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We introduce a method for scaling two datasets from different sources. The proposed method estimates a latent factor common to both datasets as well as an idiosyncratic factor unique to each. In addition, it offers a flexible modeling strategy that permits the scaled locations to be a function of covariates, and efficient implementation allows for inference through resampling. A simulation study shows that our proposed method improves over existing alternatives in capturing the variation common to both datasets, as well as the latent factors specific to each. We apply our proposed method to vote and speech data from the 112th U.S. Senate. We recover a shared subspace that aligns with a standard ideological dimension running from liberals to conservatives, while recovering the words most associated with each senator’s location. In addition, we estimate a word-specific subspace that ranges from national security to budget concerns, and a vote-specific subspace with Tea Party senators on one extreme and senior committee leaders on the other.
Reconciliation requires individuals and groups to address past and present inequality, injustice, and violence to construct better futures based on stronger social bonds and a respect for human rights. Yet, the theoretical threads connecting the concepts are rarely unraveled. This chapter uses psychological frameworks to better understand reconciliation in relation to human rights. The authors propose that in postconflict settings, reconciliation and human rights are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, and neither is truly possible without the other. First, the authors briefly review understandings of reconciliation and how they are advanced by postconflict mechanisms such as truth commissions. Second, the authors explain how reconciliation may be connected to greater respect for human rights. Third, Colombia is used as a case study to demonstrate the complex relationships between forgiveness, reconciliation, and human rights. Finally, the chapter offers future directions for research at the intersection of human rights, psychology, and reconciliation.
The advancement of lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) for flexible electronics necessitates designing more efficient systems for improved energy storage capacity. In this light, the effects of patterning BaTiO3 nanotubes within PENG on the electromechanical properties of the device were investigated. The PENGs comprised a sandwich structure of Ti–BaTiO3–graphite–Ti encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane. Four patterns of vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanotubes were synthesized via the hydrothermal conversion of selectively-anodized TiO2 nanotubes. The highest output voltage reached up to 1.9 V. Decreasing the nanotube array spacing and pattern diameter increased the lateral displacement of BaTiO3 therefore, increasing the output voltage of the device.
There is insufficient knowledge of the long-term course of panic disorder (PD).
To determine the long-term course and prognostic variables in patients diagnosed with PD.
Patients who were diagnosed of anxiety states between 1950 and 1961, were examined using a structured clinical interview (SCID-DSM-III-R) between 1984 and 1988 (n = 144). A re-examination was performed in the period 1997–2001 (N = 125). Mean length of follow-up from onset was 47 years.
PD tends to be chronic. Among those who recovered, 93% had done so already by the 1980s. Lack of regular treatment compliance, progression to agoraphobia and number of episodes of panic disorder were associated with worse outcome. Agoraphobia without panic attacks and somatization symptoms were the most prevalent clinical status at follow-up.
After several decades, participants improve with regard to number of panic attacks, though most continue to have residual symptoms.
Motor abnormalities (MAs) are the primary manifestations of schizophrenia. However, the extent to which MAs are related to alterations of subcortical structures remains understudied.
We aimed to investigate the associations of MAs and basal ganglia abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 48 right-handed FEP and 23 age-, gender-, handedness-, and educational attainment-matched controls, to obtain basal ganglia shape analysis, diffusion tensor imaging techniques (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and relaxometry (R2*) to estimate iron load. A comprehensive motor battery was applied including the assessment of parkinsonism, catatonic signs, and neurological soft signs (NSS). A fully automated model-based segmentation algorithm on 1.5T MRI anatomical images and accurate corregistration of diffusion and T2* volumes and R2* was used.
FEP patients showed significant local atrophic changes in left globus pallidus nucleus regarding controls. Hypertrophic changes in left-side caudate were associated with higher scores in sensory integration, and in right accumbens with tremor subscale. FEP patients showed lower fractional anisotropy measures than controls but no significant differences regarding mean diffusivity and iron load of basal ganglia. However, iron load in left basal ganglia and right accumbens correlated significantly with higher extrapyramidal and motor coordination signs in FEP patients.
Taken together, iron load in left basal ganglia may have a role in the emergence of extrapyramidal signs and NSS of FEP patients and in consequence in the pathophysiology of psychosis.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
TwinsMX is a national twin registry in Mexico recently created with institutional support from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It aims to serve as a platform to advance epidemiological and genetic research in the country and to disentangle the genetic and environmental contributions to health and disease in the admixed Mexican population. Here, we describe our recruitment and data collection strategies and discuss both the progress to date and future directions. More information about the registry is available on our website: https://twinsmxofficial.unam.mx/ (content in Spanish).
Obesity and hyperglycaemia contribute to the atherosclerotic process in part through oxidative modifications to lipoprotein particles. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on markers of oxidized lipoproteins in obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes.
