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The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Major life transitions can negatively impact the emotional well-being of older people. This study examined the effectiveness of interventions that target the three most common transitions in later life, namely bereavement, retirement, and relocation.
A systematic search was performed via MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and reference lists of retrieved non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English that studied the effectiveness of interventions addressing the three transitions in those >50 years of age. Two researchers independently selected the publications, piloted the data extraction form, and critically appraised studies specific to transition type and study design.
A total of 11 studies (bereavement: 7; retirement: 2; relocation: 2) of 8 unique interventions met the inclusion criteria of which nine were RCTs and two were of quasi-experimental designs were reviewed. Six studies were group-based interventions, three studies used individualized sessions, and one intervention used a combination of group and individualized programming. Group size varied (20–32 participants), as did qualifications of those administering the interventions. The methodological quality of included studies was weak. Findings suggest that group-based approaches provided by trained personnel can mitigate the negative health-related consequences associated with major transitions in later life.
Evidence concerning interventions that address mental health challenges associated with these major transitions is limited. Future research should better characterize participants at study outset and use validated measures to capture effectiveness. Use of peer mentorship to navigate such transitions is promising, but given the small number of studies and their methodological weaknesses, further research on effectiveness is warranted.
To determine whether probiotic prophylaxes reduce the odds of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children.
Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), adjusting for risk factors.
We searched 6 databases and 11 grey literature sources from inception to April 2016. We identified 32 RCTs (n=8,713); among them, 18 RCTs provided IPD (n=6,851 participants) comparing probiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no treatment (standard care). One reviewer prepared the IPD, and 2 reviewers extracted data, rated study quality, and graded evidence quality.
Probiotics reduced CDI odds in the unadjusted model (n=6,645; odds ratio [OR] 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25–0.55) and the adjusted model (n=5,074; OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23–0.55). Using 2 or more antibiotics increased the odds of CDI (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.11–4.37), whereas age, sex, hospitalization status, and high-risk antibiotic exposure did not. Adjusted subgroup analyses suggested that, compared to no probiotics, multispecies probiotics were more beneficial than single-species probiotics, as was using probiotics in clinical settings where the CDI risk is ≥5%. Of 18 studies, 14 reported adverse events. In 11 of these 14 studies, the adverse events were retained in the adjusted model. Odds for serious adverse events were similar for both groups in the unadjusted analyses (n=4,990; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89–1.26) and adjusted analyses (n=4,718; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89–1.28). Missing outcome data for CDI ranged from 0% to 25.8%. Our analyses were robust to a sensitivity analysis for missingness.
Moderate quality (ie, certainty) evidence suggests that probiotic prophylaxis may be a useful and safe CDI prevention strategy, particularly among participants taking 2 or more antibiotics and in hospital settings where the risk of CDI is ≥5%.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the association between alcohol and obesity using data from 106 182 adults in England and Scotland (46·7 % male; mean 46·9 (sd 16·9) years). Trained interviewers asked participants about alcohol intake. Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2. Potential confounders included age, sex, smoking, physical activity, longstanding illness, psychological distress and socioeconomic status. Compared with those who drank at least five times a week, obesity risk was 1·21 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·27) in those who drank one to four times a week, 1·53 (95 % CI 1·43, 1·62) in those who drank one to two times a month, 1·61 (95 % CI 1·52, 1·71) in those who drank less than once every couple of months, 1·34 (95 % CI 1·23, 1·47) in those who were former drinkers, and 1·03 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·11) in those who were never drinkers. Compared with those who drank a harmful volume, obesity risk was 0·78 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·90) in those who drank within guidelines, 0·69 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·88) in former drinkers and 0·50 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·63) in never drinkers; and, these associations were biased away from the null after adjustment for drinking volume. Abstinence was associated with increased risk of obesity in women. These data suggest that the association between drinking frequency and obesity is bell-shaped, with obesity risk not significantly different in those who drink most often and never drinkers. Drinking volume has a positive confounding effect on the association between drinking frequency and obesity, which may help explain the conflicting findings of other studies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of ~16 months. Novel methods to improve local control are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3+3 dose-escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n=3) or 125 mg/m2 (n=6). One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%), and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. With a median follow-up of 8 months (range 5–28 months), median survival was 19 months and median progression-free survival was 10 months. Following chemoradiation, 3 patients underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and limited tumor viability. Of the 3 patients, 2 initially had borderline resectable tumors and 1 had an unresectable tumor. Tumor (SMAD-4, Caveolin-1) and peripheral (circulating tumor cells and microvesicles) biomarkers were collected and are being analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly nab-paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated. This regimen represents a potentially promising therapy for patients with unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation.
