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This Research Communication describes the polymorphisms in the coding region of DGAT1 gene in Riverine buffalo, Swamp buffalo and crossbred buffalo, and associations between polymorphisms and milk production performance in Riverine buffalo. Two polymorphisms of DGAT1were identified, located in exon 13 and exon 17, respectively. The distribution of the genotypes of the two SNP loci in different buffalo population varied, especially the polymorphism located in exon 13 which was not found in the Swamp buffalo. Moreover, SNP located in exon 17 was a nonsynonymous switch resulting in the animo acid sequence changed from an arginine (Arg) to a histidine (His) at position 484. Both SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and the polymorphism of g.8330T>C in the exon 13 was significantly associated with peak milk yield, total milk yield and protein percentage. The C variant was associated with an increase in milk yield and peak yield but less in protein percentage compared with the T variant. The polymorphisms of g.9046T>C in exon 17 were significantly associated with fat percentage, in that the buffaloes with TT genotype had a significantly higher fat percentage than those with CC genotype. These findings reveal the difference in the genetic evolution of the DGAT1 between Riverine buffalo and Swamp buffalo, and provide evidence that the DGAT1 gene has potential effects for Riverine buffalo milk production traits, which can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.
The influences of pressure and aging treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr alloys were studied. It was found that the nucleation rate, solid solubility of Nd and Zn in the α-Mg matrix, and dislocation density were increased with increasing applied pressure. After aging treatment, the amount of the Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with increasing pressure; β″ phase and β′ precipitates were observed in the RSC alloy and finer β′ precipitates formed in the permanent mold casting (PMC) alloy. The mechanical properties of as-cast alloys were initially increased and then decreased with increasing pressure, while the properties of T6-treated alloys were increased continuously. Due to the larger grain boundary strengthening contribution, the T6-treated RSC sample showed higher mechanical properties than the PMC sample, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation could reach 165 MPa, 309 MPa, and 5.7%, respectively.
The effect of mold temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr (NZ30K) alloy were investigated. The results indicated that the rise of mold temperature contributed to the increase of particle size and alloy density and the decrease of dislocation density. The rapid coarsening and then the normal growth of the particles during solution treatment were observed, and the long-rod-like Zn2Zr3 phase occurred. After age treatment, rod-like β′ precipitate was found in the conventional squeeze casting (CSC) alloy, while two types of precipitates including β′ phase and small plate-like β″ phase were observed in the RSC alloy. The amount of Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with rising mold temperature. Compared with the T6-treated CSC sample, the T6-treated RSC sample presented higher mechanical properties due to the larger precipitation strengthening contribution, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were up to 160 MPa, 296 MPa, and 7.7%.
Mg–3.0Y–2.5Nd–1.0Gd–xZn–0.5Zr (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0) (wt%) alloys were produced by metallic and sand mold casting to study the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloys. The as-cast Zn-free alloys consist of α-Mg and eutectics, whereas the Zn-containing alloys contain additional long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures. With a higher solidification, the cooling rate brought by metallic mold casting, grains, and eutectics are refined, which enhances the elongation of the alloys, accompanied by a decrease of area fraction of the LPSO structure. Some residual eutectics in the Mg–3.0Y–2.5Nd–1.0Gd–1.0Zn–0.5Zr alloys act as obstacles to grain boundary migration during solution treatment, which make the average grain size 15–20 μm smaller than that of the other alloys and hence improve the elongation of the alloys. The Zn addition brings notable enhancements to mechanical properties of the alloys due to solid solution strengthening of Zn. Especially, the peak-aged Mg–3.0Y–2.5Nd–1.0Gd–0.5Zn–0.5Zr alloys perform with the highest overall tensile properties.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–0.43Nd–xY–0.08Zn–0.11Zr (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12 at.%) alloys were investigated. The results indicated that Mg24Y5 phase was formed in the as-cast Y-containing alloys, the grains were refined and the amount of needle-like Mg12Nd phase in the α-Mg grain interior was increased with increasing Y addition. After solution treatment, the Mg24Y5 phase and needle-like Mg12Nd phase nearly completely dissolved into the α-Mg matrix and long-rod-like Zn2Zr3 phase occurred. The amount of Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with increasing Y content after age treatment. Mg–0.43Nd–0.12Y–0.08Zn–0.11Zr alloy exhibited the best combination of strength and elongation in all conditions, especially in the temperature range of 200–300 °C, and an Arrhenius model was established to study the plastic flow behavior. The improvement in mechanical properties was attributed to the grain refining, solution strengthening and enhanced precipitation hardening of Zn2Zr3 phase and β-type phase.
