To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In evaluating the quality of table eggs and the developmental stages of embryonic eggs, spectroscopic techniques provide greater efficiency than traditional, time-consuming and laborious approaches. This review summarises recent developments in the spectroscopic analysis of table eggs, including the determination of the chemical composition (ratios of performance to standard deviation of 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, and protein in egg yolk and moisture and protein in egg albumen, respectively, have been reported). A Haugh unit detection accuracy RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) for quality of 6.29 was obtained by hyperspectral imaging) for table eggs and fertility detection (for white-shell eggs, fertility detection has been realised at a promising rate of 93.5%) and gender determination in hatching eggs. In conclusion, hyperspectral imaging generally outperforms visible or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy when evaluating both consumption eggs and hatching eggs, and near-infrared reflectance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibit a strong potential for gender determination prior to hatching. Scientists have attained a correct sexing rate above 90% at 3.5 d of egg incubation without removing the inner shell membrane. In the detection of blood-spot eggs or fertile eggs, eggshell colour proved to be a negative factor.
Light colors may affect poultry behaviors, well-being and performance. However, preferences of layer pullets for light colors are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the pullet preferences for four light-emitting diode colors, including white, red, green and blue, in a lighting preference test system. The system contained four identical compartments each provided with a respective light color. The pullets were able to move freely between the adjacent compartments. A total of three groups of 20 Chinese domestic Jingfen layer pullets (54 to 82 days of age) were used for the test. Pullet behaviors were continuously recorded and summarized for each light color/compartment into daily time spent (DTS), daily percentage of time spent (DPTS), daily times of visit (DTV), duration per visit, daily feed intake (DFI), daily feeding time (DFT), feeding rate (FR), distribution of pullet occupancy and hourly time spent. The results showed that the DTS (h/pullet·per day) were 3.9±0.4 under white, 1.4±0.3 under red, 2.2±0.3 under green and 4.5±0.4 under blue light, respectively. The DTS corresponded to 11.7% to 37.6% DPTS in 12-h lighting periods. The DTV (times/pullet·per day) were 84±5 under white, 48±10 under red, 88±10 under green and 94±8 under blue light. Each visit lasted 1.5 to 3.2 min. The DFI (g/pullet·per day) were 27.6±1.7 under white, 7.1±1.6 under red, 15.1±1.1 under green and 23.1±2.0 under blue light. The DFT was 0.18 to 0.65 h/pullet·per day and the FR was 0.57 to 0.75 g/min. For most of the time during the lighting periods, six to 10 birds stayed under white, and one to five birds stayed under red, green and blue light. Pullets preferred to stay under blue light when the light was on and under white light 4 h before the light off. Overall, pullets preferred blue light the most and red light the least. These findings substantiate the preferences of layer pullets for light colors, providing insights for use in the management of light-emitting diode colors to meet pullet needs.
β-Casomorphin is an opioid-like bioactive peptide derived from β-casein of milk that plays a crucial role in modulating animal’s feed intake, growth, nutrient utilization and immunity. However, the effect of β-casomorphin on lipid metabolism in chickens and its mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of β-casomorphin on fat deposition in broiler chickens and explore its mechanism of action. A total of 120 21-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers (747.94±8.85 g) was chosen and randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of five birds per replicate. Three groups of broilers were injected with 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg BW of β-casomorphin in 1 ml saline for 7 days, whereas the control group received 1 ml saline only. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of β-casomorphin to broiler chickens increased average daily gain, average daily feed intake and fat deposition, and decreased feed : gain ratio (P<0.05). The activity of malate dehydrogenase in the pectoral muscle, liver and abdominal adipose tissue was also increased along with the concentrations of insulin, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride in the plasma (P<0.05). The activity of hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue and the concentration of glucagon in the plasma were decreased by injection with β-casomorphin (P<0.05). Affymetrix gene chip analysis revealed that administering 1.0 mg/kg BW β-casomorphin caused differential expression of 168 genes in the liver with a minimum of fourfold difference. Of those, 37 genes are directly involved in lipid metabolism with 18 up-regulated genes such as very low density lipoprotein receptor gene and fatty acid synthase gene, and 19 down-regulated genes such as lipoprotein lipase gene and low density lipoprotein receptor gene. In conclusion, β-casomorphin increased growth performance and fat deposition of broilers. Regulation of fat deposition by β-casomorphin appears to take place through changes in hormone secretion and enzyme activities by controlling the gene expression of lipid metabolism and feed intake, increasing fat synthesis and deposition.
