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This paper explores the question of the design activity at the shop floor level. The design activity has been confined for a large part in the design and the methods office. However, a certain form of design adapted to the factory remains. It is necessary to solve the problems which appear during the manufacturing process and to improve the productivity. However another form of design can emerge; it has a stronger impact on the factory, since the rules of the manufacturing system are modified under its effect. The paper studies 21 cases of design in the Airbus factory at Saint-Nazaire. It shows that the design activity does exist at the shop floor level. It characterizes this activity distinguishing two types of design which can co-exist in a factory. It shows that the type of results reached is not the same according to the type of design implemented.
Most research on mortality in people with severe psychiatric disorders has focused on natural causes of death. Little is known about trauma-related mortality, although bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have been associated with increased risk of self-administered injury and road accidents.
To determine if 30-day in-patient mortality from traumatic injury was increased in people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia compared with those without psychiatric disorders.
A French national 2016 database of 144 058 hospital admissions for trauma was explored. Patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were selected and matched with mentally healthy controls in a 1:3 ratio according to age, gender, social deprivation and region of residence. We collected the following data: sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, trauma severity characteristics and trauma circumstances. Study outcome was 30-day in-patient mortality.
The study included 1059 people with bipolar disorder, 1575 people with schizophrenia and their respective controls (n = 3177 and n = 4725). The 30-day mortality was 5.7% in bipolar disorder, 5.1% in schizophrenia and 3.3 and 3.8% in the controls, respectively. Only bipolar disorder was associated with increased mortality in univariate analyses. This association remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities but not after adjustment for trauma severity. Self-administered injuries were associated with increased mortality independent of the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis.
Patients with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of 30-day mortality, probably through increased trauma severity. A self-administered injury is predictive of a poor survival prognosis regardless of psychiatric diagnosis.
Study of the hydro-sedimentary dynamics of lakes provides key information on hydrological changes. In this work, we investigate Lake Azigza in the Moroccan Middle Atlas, a region that suffers from a scarcity of observational hydrological data necessary for a coherent management of water resources. Sedimentary deposits of Lake Azigza (32°58′N, 5°26′W, 1,550 m above sea level) were dated and analyzed by combining geochemical and mineralogical measurements coupled with microfacies characterization for the last 134 yr. The detrital component derived from X-ray fluorescence elemental composition and microstructures analysis of the lake sediments provided proxies of runoff activity and lake-level changes, respectively. These proxies were calibrated with regional hydro-climatic and instrumental measurements available over the last 50 yr and used to reconstruct past hydrological changes on inter-annual to decadal time scales between 1879 and 2013. Since 1879, lake level and runoff proxies responded in phase to regional inter-annual precipitation variations. We also show that after the major lake-level drop observed in 2008, the response of the runoff proxy to variable precipitation regime is enhanced. Such an approach emphasizes the potential of these hydro-climate-sensitive sedimentary archives to assess the impact of climate change in the Mediterranean region.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underdiagnosed and undertreated in schizophrenia, and has been strongly associated with impaired quality of life.
To determine the prevalence and associated factors of MDD and unremitted MDD in schizophrenia, to compare treated and non-treated MDD.
Participants were included in the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical assessment. MDD was defined by a Calgary score ≥6. Non-remitted MDD was defined by current antidepressant treatment (unchanged for >8 weeks) and current Calgary score ≥6.
613 patients were included and 175 (28.5%) were identified with current MDD. MDD has been significantly associated with respectively paranoid delusion (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.01), avolition (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02), blunted affect (odds ratio 1.7; P = 0.04) and benzodiazepine consumption (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02). Antidepressants were associated with lower depressive symptoms score (5.4 v. 9.5; P < 0.0001); however, 44.1% of treated patients remained in non-remittance MDD. Nonremitters were found to have more paranoid delusion (odds ratio 2.3; P = 0.009) and more current alcohol misuse disorder (odds ratio 4.8; P = 0.04). No antidepressant class or specific antipsychotic were associated with higher or lower response to antidepressant treatment. MDD was associated with Metabolic syndrome (31.4 v. 20.2%; P = 0.006) but not with increased C-reactive protein.
Antidepressant administration is associated with lower depressive symptom level in patients with schizophrenia and MDD. Paranoid delusions and alcohol misuse disorder should be specifically explored and treated in cases of non-remission under treatment. MetS may play a role in MDD onset and/or maintenance in patients with schizophrenia.
Recent studies have revealed remarkable interactions between language and emotion. Here, we show that such interactions influence judgments made regarding cultural information. Balanced Welsh–English bilinguals categorized statements about their native Welsh culture as true or false. Whilst participants categorized positive statements as true when they were true, they were biased towards categorizing them as true also when they were false, irrespective of the language in which they read them. Surprisingly, participants were unbiased when categorizing negative statements presented in their native language Welsh, but showed a reverse bias - categorizing sentences as false, even when they were true - for negative statements when they read them in English. The locus of this behavior originated from online semantic evaluation of the statements, shown in corresponding modulations of the N400 peak of event-related brain potentials. These findings suggest that bilinguals perceive and react to cultural information in a language-dependent fashion.
