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The present study deals with a theoretical investigation of a close-contact melting (CCM) process involving a vertical cylinder on a horizontal isothermal surface, where the liquid phase is a non-Newtonian viscoplastic fluid that behaves according to the Bingham model. Accordingly, a new approach is formulated based on the thin layer approximation and different quasi-steady process assumptions. By analytical derivation, an algebraic equation that relates the molten layer thickness and the solid bulk height is developed. The problem is then solved numerically, coupled with another equation for the melting rate. The new model shows that as the yield stress increases the melting rate decreases and the molten layer thickness increases. It is found that under certain conditions, the model can be reduced to a form that allows an analytical solution. The approximate model predicts an exponential dependence of both the melt fraction and the molten layer thickness. Comparison between the numerical and analytical solutions shows that the analytical approximation provides an excellent estimation for sufficiently large values of the yield stress. Dimensional analysis, which is supported by the analytical model results, reveals the dimensionless groups that govern the problem. For the general case, the melt fraction is a function of two dimensionless groups. For the analytical approximation, it is shown that the melt fraction is governed by a single dimensionless group and that the molten layer thickness is governed by two dimensionless groups.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPAA) plays a critical role in the functioning of all other biological systems. Thus, studying how the environment may influence its ontogeny is paramount to understanding developmental origins of health and disease. The early post-conceptional (EPC) period could be particularly important for the HPAA as the effects of exposures on organisms’ first cells can be transmitted through all cell lineages. We evaluate putative relationships between EPC maternal cortisol levels, a marker of physiologic stress, and their children’s pre-pubertal HPAA activity (n=22 dyads). Maternal first-morning urinary (FMU) cortisol, collected every-other-day during the first 8 weeks post-conception, was associated with children’s FMU cortisol collected daily around the start of the school year, a non-experimental challenge, as well as salivary cortisol responses to an experimental challenge (all Ps<0.05), with some sex-related differences. We investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms statistically mediated these links and, therefore, could provide cues as to possible biological pathways involved. EPC cortisol was associated with >5% change in children’s buccal epithelial cells’ DNA methylation for 867 sites, while children’s HPAA activity was associated with five CpG sites. Yet, no CpG sites were related to both, EPC cortisol and children’s HPAA activity. Thus, these epigenetic modifications did not statistically mediate the observed physiological links. Larger, prospective peri-conceptional cohort studies including frequent bio-specimen collection from mothers and children will be required to replicate our analyses and, if our results are confirmed, identify biological mechanisms mediating the statistical links observed between maternal EPC cortisol and children’s HPAA activity.
To examine factors potentially contributing to acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus initiation using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.
Sixty acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus out-patients were divided into two groups depending on whether hearing loss was aggravated or stable during tinnitus exacerbation. Total Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores and scores for the three subscales (assessing functional limitations, emotional attitudes and catastrophic thoughts) were analysed.
Total Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores did not differ between groups. In patients with acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus and aggravated hearing loss, functional subscale scores were significantly higher after acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus than at baseline, but catastrophic and emotional subscale scores did not change. In patients with acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus and stable hearing loss, emotional subscale scores were significantly higher after acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus than at baseline, but catastrophic and functional subscale scores did not change.
Elevated Tinnitus Handicap Inventory functional subscale scores might indicate further hearing loss, whereas elevated emotional subscale scores might be associated with negative life or work events.
Most knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressant drugs is at the receptor level, distal from the nervous system effects that mediate their clinical efficacy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on resting-state brain function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Fourteen first-episode drug-naive MDD patients completed two fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of escitalopram therapy. Scans were also acquired in 14 matched healthy subjects. Data were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach.
Compared to controls, MDD patients before treatment demonstrated decreased ReHo in the frontal (right superior frontal gyrus), temporal (left middle and right inferior temporal gyri), parietal (right precuneus) and occipital (left superior occipital gyrus and right cuneus) cortices, and increased ReHo in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus and left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Compared to the unmedicated state, ReHo in the patients after treatment was decreased in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus, the right insula and the bilateral thalamus, and increased in the right superior frontal gyrus. Compared to controls, patients after treatment displayed a ReHo decrease in the right precuneus and a ReHo increase in the left anterior lobe of the cerebellum.
Successful treatment with escitalopram may be associated with modulation of resting-state brain activity in regions within the fronto-limbic circuit. This study provides new insight into the effects of antidepressants on functional brain systems in MDD.
