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The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
We aimed to investigate the association between plasma retinol and incident cancer among Chinese hypertensive adults. We conducted a nested case–control study, including 231 patients with incident cancer and 231 matched controls during a median 4·5-year follow-up of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. There was a significant, inverse association between retinol levels and digestive system cancer (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91). When compared with participants in the first quartile of retinol (< 52·3 μg/dl), a significantly lower cancer risk was found in participants in quartile 2–4 ( ≥ 52·3 μg/dl: OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·71). However, there was a U-shaped association between retinol levels and non-digestive system cancers where the risk of cancers decreased (although not significantly) with each increment of plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·31) in participants with retinol < 68·2 μg/dl, and then increased significantly with retinol (per 10 μg/dl increase: OR 1·65; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·44) in participants with retinol ≥ 68·2 μg/dl. In conclusion, there was a significant inverse dose–response association between plasma retinol and the risk of digestive system cancers. However, a U-shaped association was observed between plasma retinol and the risk of non-digestive cancers (with a turning point approximately 68·2 μg/dl).
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Residual strain often occurs in metal when it was subjected to the tension load, random vibration, or high impact. The mild steel was selected as the research object, and the feasibility of using nonlinear ultrasonic technique to characterize the residual strain was investigated in this paper. First, the mild steel specimens were stretched to several different kinds of stress, then the nonlinear effect as well as the microstrain of each sample was measured. The results indicate that the microstrain increases with increasing applied stress and reaches a maximum value of about 0.036% as the tensile stress increases to the elastic limit. Compared with the original specimen, the nonlinear parameter of tensile specimen gradually increased within the elastic limit. This result reveals that the variation of nonlinear parameter was related to microstrain in mild steel, because the microstructure observation demonstrated that the dislocation structure was basically unchanged within the elastic limit. This research indicates that the nonlinear ultrasonic method has the promising potential to characterize the microstrain in metals.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Gamma prime (γ′) stability and its influence on tensile behavior of a newly developed wrought superalloy with various Fe contents was studied both experimentally and thermodynamically. The results show that the γ′-solvus temperature is higher and γ–γ′ lattice mismatch is bigger in the alloy with the lower Fe content. During long-term thermal exposure at 650–750 °C, the coarsening behavior of γ′ precipitates follows Ostwald ripening kinetics and the lower Fe content can decrease the coarsening rate of γ′ precipitates due to the increase of the activation energy for γ′ coarsening. Moreover, the lower Fe content can retard the transformation from γ′ to η phase. The tensile properties of the alloys with different Fe contents are almost same after standard heat treatment. However, after thermal exposure, the decrease of tensile strength in the alloy with lower Fe content is less than that of the alloys with higher Fe content due to the improvement of γ′ stability.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing–thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing–thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen–thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P < 0.05). Thus, higher expression of HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing–thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm.
The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF) and changes in antioxidant capacity following supplementation. A total of seventy-four children were randomly divided into two groups: group A1 was the placebo-controlled group and group A2 was supplemented daily with 600 μg retinol, 1·0 mg β-carotene, 100 mg tocopherol, 300 mg ascorbic acid and 200 μg Se. A total of ninety young people were randomly divided into B1 and B2 groups, and ninety-one elderly subjects were divided into C1 and C2 groups. Groups B1 and C1 were placebo-controlled groups, and groups B2 and C2 were daily supplemented with 900 μg retinol, 1·5 mg β-carotene, 200 mg tocopherol, 500 mg ascorbic acid and 400 μg Se. Results showed that plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was 5·35 μmol/l in children, which was lower than in young and elderly people. The MDA levels of the young and elderly individuals in the treated groups were significantly lower compared with the control groups, but the supplementation did not alter MDA levels in children. At baseline, there was a lower value of polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) in children, indicating a higher EMF, than in both the young and elderly subjects. After the 2-month trial, the ρ and η values of young and elderly subjects in the treated groups decreased significantly in comparison with the placebo groups, indicating an increase in EMF. In conclusion, there was a background of higher MDA levels and lower EMF in young and elderly people than in children, which could be improved by antioxidant supplementation.
