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Results of systematic measurements on the diffusion of radionuclides through sandy, marlaceous and clayley sediment rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are presented. The tracer nuclides used were U-233, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Ni-63. It is shown that, among other parameters, diffusion coefficients and distribution coefficients could be derived from breakthrough curves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the diffusion behaviour of nuclides such as Pb and Ni can be enhanced enormously in sediment rocks by complex forming agents (EDTA).
Results of zeta potential measurements by electroosmosis with site-specific waters and sedimentary rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are given and compared with sorption data of radionuclides obtained in batch experiments. It is shown that zeta potentials of sediment-groundwater systems in spite of being lower than the corresponding surface potentials are a sensitive indicator of interface reactions depending on the type of the sediment, ionic strength of waters, pH and temperature. Moreover, it is demonstrated that sorption data and, additionally, the influence of various parameters can often be understood by taking into account variable electrostatic forces between charged surfaces and nuclide species.
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