Participants were enrolled into a 12-week lifestyle intervention. Measurements pre- and post-intervention included anthropometrics and body composition, lipid panel, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), oxidized HDL (oxHDL), intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, and cardiorespiratory fitness.
Thirty-five obese Latino adolescents (seventeen females, eighteen males; mean age 15·5 (sd 1·0) years; mean BMI percentile 98·5 (sd 1·2)) with prediabetes.
Intervention participation resulted in significant reductions in weight (−1·2 %, P = 0·042), BMI and BMI percentile (−2·0 and −0·4 %, respectively, P < 0·001), body fat (−7·0 %, P = 0·025), TAG (−11·8 %, P = 0·032), total cholesterol (−5·0 %, P = 0·002), VLDL-cholesterol (−12·5 %, P = 0·029), and non-HDL-cholesterol (−6·7 %, P = 0·007). Additionally, fitness (6·4 %, P < 0·001) and intake of fruits and vegetables (42·4 %, P = 0·025) increased significantly. OxLDL decreased significantly after the intervention (51·0 (sd 14·0) v. 48·7 (sd 12·8) U/l, P = 0·022), while oxHDL trended towards a significant increase (395·2 (sd 94·6) v. 416·1 (sd 98·4) ng/ml, P = 0·056).
These data support the utility of lifestyle intervention to improve the atherogenic phenotype of Latino adolescents who are at high risk for developing premature CVD and type 2 diabetes.
We consider interval exchange transformations of $n$ intervals with $k$ flips, or $(n,k)$-IETs for short, for positive integers $k,n$ with $k\leq n$. Our main result establishes the existence of minimal uniquely ergodic $(n,k)$-IETs when $n\geq 4$; moreover, these IETs are self-induced for $2\leq k\leq n-1$. This result extends the work on transitivity in Gutierrez et al [Transitive circle exchange transformations with flips. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst.26(1) (2010), 251–263]. In order to achieve our objective we make a direct construction; in particular, we use the Rauzy induction to build a periodic Rauzy graph whose associated matrix has a positive power. Then we use a result in the Perron–Frobenius theory [Pullman, A geometric approach to the theory of non-negative matrices. Linear Algebra Appl.4 (1971) 297–312] which allows us to ensure the existence of these minimal self-induced and uniquely ergodic $(n,k)$-IETs, $2\leq k\leq n-1$. We then find other permutations in the same Rauzy class generating minimal uniquely ergodic $(n,1)$- and $(n,n)$-IETs.
We present our latest results on the connection between the accretion rate and the power of relativistic jets. To this aim we use blazars, whose jet is pointing at us, with visible broad emission lines, along with broad lineless radio–galaxies. We trace the jet power with two proxies (gamma–ray and radio luminosities), while the broad emission lines are a direct measure of the accretion disc luminosity. We find a correlation between the broad emission line and the gamma–ray or luminosities in blazars, suggesting a direct tight connection between the jet and the accretion rate. Only extending our analysis to radio–galaxies, and using as jet tracer the radio luminosity, we are finally able to conclude that jetted AGN can accrete both through a radiatively efficient accretion disc and a hot accretion flow, depending on the accretion rate. We finally observe the transition between the two states among the family of jetted AGN.
High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra (PDS) of several microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Many proposed QPO models are based on oscillations of accretion toroidal fluid structures orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. We study oscillating accretion tori orbiting in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that significant variation of the observed flux can be caused by the combination of radial and vertical oscillation modes of a slender, polytropic, perfect fluid, non-self-graviting torus with constant specific angular momentum. We investigate two combinations of the oscillating modes corresponding to the direct resonance QPO model and the modified relativistic precession QPO model.
Colloids with anisotropic shape and properties can enable the assembly of advanced materials otherwise not attainable by microfabrication. In this study, we present a convenient method using common microfabrication tools to generate a diverse array of non-spherical microparticles with well-defined shapes, sizes, electromagnetic properties for self-assembly applications. Projection photolithography onto SU-8 photoresist enabled the production of large aspect ratio microparticles such as cubes, cuboids, cylinders, hexagonal prisms, and parallelepipeds. We characterized these particles to confirm their anisotropic shape and size monodispersity. Fluorescent stains (e.g., Nile red) were mixed into the photoresist prepolymer to enhance the visualization of particle orientation. Particles designed for passive self-assembly were prepared by conventional photolithographic techniques. Particles designed for active assembly were then decorated with metallic patches in precise locations along the surface (e.g., top, side or multiple sides) using electron beam metal evaporation. This metal deposition process can enable orientational control of particles during their assembly in directed fields. After fabrication, large particles (e.g., 1,000 µm3) were released from the substrate via gentle sheer forces, whereas small particles (e.g., 10 µm3) were released by the dissolution of a sacrificial layer underneath the SU-8. Suspending the particles in water with surfactant (or other suitable solvents) provided amenable conditions for their assembly in static or dynamic systems. These conventional methods have the potential to catalyze new research in the fabrication and assembly of anisotropic patchy particles with controllable properties for the hierarchical development of self-assembled micromirrors, biosensors, and photonic crystals as examples.