In this study we explore whether world knowledge (WK) processing differs between individuals listening to their native (L1) or their non-native (L2) language. We recorded event-related brain potentials in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish while they listened to sentences uttered by native speakers of Spanish. Sentences were either congruent or incongruent with participants’ WK. In addition, participants also listened to sentences in which upcoming words could not be anticipated on the basis of WK. WK violations elicited a late negativity of greater magnitude and duration in the L2 than the L1 group. However, sentences in which WK was not helpful regarding word anticipation elicited similar N400 modulations in both groups. These results suggest that WK processing requires a deeper lexical search in L2 comprehension than in L1 comprehension.
This paper presents a full-duplex dual-band orthogonal frequency division duplexing (OFDM) radio architecture that enables the radio transceiver to be more flexible and provides a viable radio link capacity gain. A simple but practical I/Q imbalance estimation and compensation method, based on the frequency-flat-fading behavior of the self-interference channel, is proposed. The performance of the proposed I/Q imbalance compensation method is evaluated by link level simulation conducted with Advanced Design System and Matlab. The co-simulation results show that the proposed radio transceiver could potentially increase the physical layer transmission rate by four times compared with the conventional radio link at the cost of tolerable loss of bit error rate performance. The I/Q imbalance compensation method can effectively compensate both high and low I/Q imbalance without the problem of algorithm convergence.
Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)-based ceramics represent a valuable alternative to single crystals as active media in laser devices for specific applications. In this connection, the 1.5–1.65 µm emission channel of Er3+-doped YAG is of particular importance for the realization of diode pumped solid state lasers operating in the so-called ‘eye-safe’ region. A well-known drawback of this material is related to its small absorption cross section in correspondence to the diode pumping radiation at 940–980 nm. However, its emission performance can be significantly improved through sensitization with Yb3+ ions that can efficiently absorb the excitation radiation and transfer it to the Er3+ ions. This work deals with the fabrication of polycrystalline YAG co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions from oxide powders via solid state sintering in high vacuum conditions and its microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy–energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to determine the dopants distribution and to assess their influence on the sintering process and on the spectroscopic properties. For this purpose, the absorption and emission spectra of the prepared material have been measured and compared with those of a single crystal having the same composition, appositely prepared by the micro-pulling down method. Suitable calculations have been finally carried out to verify the effective perspectives of application of the investigated ceramics as active lasing medium.
The authors present the technological routes used to build planar and vertical gate all-around (GAA) field-effect transistors (FETs) using both Si and SiGe nanowires (NWs) and the electrical performances of the as-obtained components. Planar FETs are characterized in back gate configuration and exhibit good behavior such as an ION/IOFF ratio up to 106. Hysteretic behavior and sub-threshold slope values with respect to surface and oxide interface trap densities are discussed. Vertical devices using Si NWs show good characteristics at the state of the art with ION/IOFF ratio close to 106 and sub-threshold slope around 125 mV/decade while vertical SiGe devices also obtained with the same technological processes, present an ION/IOFF ratio from 103 to 104but with poor dynamics which can be explained by the high interface traps density.
The Herschel/HIFI absorption spectroscopy surveys reveal the unexpected molecular richness of the Galactic diffuse ISM, even in gas of very low average H2 molecular fraction. In particular, two hydrides, CH+ and SH+ with highly endoenergetic formation routes have abundances that challenge models of UV-driven chemistry. The intermittent dissipation of turbulence appears as a plausible additional source of energy for the diffuse ISM chemistry. We present recent results of the so-called models of Turbulent Dissipation Regions (TDR). The abundances of many of the molecules observed in the diffuse ISM, including CO that is used as a tracer of the molecular clouds mass, may be understood in the framework of the TDR models.
This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO2 sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with 3He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the 3He(d,α)1H reaction. 3He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700°C and 1000°C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900°C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects.
This paper illustrates the use of a 1H-29Si-1H double CP sequence to investigate different organic/SiO2 interfaces in templated porous silica. The advantage of this sequence is to selectively edit, in a one-dimensional experiment, the protons that are in close proximity with the Si surface sites. In order to maximize the polarization transfer efficiency, some experiments have been recorded at lower temperature (238 K). Examples will concern surfactant/silica interactions in mesostructured silicas and the behavior of benzoic acid and 4-methoxychlorophenol, a common pesticide, encapsulated in mesoporous silica.
J-derived (HMQC, INEPT) and D-derived (double and triple resonance) experiments were applied to the detailed characterization of crystalline and amorphous silicophosphate derivatives. 31P/29Si and 1H/31P/29Si CP MAS experiments were suitable for the description of complex silicophosphate gels, which can act as precursors for biocompatible materials. First principles calculations involving the GIPAW approach (first developed by Mauri and Pickard) were applied for the determination of CSA (29Si, 31P, 17O) and quadrupolar (17O) parameters. Excellent agreement between experimental and calculated data was obtained.