This article analyzes the contribution of genetics and the environment to educational attainment, occupational status, and income using data from over 1,100 monozygotic and 400 dizygotic Australian twin pairs aged from 18 to 99. The respective heritability estimates were 0.54, 0.37, and 0.18. The bivariate heritabilities were 0.71 for educational attainment and occupational status, 0.37 for education and income, and 0.61 for occupational status and income. There were no gender and cohort differences in the heritabilities for education and occupation, but for income, contrary to expectations, the heritabilities were significantly higher among women and for the older cohort (aged 50 or older). The sizable contribution of genes to these socioeconomic outcomes suggests that standard sociological and economic theories on the socioeconomic career require substantial modification to accommodate the role of genetics.
Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators.
A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver.
An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.
To determine and compare the level of implementation of policies for healthy food environments in Thailand with reference to international best practice by state and non-state actors.
Data on the current level of implementation of food environment policies were assessed independently using the adapted Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) by two groups of actors. Concrete actions were proposed for Thai Government. A joint meeting between both groups was subsequently held to reach consensus on priority actions.
Thirty state actors and twenty-seven non-state actors.
Level of policy implementation varied across different domains and actor groups. State actors rated implementation levels higher than non-state actors. Both state and non-state actors rated level of implementation of monitoring of BMI highest. Level of implementation of policies promoting in-store availability of healthy foods and policies increasing tax on unhealthy foods were rated lowest by state and non-state actors, respectively. Both groups reached consensus on eleven priority actions for implementation, focusing on food provision in public-sector settings, food composition, food promotion, leadership, monitoring and intelligence, and food trade.
Although the implementation gaps identified and priority actions proposed varied between state and non-state actors, both groups achieved consensus on a comprehensive food policy package to be implemented by the Thai Government to improve the healthiness of food environments. This consensus is a platform for continued policy dialogue towards cross-sectoral policy coherence and effective actions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in Thailand.
We examined the relations between perceived health (e.g., self-perceived health status) and driving self-regulatory practices (e.g., frequency of driving, avoiding challenging driving situations) as mediated by driving attitudes and perceptions (i.e., driving comfort, positive and negative attitudes towards driving) in data collected for 928 drivers aged 70 and older enrolled in the Candrive II study. We observed that specific attitudes towards driving (e.g., driving comfort, negative attitudes towards driving) mediate the relations between health symptoms and self-regulatory driving behaviours at baseline and over time. Only negative attitudes towards driving fully mediated the relationships between changes in perceived health symptoms and changes in driving behavior. Perceived health symptoms apparently influence the likelihood of avoiding challenging driving situations through both initial negative attitudes towards driving as well as changes in negative attitudes over time. Understanding influences on self-regulatory driving behaviours will be of benefit when designing interventions to enhance the safety of older drivers.
We investigated whether convenience sampling is a suitable method to generate a sample of older drivers representative of the older-Canadian driver population. Using equivalence testing, we compared a large convenience sample of older drivers (Candrive II prospective cohort study) to a similarly aged population of older Canadian drivers. The Candrive sample consists of 928 community-dwelling older drivers from seven metropolitan areas of Canada. The population data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey – Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA), which is a representative sample of older Canadians. The data for drivers aged 70 and older were extracted from the CCHS-HA database, for a total of 3,899 older Canadian drivers. Two samples were demonstrated as equivalent on socio-demographic, health, and driving variables that we compared, but not on driving frequency. We conclude that convenience sampling used in the Candrive study created a fairly representative sample of Canadian older drivers, with a few exceptions.
In this study, we examined the Candrive baseline data (n = 928; aged 70 to 94; 62% were men) to determine whether driver characteristics (i.e., age, gender, height, weight, BMI) and certain functional abilities (i.e., Rapid Paced Walk, Timed Up and Go) influenced the types of vehicles driven. There were significant differences with respect to type of vehicle and mean driver age (F = 3.58, p = 0.003), height, (F = 13.32, p < 0.001), weight (F = 14.31, p < 0.001), and BMI (F = 4.40, p = 0.001). A greater proportion of drivers with osteoporosis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) and osteo/rheumatoid arthritis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) drove small and medium-sized cars compared to larger ones. Further research is needed to examine older driver-vehicle interactions, and the relationship to demographics and functional abilities, given the vulnerability of this age group to automotive-related injuries.
The purpose of this study was to determine if season or weather affected the objectively measured trip distances of older drivers (≥ 70 years; n = 279) at seven Canadian sites. During winter, for all trips taken, trip distance was 7 per cent shorter when controlling for site and whether the trip occurred during the day. In addition, for trips taken within city limits, trip distance was 1 per cent shorter during winter and 5 per cent longer during rain when compared to no precipitation when controlling for weather (or season respectively), time of day, and site. At night, trip distance was about 30 per cent longer when controlling for season and site (and weather), contrary to expectations. Together, these results suggest that older Canadian drivers alter their trip distances based on season, weather conditions, and time of day, although not always in the expected direction.