Cyclic deformation and low-cycle fatigue behavior of Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy in sand-cast and aging treatment conditions (sand-cast-T6) were investigated by carrying out full reversed strain-controlled tension-compression tests at the strain amplitude ranging from 0.25 to 0.7%. The results show that stress–strain hysteresis loops of the studied alloys display near tension-compression symmetry, which is dominated by microstructure and strain amplitude. Both sand-cast and sand-cast-T6 alloys exhibit cyclic hardening and softening phenomenon with increasing loading cycles. Meanwhile, the fatigue life of the aged alloy is higher than that of the sand-cast alloy at all applied strain amplitudes. The theoretical strain fatigue limits (ε0) of sand-cast and sand-cast-T6 alloys are 2.1% and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the studied alloy at different strain amplitudes was also investigated.
In present study, the semi-solid slurry of the AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy was firstly prepared by gas-bubbling processing and then was formed by die casting and squeeze casting, respectively. The influence of processing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy was investigated. The results show that increase of gas-flow rate and appropriate pouring temperature can improve the quality of the semi-solid slurry and change the morphology of primary α-Mg particles to rosette-like shape or roundness. Meanwhile, the addition of calcium and cerium refines the as-cast microstructure and dramatically improves the tensile properties, also the strengthening phase Al4Ce exists around the grain boundary. The peak ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength, and elongation of rheo-die casting AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy are 202 MPa, 154 MPa, and 2.3%, respectively. Especially, compared with conventional liquid die-casting, the UTS and elongation of rheo-die casting AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy were improved by 8% and 64%, respectively. Meanwhile, the rheo-die casting alloy also showed higher mechanical properties than rheo-squeeze casting alloy, since the higher speed that die casting provided could induce more compact microstructure and remain the semi-solid characteristic better.
The effects of Cu content on the microstructure, mechanical property, and hot tearing susceptibility of die casting Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy have been investigated. Different Cu contents (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 wt%) were added in Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy. In the as-cast microstructure, the amount, volume fraction, and average size of Al2Cu phase increase with more Cu addition. The morphology of grain boundary white Al2Cu phase turns from particle to lump. The UTS (ultimate tensile strength) of Al–22Si–xCu–0.4Mg alloy improves with Cu added, which is mainly caused by the strengthening effect of intergranular Al2Cu. The hot tearing susceptibility apparently rises with Cu content increased, which is due to longer quaternary eutectic reaction time, larger amount of residual intergranular Cu-rich liquid film spreading out over α-Al grain boundary, and higher quaternary eutectic reaction temperature. Considering both the mechanical property and hot tearing susceptibility, optimal Cu content for die casting Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy found in this paper is 2.5 wt%.
We study multi-sensitivity and thick sensitivity for continuous surjective selfmaps on compact metric spaces. Our main result states that a minimal system is either multi-sensitive or an almost one-to-one extension of its maximal equicontinuous factor. This is an analog of the Auslander–Yorke dichotomy theorem: a minimal system is either sensitive or equicontinuous. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of a syndetically equicontinuous point, and we prove that a transitive system is either thickly sensitive or contains syndetically equicontinuous points, which is a refinement of another well-known result of Akin, Auslander and Berg.