We investigated the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in livestock in northern China. Of the 163 clinical samples selected for this study, 20 were from throat swabs of dairy cows, and 143 were tissue samples (including lung tissue from one reindeer, hilar lymph node tissue from 55 cows, and liver tissue from 87 sheep). A total of 41 mycobacterial isolates were identified including two isolates of M. caprae and 39 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles of the two M. caprae isolates proved to be unique. This is the first report of M. caprae isolates from livestock in China. This study also confirms previous reports that NTM is common in livestock in northern China.
A cluster dynamics model based on rate theory has been developed to describe the accumulation and diffusion processes of helium in tungsten under helium implantation alone or synergistic irradiation with neutron, by involving different types of objects, adopting up-to-date parameters and complex reaction processes as well as considering the diffusion process along with depth. The calculated results under different conditions are in good agreement with experiments much well. The model describes the behavior of helium in tungsten within 2D space of defect type/size and depth on different ions incident conditions (energies and fluences) and material conditions (system temperature and existent sinks), by including the synergistic effect of helium-neutron irradiations and the influence of inherent sinks (dislocation lines and grain boundaries). The model, coded as IRadMat, would be universally applicable to the evolution of defects for ions/neutron irradiated on plasma-facing materials.
We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological data of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases from the largest paediatric infectious diseases centre in Shanghai between 2007 and 2010. A total of 28 058 outpatients were diagnosed with HFMD, of which 3948 (14·07%) were hospitalized, 730 (2·60%) had complications with neurological disorders and pulmonary oedema/haemorrhage, and 11 (0·04%) died. The peak season was the summer months. Boys were more affected than girls. Since 2008, the major population group affected has shifted from native Shanghainese children attending preschool to migrant children and younger children cared for at home. Children aged 1–4 years constituted 82·27% of cases. EV-A71 was tested in clinical samples taken from severe cases in 2009 and 2010, and from most inpatients in 2010. EV-A71 was positive in 99·17% and 86·31% of severe cases, respectively in 2009 and 2010. All 12 cases with pulmonary oedema or haemorrhage were infected with EV-A71. Ten (90·90%) of 11 fatal cases were attributable to EV-A71 infection. In 2010, EV-A71-positive cases accounted for 54·12% of inpatients. The dominant circulation of EV-A71 led to the outbreak of HFMD and occurrence of severe and fatal cases.
Barium lanthanum titanate-niobate (Ba1划xLaxNbyTi1划yO3) film deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by the argon ion-beam sputtering technique has been used to fabricate a thin-film resistor and a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor by standard integrated-circuit technology. Measurements show that the film resistor has superior sensitivity for visible light and a thermal sensitivity within the range 28∼400 °C, while the MIS capacitor is highly sensitive to relative humidity. The optical absorption spectrum of the film has been measured and the bandgap of the film determined. The effects of test frequency on the impedance of the film resistor at various temperatures and on the humidity-sensitive characteristics of the MIS capacitor have been investigated.
Laser structures with InGaAsP quantum well were grown on GaAs substrates in a solid source MBE system. Threshold current density Jth as low as 290A/cm2 and slope efficiency as high as 0.68W/A per facet were obtained for uncoated laser chips at 25°C. After 857 hours burn-in at 47A (corresponding to around 47W) at room temperature, power degradation rate was measured to be less than 3×10−6/h.
Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction were used to study the mechanism of the catalytic crystallization of carbon and metal dusting. The following new mechanism is proposed for metal dusting and the growth of carbon filaments. Carbon cannot crystallize well by deposition from carburizing gases at low temperature without catalytic activation because of its strong C-C bonds and high melting temperature. The poorly crystalline carbon has higher free energy than that of good crystalline carbon. To form good crystalline carbon, carbon atoms have to dissolve, diffuse through metal particles, and crystallize on a proper lattice plane that can act as a template to help the epitaxial growth of carbon crystals. Metal particles are liberated from the pure metal and alloys in this process, which leads to metal dusting attack. The decrease of free energy from highly disordered to well crystalline carbon is the driving force for metal dusting and carbon filament growth through metal particles.
GaN epilayers were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by NH3-MBE and RF-MBE (radio frequency plasma). The polarities of the epilayers were investigated by in-situ RHEED, chemical solution etching and AFM surface examination. By using a RF-MBE grown GaN layer as template to deposit GaN epilayer by NH3-MBE method, we found that not only Ga-polarity GaN films were repeatedly obtained, but also the electron mobility of these Ga-polarity films was significantly improved with a best value of 290 cm2/V.s at room temperature. Experimental results show it is an easy and stable way for growth of high quality Ga-polarity GaN films.
