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Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58–4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04–1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02–1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = −0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.
We present a nano-patterning process for semiconducting polymeric composites that could potentially be utilized for the development of polymer-based data storage devices. Nano-patterning (writing) operates on the basis of the mechanical interaction between the electrically unbiased tip of an atomic force microscope and the surface of polymeric composite films. Via friction forces, the tip/sample interaction produces a local increase of molecular disorder in the polymer matrix, inducing a localized lowering in the conductivity of the organic semiconductor. Herein we suggest a figure of merit for quantifying the efficiency of pattern formation and we address the dependence of the writing process on the thermal annealing temperature of the composite film. Control experiments on composite films deposited on substrates with different roughness suggest that the writing effect is invariant to the roughness of the substrate. The potential storage density of the writing process depends on the tip curvature.
Ag–reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) nanoparticle composites were synthesized through a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction using GO and silver carbonate (Ag2CO3) as raw materials. The homogeneous silver nanospheres with an average size of 50 nm well dispersed on the surface of rGO were obtained without other additives. During the formation process, GO both promotes the dispersion of Ag2CO3 in aqueous solution and acts as the substrate of silver cations, and the hydrolysis of Ag2CO3 provides silver cations and alkaline condition. Moreover, GO further serves as reducing agent to generate elemental silver in the alkaline condition. The as-prepared materials exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering activities when used to detect the Raman signals of R6G absorbed on the Ag/rGO substrate.
To study the activation of caspase-9 and its potential influence in conditioning, longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (STN) and psoas minor (PMi) muscles were used to analyze the ratio of pro-apoptotic bax to anti-apoptotic bcl-2 in fresh tissues and observe the changes in ATP, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-9 activity levels during storage at 4°C. Caspase-9 activity at 5 h is higher than the activity at 0 and 24 h in the muscles (P<0.001). The ATP content decreased between 0 and 3 h, between 8 and 14 h in the PMi and LT muscles (P<0.0001), whereas between 0 and 5 h, between 8 and 14 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). There is 60.2%, 55.3% and 43.1% available ATP in the STN, LT and PMi muscles at 5 h, respectively. The cytosolic cytochrome c level increased during 5 and 24 h storage in the LT and PMi muscles (P<0.0001), during 5 and 96 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). The cytosolic cytochrome c at 24 h (P<0.001) and ratio of bax to bcl-2 (P<0.05) was higher in the PMi than in other muscles. We concluded that the increase in cytosolic cytochrome c and available intracellular ATP should be responsible for the increase in caspase-9 activity; the activation of caspase-9 could be limited by the subsequent depletion of ATP; the postmortem release level of cytochrome c could be determined by the ratio of bax to bcl-2 in fresh tissues.
This study investigated the expression and functional effects, and related molecular mechanisms, of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
MicroRNA-519a and HuR messenger RNA in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. MicroRNA-519a effects on the growth of human epithelial type 2 cells were tested using an MTT assay. The influence of microRNA-519a on the expression levels of HuR and other related genes in protein was tested by Western blotting. Cell cycle analyses were performed using flow cytometry. Associations between expression levels and patients' clinical parameters were analysed with Pearson correlation analysis.
Expression of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues was significantly lower than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The expression of microRNA-519a was negatively associated with histological differentiation, tumour–node–metastasis stage, lymphatic metastasis and disease-free survival time. After increasing the level of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma human epithelial type 2 cells, cell growth was inhibited and cell cycle was arrested in the G2/M phase. MicroRNA-519a down-regulated HuR gene expression in protein levels without affecting messenger RNA levels.