We hypothesized that changes over time in cognitive performance are associated with changes in driver perceptions, attitudes, and self-regulatory behaviors among older adults. Healthy older adults (n = 928) underwent cognitive assessments at baseline with two subsequent annual follow-ups, and completed scales regarding their perceptions, attitudes, and driving behaviours. Multivariate analysis showed small but statistically significant relationships between the cognitive tests and self-report measures, with the largest magnitudes between scores on the Trails B cognitive task (seconds), perceptions of driving abilities (β = –0.32), and situational driving avoidance (β = 0.55) (p < 0.05). Cognitive slowing and executive dysfunction appear to be associated with modestly lower perceived driving abilities and more avoidance of driving situations over time in this exploratory analysis.
To date, associations between psychosocial driving variables and behaviour have been examined only cross-sectionally. Using three waves of data collected annually from 928 older drivers (mean age = 76.21 years; 62% male) enrolled in the Candrive II cohort, we examined in this study whether changes in attitudes and perceptions towards driving (decisional balance and day and night driving comfort) were associated with changes in older adults’ reported restrictions in driving practices and perceived driving abilities. Multi-level models revealed that older adults who showed an increase in negative attitudes towards driving over time were more likely to report more-restricted practices (greater avoidance of challenging driving situations) and perceived declines in driving abilities compared to individuals whose attitudes towards driving remained stable across two years. This work supports previous findings and offers a new understanding of how attitudes relate to driving perceptions (e.g., comfort) and self-regulation in older adults over time.
The period of greatest socialist strength in the United States, the second decade of the twentieth century, coincided with the final decade of a great wave of immigration. This phenomenon has attracted the attention both of scholars seeking to understand the basis of support for the American Socialist party and of those seeking to address the more general question of the sources of immigrant radicalism (Bodnar 1985; Lipset 1977). Both perspectives pose a basic empirical question: What role did ethnicity play in support for the Socialist party, or, more specifically, which immigrant groups supported the party and which groups opposed it?
The attempt to answer this question has spawned a vast scholarship on the part of historians and social scientists, but a definitive answer remains elusive. Part of the reason for this is that we lack sufficiently detailed and disaggregated data on the political orientations and activities of immigrants themselves. The smallest units of electoral return are at the ward or county level, and information at this aggregate level can never allow us to draw conclusions about individual behavior with any certainty. But it also seems to be the case that the analysis of currently available data has not been taken as far as possible. Previous research has explored the relationship between ethnicity and socialism by examining particular immigrant groups in individual states, cities, or towns (e.g., Critchlow 1986; Gorenstein 1961; Leinenweber 1981; Lorence 1982; Miller 1975; Wolfle and Hodge 1983). Such case studies provide invaluable accounts of the diversity of immigrant politics, but they do not provide a reliable basis for generalization. In this article we take a step back from the wealth of illustrative analysis and try to gain a broader, more systematic, overview of immigrant support for socialism across a wide range of contexts by examining voting among eight immigrant groups—Germans, English, Finns, Irish, Italians, Norwegians, Russians, and Swedes—in the presidential elections of 1912 and 1920, elections in which the American Socialist party received its highest levels of support.
Consumers may choose soya foods as healthful alternatives to animal products, but concern has arisen that eating large amounts of soya may adversely affect thyroid function. The present study aimed to examine the association between soya food consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in North American churchgoers belonging to the Seventh-day Adventist denomination that encourages vegetarianism.
Participants completed six repeated 24 h dietary recalls within a 6-month period. Soya protein and soya isoflavone intakes were estimated, and their relationships to TSH concentrations measured at the end of 6 months were calculated using logistic regression analyses.
Calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2.
Women (n 548) and men (n 295) who were not taking thyroid medications.
In men, age and urinary iodine concentrations were associated with high serum TSH concentrations (>5 mIU/l), while among women White ethnicity was associated with high TSH. In multivariate models adjusted for age, ethnicity and urinary iodine, soya isoflavone and protein intakes were not associated with high TSH in men. In women higher soya isoflavone consumption was associated with higher TSH, with an adjusted odds ratio (highest v. lowest quintile) of 4·17 (95 % CI 1·73, 10·06). Likewise, women with high consumption of soya protein (midpoint of highest quintile, 11 g/d) v. low consumption (midpoint of lowest quintile, 0 g/d) carried increased odds of high TSH (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·30).
In women high consumption of soya was associated with elevated TSH concentrations. No associations between soya intake and TSH were found in men.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.