In this paper, we present CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) growth and passivation of tungsten (W) and titanium nitride (TiN) nanocrystals (NCs) on silicon dioxide and silicon nitride for use as charge trapping layer in floating gate memory devices. NCs are deposited in an 8 inches industrial CVD Centura tool. W and TiN are chosen for being compatible with MOSFET memory fabrication process. For protecting NCs from oxidation, a silicon shell is selectively deposited on them. Moreover, for a better passivation, TiN NCs are encapsulated in silicon nitride (Si3N4) in order to get rid of oxidation issues. After high temperature annealing (1050°C under N2 during 1 minute) XPS measurements point out that NCs are still metallic, which makes them good candidates for being used as charge trapping layer in floating gate memories.
Natural short-lived radionuclides generate electronic defects in minerals, such as trapped electrons and positive holes, often associated with element impurities, which act as final traps over geological periods. Two main examples will be illustrated. The first example will concern the point defects, which are observed in clay minerals. The high specific surface area makes clay minerals sensitive to the geochemical radiation background and provides a record of the past occurrence of radionuclides in geological systems. In kaolinite, three types of hole-centers are trapped by oxygen atoms linked to Si- or Al-sites. An experimental dosimetry gives the paleodose, which can be used either to assess mean past U-concentration or for kaolinite dating, depending on the available geochemical parameters. The detection of past migrations of radioelements in natural analogues may be used in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals. The second example will concern the role of mineral impurities in defect formation and stabilization. Natural fluorites (CaF2) exhibit hole-and electron-centers trapped on several rare earths and oxygen impurities, often present at the ppm level, which are responsible for the wide range of coloration observed in natural fluorites. Ca colloids may form under severe irradiation and give rise to a characteristic absorption. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects gives constraints on the evolution of fluorites as a function of temperature and time. Other minerals, such as apatite, confirm the importance of impurities in stabilizing radiation-induced defects over geological periods.
Even though most microarrays present good quality, accuracy and reliability, they are made on a planar surface structure, which neither enough increases the accessibility of the targets to the probes nor the loading capacity of the solid support. To achieve a high density of reactive functions, the use of a non-planar structure is investigated to increase the available surface area for grafting of biomolecules. We propose to build up a pseudo-three-dimensional silicon structure, covered with a specific oxide layer, and then functionalized, allowing to introduce covalent and stable bindings of amino-modified oligonucleotides probes on the reactive layer of the support. The performances of these supports after silanisation are investigated by means of hybridization experiments using complementary fluorescent labeled-oligonucleotides targets. Our results indicate that these novel surfaces provide a higher specific surface area for attaching biomolecules and higher accessibility of the targets, which will increase the density of biomolecules and hence, the sensitivity of the fluorescence signal in comparison to the results obtained with a planar surface structure.
During the last 50 years, there has been a considerable amount of work for the elaboration of efficient luminescent materials, most of them dealing with the search for new chemical compositions. Only a very few studies have concerned the study of the influence of the microstructure of the materials on their properties of emission, especially when the grain sizes of the materials are in the nanometer range. On another side, important advances have been performed in colloid chemistry in the last years, especially in the case of II-VI chalcogenides, as a consequence on the intense activity around the physics of quantum confinement in semiconductors.
The basic idea of this work is to show that the techniques developed in the case of II-VI nanoparticles could find interesting applications for the elaboration of nanostructured luminescent materials. This is first illustrated in the case of pure CdS nanoparticles, whose properties are deeply affected by their surface state and their chemical environment. Incorporation of manganese in solid solution in the CdS particles drastically changes the emission process, which now essentially depends on the manganese content inside each particle. Finally, the extension of the synthesis process to rare earth doped oxide particles is presented, and the luminescence efficiency is discussed as a function of the size, the structure, and the chemical environment of the particles.
We present in this communication the preparation and the solid state NMR characterization of phenyl phosphonic acid encapsulated both in pure and aminopropyl-modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica materials. The 31P and 1H MAS studies revealed two radically different behaviors of the confined molecules. The included phosphonic acid in SBA-15 is submitted to a confinement effect that implies a weak interaction with the SiO2 surface and a relative mobility at room temperature. On the contrary, phenyl phosphonic acid molecules in the aminopropyl modified sample possess a strong interaction with the hybrid surface of the material. This finding is supported by a two dimensional double-quantum 1H experiment that revealed the close proximity between phenyl phosphonic acid and aminopropyl surface groups.
Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to this hypothesis; we found that children with SLI were able to learn eight-element-long sequences as fast and as accurately as children with normal language (NL) on a serial reaction time (SRT) task. A probabilistic rather than a deterministic SRT paradigm was used in the current study to explore procedural learning in children with SLI to mimic real conditions of language learning. Fifteen children with or without SLI were compared on an SRT task including a probabilistic eight-element-long sequence. Results show that children with SLI were able to learn this sequence as fast and as accurately as children with NL, and that similar sequence-specific learning was observed in both groups. These results are novel and suggest that children with SLI do not display global procedural system deficits. (JINS, 2011, 17, 336–343)