Understanding phonon heat conduction mechanisms in low-dimensional structures is of critical importance for low-dimensional thermoelectricity. In this paper, we discuss heat conduction mechanisms in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) structures. Models based on both the phonon wave picture and particle picture are developed for heat conduction in 2D superlattices. The phonon wave model, based on the acoustic wave equations, includes the effects of phonon interference and tunneling, while the particle model, based on the Boltzmann transport equation, treats the internal as well interface scattering of phonons. For 1D systems, both the Boltzmann transport equation and molecular dynamics simulation approaches are employed. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data suggest that the interface scattering of phonons plays a crucial role in the thermal conductivity of low-dimensional structures. We also discuss the minimum thermal conductivity of low-dimensional structures based on a generalized thermal conductivity integral, and suggest that the minimum thermal conductivities of low-dimensional systems may differ from those of their corresponding bulk materials. The discussion leads to alternative ways to reduce thermal conductivity based on the propagating phonon modes.
The bulge test is an established method of measuring the residual stress and elastic stiffness of thin-film materials. We present an advanced experimental bulge-testing system that provides advantages in speed, accuracy, and flexibility. Key innovations include the use of a Laser Doppler Displacement Meter to measure deflection, an actuated air-cylinder mechanism to vary pressure, and sophisticated computer handling of data acquisition and analysis. A test case demonstrates that repeatability of results is extremely good.
We have developed a solution delivery technique for performing copper CVD using the reduction of Cu(hfac)2 [where H(hfac) = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionel. We have obtained deposition rates of up to 3.6 mg cm−2 hr−1 (ca. 60 nm min−1) for a deposition temperature of 300 °C and reactor conditions of 40 Torr H2, 12 Torr isopropanol, and 1 Torr Cu(hfac)2. The increased rates are several times faster than growth rates observed using conventional Cu(hfac)2 sublimation with pure H2 as the carrier gas. We compare growth rates and film microstructure using TiN- and WNx-coated substrates. We also give preliminary results showing how the partial pressures of H2, i-PrOH, and Cu(hfac)2 each influence the deposition rate.
The fabrication and characterization of single element p-type SiGe/Si superlattice coolers are described. Superlattice structures were used to enhance the device performance by reducing the thermal conductivity between the hot and the cold junctions, and by providing selective emission of hot carriers through thermionic emission. The structure of the samples consisted of a 3 μm thick symmetrically strained Si0.7Ge0.3/Si superlattice grown on a buffer layer designed so that the in-plane lattice constant is approximately that of relaxed Si0.9Ge0.1. Cooling up to 2.7 K at 25 °C and 7.2 K at 150 °C were measured. These p-type coolers can be combined with n-type devices that were demonstrated in our previous work. This is similar to conventional multi element thermoelectric devices, and it will enable us to achieve large cooling capacities with relatively small currents.
A three-step baseline process for thinning of bonded wafers for applications in threedimensional (3D) integration is presented. The Si substrate of top bonded wafer is uniformly thinned to ~35 μm by backside grinding and polishing, followed by wet-etching using TMAH. No visible changes at the bonding interface and damage-free interconnect structures are observed after the thinning process. Both mechanical and electrical integrity of the bonded pairs are maintained after the three-step baseline thinning process, with electrical tests on wafers with multi-level copper interconnect test structures showing only a slight change after bonding and thinning. This thinning process works well for Si removal to an etch-stop layer, although present process uniformity is not adequate to thin bulk Si substrates. Other issues such as wafer breakage and edge chipping during Si thinning and their possible solutions are also addressed.
A brief overview of the research activities at the Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) Center is given. The goal is to achieve direct thermal to electric energy conversion with >20% efficiency and >1W/cm2 power density at a hot side temperature of 300–650C. Thermionic emission in both vacuum and solid-state devices is investigated. In the case of solid-state devices, hot electron filtering using heterostructure barriers is used to increase the thermoelectric power factor. In order to study electron transport above the barriers and lateral momentum conservation in thermionic emission process, the current-voltage characteristic of ballistic transistor structures is investigated. Embedded ErAs nanoparticles and metal/semiconductor multilayers are used to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Cross-plane thermoelectric properties and the effective ZT of the thin film are analyzed using the transient Harman technique. Integrated circuit fabrication techniques are used to transfer the n- and p-type thin films on AlN substrates and make power generation modules with hundreds of thin film elements. For vacuum devices, nitrogen-doped diamond and carbon nanotubes are studied for emitters. Sb-doped highly oriented diamond and low electron affinity AlGaN are investigated for collectors. Work functions below 1.6eV and vacuum thermionic power generation at temperatures below 700C have been demonstrated.