In this present study, the influence of different casting processes on high cycle fatigue behavior of Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr magnesium alloy was investigated by using porosity-free low-pressure sand-casting (LPS) bars and gravity permanent mold casting (GPM) ingots. The results show that the fatigue properties of both LPS and GPM Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy in as-cast condition are determined by Mg matrix and eutectic phase. However, the fatigue property improvement for LPS alloy by T6 heat treatment is significantly superior to that of GPM alloy. The different degree of enhancement of fatigue properties for two conditions of the alloy is related to different crack initiation mechanism. The fatigue crack of the LPS alloy initiates from the free surface of the sample, while the crack of the GPM alloy initiates from porosities or inclusions near the surface of the sample. Meanwhile, the crack of slip band has a crucial effect on the fatigue crack initiation of both as-cast and T6 conditions for LPS alloy.
The effect of solution treatment (ST) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy was investigated. Results showed that the volume fraction of secondary phases (Al2Cu, Al3Li) decreased obviously after ST. It was found that the strengthening of Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy was a balance of the precipitation strengthening, residual phase strengthening and fine grain strengthening. The residual phase strengthening and fine grain strengthening decreased with increasing the solution temperature and time, while precipitation strengthening increased. After ST at 560 °C for 40 h, the elongation of Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy reaches the highest value of 22.1%. In addition, the tensile properties are up to the highest values, ultimate tensile strength of 359 MPa and elongation of 3.5% after optimal ST at 560 °C for 40 h followed by aging treatment.
In this study, the temperature gradient on lunar surface was simulated by deep cryogenic treatment and cryogenic thermocycling. The influence of these treatments on room and low temperature tensile properties and fracture behavior of the as-cast Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy was then investigated. The results have shown that the cryogenic treatments caused the precipitation of Mg24(Gd, Y)5 phase and improved the ductility of the alloy. The deep cryogenic treatment almost has no influence on the tensile properties of the alloy, while the cryogenic thermocycling slightly improve its tensile properties at room temperature and slightly deteriorate the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy at low temperature. The cleavage fracture is the main fracture mechanism at both room and low temperatures. To conclude, this alloy can withstand the huge temperature gradient on the lunar surface and shows application perspective.
The effect of 0.5 wt% Mn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Al–2Li–2Cu–0.8Mg–0.4Zn–0.2Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated. Results showed that the grain size of Mn-containing alloy was smaller than that of Mn-free alloy in both the as-cast and solution treated state. Al20Mn3Cu2 dispersoids were formed during solution treatment in the Mn-containing alloy. After aging at 175 °C for 32 h, a large volume fraction of coherent Al3Li/Al3(Li, Zr) particles were precipitated in both Mn-free and Mn-containing alloys, while more Guinier–Preston–Bagaratsky zones were observed in the Mn-free alloy. Mn addition improved the elongation significantly, which was 1.7% for Mn-free alloy and 3.3% for the alloy with 0.5 wt% Mn addition.
In this study, semi-solid slurry of AZ91–2 wt% Ca (AZ91–2Ca) alloy was prepared by gas bubbling and shaped by rheo-squeeze casting process. The results indicate that fine semi-solid slurry of AZ91–2Ca alloy could be obtained by gas bubbling within 30 s, with primary α-Mg particles having an average diameter less than 50 μm and average shape factor higher than 0.7. With the decrease of pouring temperature from 599 to 590 °C, both tensile strength and elongation of rheo-squeeze casting AZ91–2Ca alloy first increased and then decreased. The rheo-squeeze casting AZ91–2Ca alloy sample prepared at pouring temperature of 596 °C exhibited the peak tensile strength and elongation. Compared with conventional squeeze casting, the improvement in mechanical properties of rheo-squeeze casting AZ91–2Ca alloy was mainly attributed to the grain refinement strengthening, including the refinement and spheroidization of primary α-Mg particles and the refinement in the residual melt.
In this paper we show that for every
there are minimal systems with perfect weakly mixing sets of order
and all weakly mixing sets of order
trivial. We present some relations between weakly mixing sets and topological sequence entropy; in particular, we prove that invertible minimal systems with non-trivial weakly mixing sets of order three always have positive topological sequence entropy. We also study relations between weak mixing of sets and other well-established notions from qualitative theory of dynamical systems like (regional) proximality, chaos and equicontinuity in a broad sense.