Temperate glaciers are more sensitive to climate changes than polar or continental glaciers, and can drive remarkable runoff variation in local water catchments. Here we present recent glacier shrinkage and runoff change for Hailuogou glacier, a typical monsoon temperate glacier on the east slope of Mount Gongga (Minya Konga), China. The surface area of Hailuogou glacier has decreased by 3.5% (0.92 km2) between 1966 (aerial photographs) and 2007 (ASTER images). Flow measurements at a stream gauge about 500 m down-glacier commencing in 1994 display a remarkable increase in annual runoff (mostly during July–September) since 1999. Annual runoff over the same period in a nonglacierized but forested subcatchment (9.17 km2) did not experience significant change. By separating the daily rainfall component from the daily total discharge, monthly catchment water-balance series were calculated for the period 1994–2005, which shows an increasing trend of glacier storage loss. We concluded that air-temperature rise (with a trend of +0.2°C (10 a)−1 between 1988 and 2005, recorded at nearby weather stations) has had an increased effect on glacier mass loss and river runoff change during the past 20 years.
Electron tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the unique 3-dimensional (3D) structures of twinned Zn3P2 (tetragonal) and InAs (zinc blende) nanowires synthesized by the vapor transport method. The Zn3P2 nanowires adopt a unique superlattice structure that consists of twinned octahedral slice segments having alternating orientations along the axial  direction of a pseudocubic unit cell. The apices of the octahedral slice segment are indexed as six equivalent <112> directions at the  zone axis. At each 30 degrees turn, the straight and zigzagged morphologies appear repeatedly at the <112> and <011> zone axes, respectively. The 3D structure of the twinned Zn3P2 nanowires is virtually the same as that of the twinned InAs nanowires. In addition, we analyzed the 3D structure of zigzagged CdO (rock salt) nanowires and found that they include hexahedral segments, whose six apices are matched to the <011> directions, linked along the  axial direction. We also analyzed the unique 3D structure of rutile TiO2 (tetragonal) nanobelts; at each 90 degree turn, the straight morphology appears repeatedly, while the in-between twisted form appears at the  zone axis. We suggest that the TiO2 nanobelts consist of twinned octahedral slices whose six apices are indexed by the <011>/<001> directions with the axial  direction.
The Ras-like Rab1 and Rab6 GTPases modulate protein traffic along the early secretory pathway and are involved in the regulation of maturation of rhodopsin in the outer retina. However, Rab GTPases have not been studied in the inner retinas. Here, we analyzed the anatomatic distribution and expression of Rab1 and Rab6 in the mouse and rat retinas by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We found that Rab1 was specifically expressed in the rod bipolar cells, while Rab6 was expressed in a different cell type(s) from rod bipolar cells in the inner retina. We also demonstrated that expression of Rab1 and Rab6 was increased with light. These data provided the first evidence implicating that Rab1 and Rab6 may be involved in the regulation of the retinal adaptation.
To improve the developmental potential of somatic cell cloned embryos derived from demecolcine (DC) induced-enucleated nuclear transfer (INT), we modified the INT procedures by transferring donor nuclei into recipient cytoplasts prior to the induced enucleation of the recipient cytoplasts, and we called this modified INT technique as reverse-order and induced-enucleated nuclear transfer (RINT). Standard nuclear transfer (SNT) and INT were performed as controls. The dynamic changes of maternal and transferred donor nuclei in the RINT oocytes were monitored to evaluate the feasibility of this new nuclear transfer (NT) technique by timed immunofluorescence. Timed immunofluorescence showed that RINT is feasible because none of the transferred donor nuclei were expelled with the second polar body (Pb) in the RINT oocytes, while 42.2% of the oocytes showed extrusion of all maternal chromosome and spindles with the second Pb at 60 min after activation and DC treatment. Although there was no difference in cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 82.1%), the rates of successful enucleation and blastocyst formation were significantly increased in RINT compared with INT (44.1% vs. 27.5% and 43.3% vs. 12.8%, respectively; p < 0.01). Compared with SNT, there was no difference in cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 78.4%), but the blastocyst developmental rate was significantly increased in the RINT group (43.3% vs. 25.3%; p < 0.01). Blastocysts derived from RINT had a higher total cell number than those from SNT (45.1 ± 3 vs. 37.6 ± 4; p < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that RINT is feasible and may provide a more efficient and simple method for NT than INT.