As a preliminary study aiming to possible applications, novel polythiophenes (PTs) derivatives of 3-hexylthiophene and a thiophene functionalized with pyrene chromophore were synthesized. Homopolymer and copolymers of these monomers were obtained in different stoichiometric ratios which allow obtaining structure-property relation of each of the polymers. PTs were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, DSC-TGA, GPC and fluorescence experiments. Polymers have λmax between 345 to 450 nm and an emission band at 485 and 542 nm. Low molecular weights distribution (Mn = 875 to 1600 g/mol) and thermostable products (Td = 336 to 474°C) were obtained. These PTs functionalized with aromatic molecules and π-conjugated systems could offer interesting applications such as optical sensors, nonlinear optics and photovoltaic cells.
The dynamics of one atom thick h-BN suspended nanoribbons have been obtained by first performing ab-initio calculations of the deformation potential energy and then solving numerically a Langevine type equation to explore their use as energy harvesting devices. Similarly to our previous proposal for a graphene-based harvester1, an applied compressive strain is used to drive the clamped-clamped nanoribbon structure into a bistable regime, where quasi-harmonic vibrations are combined with low frequency swings between the minima of a double-well potential. h-BN, graphene and MoS2 similar structures have been compared in terms of the static response to a compressive strain and of the dynamic evolution induced by an external noisy vibration. Due to its intrinsic piezoelectric response, the mechanical harvester naturally provides an electrical power that is readily available or can be stored by simply contacting the monolayer at its ends. Engineering the induced non-linearity, the proposed device is predicted to harvest an electrical root mean square (rms) power of more than 180 fW when it is excited by a noisy external force characterized by a white Gaussian frequency distribution with an intensity in the order of Frms=5pN.
Immature oocytes synthesize a variety of proteins that include the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) is a vital blue dye that assesses intracellular activity of G6PDH, an indirect measure of oocyte maturation. The objective was to evaluate the BCB test as a criterion to assess developmental competence of equine oocytes and to determine if equine growth hormone (eGH) enhanced in vitro maturation (IVM) of equine oocyte. Cumulus–oocytes complexes (COCs) were recovered by aspirating follicles <30 mm in diameter from abattoir-derived ovaries and were evaluated morphologically. Thereafter, COCs were exposed to BCB (26 μM) for 90 min at 39°C and selected based on the colour of their cytoplasm (BCB positive/BCB+ or BCB negative/BCB–). The COCs were allocated as follows: (a) IVM medium; (b) eGH group; (c) BCB–/IVM; (d) BCB+/IVM; (e) BCB–/eGH; and (f) BCB+/eGH. Then, COCs were cultured in vitro for 30 h, at 39°C in a 5%CO2 humidified air atmosphere. Cumulus-free oocytes were incubated in 10 μg/ml of bis-benzamide for 20 min at 39°C and nuclear maturation was evaluated with epifluorescence microscopy. Of the 39 COCs selected morphologically and subjected to BCB staining, 18/39 (46.2%) were classified as BCB+ and 21/39 (53.8%) as BCB– (P > 0.05). Maturation was not affected significantly by BCB classification, but the maturation rate was higher for oocytes that had been exposed to exogenous eGH versus controls (16/28, 57.1% versus 8/26, 30.8%, P < 0.05). In the present study, the BCB test was not useful for predicting competent equine oocytes prior to IVM. However, eGH enhanced equine oocyte maturation in vitro.
In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of hybrid membranes that exhibit discrete and reversible changes in permeability in response to changes in calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration and temperature. Fusion proteins comprising calmodulin (CAM) and elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used as stimuli-responsive elements due to their ability to undergo a reversible lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition, which is sensitive to Ca2+ binding. The calmodulin elastin-like polypeptides fusions (CAM-ELPs) were incorporated into polymerizing silica networks using a simple sol-gel process and spin coating. Permeation experiments with solutions of crystal violet showed that the membranes are both Ca2+-responsive and thermally responsive. Under suitable pressure drop across the membranes, in the absence of Ca2+ or below the LCST of the ELPs, the hybrid membranes are impermeable to water. After addition of Ca2+ or above the LCSTs, they become permeable to water. The permeability can be toggled back and forth by sequential addition of calcium and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). These results demonstrate that CAMELP/silica hybrid membranes can serve as tunable molecular filters whose permeability can be switched on and off in response to Ca2+ and temperature.
Using a detailed excavated sequence and a broad range of south Andean sites, the authors show that changes in the bones of camelids and in the lithic assemblages offer an account of how animals were intensively exploited and ultimately domesticated between the sixth and fourth millennia BP.