The purpose of this article is to summarize our recent progress in high-order and high accurate CFD methods for flow problems with complex grids as well as to discuss the engineering prospects in using these methods. Despite the rapid development of high-order algorithms in CFD, the applications of high-order and high accurate methods on complex configurations are still limited. One of the main reasons which hinder the widely applications of these methods is the complexity of grids. Many aspects which can be neglected for low-order schemes must be treated carefully for high-order ones when the configurations are complex. In order to implement high-order finite difference schemes on complex multi-block grids, the geometric conservation law and block-interface conditions are discussed. A conservative metric method is applied to calculate the grid derivatives, and a characteristic-based interface condition is employed to fulfil high-order multi-block computing. The fifth-order WCNS-E-5 proposed by Deng is applied to simulate flows with complex grids, including a double-delta wing, a transonic airplane configuration, and a hypersonic X-38 configuration. The results in this paper and the references show pleasant prospects in engineering-oriented applications of high-order schemes.
Mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene, which has an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 new-borns, cause autosomal recessive congenital hypothyroidism. The mutational spectrum of the TG gene and the phenotype–genotype correlations have not yet fully been established. We report a compound heterozygous mutation in the TG gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. We also describe the gene mutation associated with the genotype–phenotype of these children with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. The whole coding sequence of the TG gene was analyzed by direct sequence, and the identified changes in the sequence were tested for benign polymorphism by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography screening of the mutation and sequencing 200 chromosomes from normal controls. Analysis of the TG gene of the affected twin revealed a compound heterozygous mutation, including a novel missense mutation G2687A, which is predicted to result in a glutamine to arginine substitution at codon 877, and a known nonsense mutation C7006T, predicted to result in an arginine to stop codon at codon 2317. Analysis of 200 normal chromosomes did not identify the same change in healthy subjects. This is the first report of a TG gene mutation in the Chinese Han population. Our study provides further evidence that mutations in the TG gene cause congenital goiter and hypothyroidism, demonstrates genetic heterogeneity of the mutation, and increases our understanding of phenotype–genotype correlations in congenital hypothyroidism.
If a countable amenable group G contains an infinite subgroup Γ, one may define, from a measurable action of Γ, the so-called co-induced measurable action of G. These actions were defined and studied by Dooley, Golodets, Rudolph and Sinelsh’chikov. In this paper, starting from a topological action of Γ, we define the co-induced topological action of G. We establish a number of properties of this construction, notably, that the G-action has the topological entropy of the Γ-action and has uniformly positive entropy (completely positive entropy, respectively) if and only if the Γ-action has uniformly positive entropy (completely positive entropy, respectively). We also study the Pinsker algebra of the co-induced action.
Let (X,T) be a topological dynamical system (TDS), and h(T,K) the topological entropy of a subset K of X. (X,T) is lowerable if for each 0≤h≤h(T,X) there is a non-empty compact subset with entropy h; it is hereditarily lowerable if each non-empty compact subset is lowerable; it is hereditarily uniformly lowerable if for each non-empty compact subset K and each 0≤h≤h(T,K) there is a non-empty compact subset Kh⊆K with h(T,Kh)=h and Kh has at most one limit point. It is shown that each TDS with finite entropy is lowerable, and that a TDS (X,T) is hereditarily uniformly lowerable if and only if it is asymptotically h-expansive.
First notions of relative complexity function and relative sensitivity are introduced. It turns out that for any open factor map $\pi: (X, T)\rightarrow (Y, S)$ between topological dynamical systems with minimal $(Y, S),\ \pi$ is positively equicontinuous if and only if the relative complexity function is bounded for each open cover of $X$; and that any non-trivial weakly mixing extension is relatively sensitive. Moreover, a relative version of the notable result that any $M$-system is sensitive if it is not minimal is obtained. Then notions of relative scattering and relative Mycielski's chaos are introduced. A relative disjointness theorem involving relative scattering is given. A relative version of the well-known result that any non-trivial scattering topological dynamical system is Li–Yorke chaotic is proved.