MicroRNA-519a may function as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting HuR expression, and may serve as a therapeutic target for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Single crystals of the multiferroic (1 − x)BiFeO3–xPbTiO3 (BF–PT) solid solution with a nominal morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition were grown from flux. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction shows the simultaneous existence of a tetragonal, an orthorhombic, and a rhombohedral perovskite phase in the crystals. A high ferroelectric Curie point of 660 °C was found in the BF–PT crystals by dielectric measurements. The variation of the magnetic moment as a function of temperature of the BF–PT crystals measured under zero field cooling mode reveals three anomalies with the highest one around 440 K, corresponding to the antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures of the rhombohedral, orthorhombic, and tetragonal phases, respectively. These results demonstrate the intrinsic relations between the MPB phase components and the macroscopic ferroic properties.
The ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the perovskite solid solution, (1 − x)LaCrO3–xBiCrO3, have been investigated. While pure LaCrO3 does not show ferroelectric hysteresis even at 77 K, the solid solution of La1−xBixCrO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.35 displays ferroelectric hysteresis, with the remanent polarization increasing with the increase of the Bi3+ content. Using a superconducting quantum interference device, the magnetization was measured versus temperature under field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling (ZFC) conditions. Magnetic hysteresis has been found in La1−xBixCrO3 (0.1 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3) below the Néel temperature, TN. With the increase of Bi3+ content, TN decreases, while the magnetization below TN is enhanced. While the ferroelectric and magnetic properties could be due to different origins, the Bi substitution results in both ferroelectric and magnetic enhancements in the (1 − x)LaCrO3–xBiCrO3 solid solutions.
The in-plane optical anisotropy of several GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well samples
with different well widths has been measured at room temperature by
reflectance-difference spectroscopy (RDS). The RDS line shapes are found to
be similar in all the samples examined here, which dominantly consist of
two peak-like signals corresponding to 1HH
1E transition. As the well width is decreased, or the 1 ML
InAs layer is inserted at one interface, the intensity of the anisotropy
increases quickly. Our detail analysis shows that the anisotropy mainly arises
from the anisotropic interface roughness. The results demonstrate that the
RDS technique is sensitive to the interface structures.
State-of-the-art ICs for microprocessors routinely dissipate power densities
on the order of 50 W/cm2. This large power is due to the
localized heating of ICs operating at high frequencies, and must be managed
for future high-frequency microelectronic applications. Our approach
involves finding new and efficient thermally conductive materials.
Exploiting carbon nanotube (CNT) films and composites for their superior
axial thermal conductance properties has the potential for such an
application requiring efficient heat transfer. In this work, we present
thermal contact resistance measurement results for CNT and CNT-Cu composite
films. It is shown that Cu-filled CNT arrays enhance thermal conductance
when compared to as-grown CNT arrays. Furthermore, the CNT-Cu composite
material provides a mechanically robust alternative to current IC packaging
A new death line for radio pulsars is presented in this paper within the framework of vacuum gap and inverse Compton scattering (ICS) induced pair production process. The 8.5s period pulsar PSR J2144-3933 is located above the death line without any additional assumptions. An “appearance line” instead of the so-called “Hubble line”, is also presented in this paper. Both of those two lines fit observations well.
We have investigated the optical properties of asymmetric multiple layer stacked self-assembled InAs quantum dot with different interlayer. We found that asymmetric multiple stacked QD samples with In0.2Ga0.8As + GaAs interlayer can afford a 180nm flat spectral width with strong PL intensity compared to other samples at room temperature. We think this result is due to the introduction of In0.2Ga0.8As strain-reducing layer. Additionally, for the broad spectral width and the strong PL intensity, this structure can be a promising candidate for quantum-dot superluminescent diodes.
The structures of interfaces in NiAl-matrix in situ composites reinforced by TiC particulates were studied by means of high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). No consistent orientation relationship between TiC particles and the NiAl matrix was found. In most cases, TiC particles bonded well to the NiAl matrix free from any interfacial phases. However, in some cases, an interfacial amorphous layer with a thickness of about 3 nm was found. The annealed NiAl–TiC composite showed a good chemical compatibility between the TiC particles and the NiAl matrix, though, some interfacial layers between TiC and NiAl, which were determined to be C-deficient TiC, were found. NiAl precipitates were observed in the TiC particles of the annealed specimens.