia between population density and a combined exposure of poor premorbid social and cognitive functioning.
For 371 603 adolescent males examined by the Israeli Draft Board on social and cognitive functioning, data on population density of place of residence and later hospitalisation for schizophrenia were obtained from population-based registries.
There was an interaction between population density (five levels) and poor premorbid social and cognitive functioning (interaction χ2=4.6, P=0.032). The adjusted increase in cumulative incidence associated with one unit change in population density was 0.10% in the vulnerable group (95% CI 0.019–0.18, P=0.015), nine times larger than that in the non-vulnerable group (0.011%, 95% CI 0.0017–0.020, P=0.021).
Risk of schizophrenia may increase when people with a genetic liability to the disorder, expressed as poor social and cognitive functioning, need to cope with city life.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.