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
Hydraulic fracturing for production of oil and gas from shale formations releases fluid waste, by-products that must be managed carefully to avoid significant harm to human health and the environment. These fluids are presumed to result from a variety of fracture relaxation processes, and are commonly referred to as ‘flowback’ and ‘produced water’, depending primarily on the time scale of their appearance. Here, a model is presented for investigating the dynamics of backflows caused by the elastic relaxation of a pre-strained medium, namely a single fracture and two model fracture network systems: a single bifurcated channel and its generalization for
bifurcated fracture generations. Early- and late-time asymptotic solutions are obtained for the model problems and agree well with numerical solutions. In the late-time period, the fracture apertures and backflow rates exhibit a time dependence of
, respectively. In addition, the pressure distributions collapse to universal curves when scaled by the maximum pressure in the system, which we calculate as a function of
. The pressure gradient along the network is steepest near the outlet while the bulk of the network serves as a ‘reservoir’. Fracture networks with larger
are less efficient at evicting fluids, manifested through a longer time required for a given fractional reduction of the initial volume. The developed framework may be useful for informing engineering design and environmental regulations.
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R. padi transcriptomes with a significantly similarity (E-value < 10−5) to known chemosensory genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii. In addition, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to determine the expression profiles of obtained genes. Among these obtained genes, we selected 23 chemosensory genes to analyze their expression patterns in different tissues, wing morphs and host plants. We found that except RpOBP1, RpOBP3, RpOBP4 and RpOBP5, the rest of the selected genes were highly expressed in the head with antennae compared with body without head and antennae. Besides that, the stimulation and depression of chemosensory genes by plant switch indicated that chemosensory genes might be involved in the plant suitability assessment. These results not only provide insights for the potential roles of chemosensory genes in plant search and perception of R. padi but also provide initial background information for the further research on the molecular mechanism of the polyphagia and autumn migrants of it. Furthermore, these chemosensory genes are also the candidate targets for pest management control in future.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for determination of clothianidin in brown rice, straw, rice hull, paddy water and paddy sediment was developed and residue levels were determined in the different components. The limit of quantification was set at 0·01 mg/kg for the matrices studied. Clothianidin degradation in straw, paddy water and soil was studied, and clothianidin residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil were determined. Concurrent recoveries were between 85·6 and 92·5%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1·3 to 6·8% at three fortification levels between 0·01 and 5·0 mg/kg. The half-lives in straw, paddy water and paddy sediment were found to be 1·9–4·9, 4·1–5·0 and 4·9–6·3 days, respectively. The maximum residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil samples were 0·38, 1·88, 1·38 and 0·14 mg/kg, respectively.
Nanosecond (ns) pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is investigated numerically in an attempt to gain some new insights into the understanding of ns DBD actuation mechanism. Special emphasis is put on the examination, separation and comparison of behaviors of discharge induced micro shock wave and residual heat as well as on the investigation of response of external flow to the two effects. The shock wave is found to introduce highly transient, localized perturbation to the flow and be able to significantly alter the flow pattern shortly after its initiation. The main flow tends to quickly recover to close to its undisturbed state due to the transient nature of perturbation. However, with the shock decay and final disappearance, another perturbation source in the vicinity of discharge region, which contains contribution from both residual heat and shock, becomes increasingly pronounced and eventually develops into a perturbation wave train in the boundary layer. The perturbation is relatively weak and may not be a Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and not trigger the laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layer. Instead, it is more likely to manipulate the flow stability to achieve the strong control authority of this kind of actuation in the case of flow separation control. In addition, a parametric study over the different electrical and hydrodynamic parameters is also conducted.
There are six strains of the complete genomic sequences of black queen cell virus (BQCV) published in the GenBank, including South Africa (AF183905), South Korea (JX149531), Hungary 10 (EF517515), Poland 4 (EF517519), Poland 5 (EF517520) and Poland 6 (EF517521). Based on the six BQCV strains published in the GenBank, ten pairs of primers were designed in the present study using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to obtain the first complete genome sequence of a BQCV strain in China, called the BQCV China-JL1 strain (KP119603). A phylogenetic tree was then built to analyse their genetic relationships. The BQCV China-JL1 strain showed 86–93% similarity with the six strains published in the GenBank. The BQCV China-JL1 strain consisted of 8358 nucleotides (nt). The 5′-proximal open reading frame (ORF1) initiated at nt position 546 and terminated at nt position 4676, ORF3 initiated at nt position 4891 and terminated at nt position 5433, and the 3′-proximal ORF (ORF2) was located between nt positions 5750 and 8203.
The ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are strong interacting or merging galaxies. Statistical study shows that about ten percent of ULIRGs are QSOs or Seyfert 1 galaxies, and high–resolution HST images suggest that they are likely to be at the post merger stage. We investigate the optical spectroscopic properties for a complete sample of 28 QSOs/Seyfert 1s selected mainly from the IRAS galaxy redshift survey QDOT and 1.2 Jy catalogs. The optical spectra were obtained with the 2.16 m optical telescope of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory between October 1998 and the end of 1999. Statistical results for both continuum and emission lines show the following:
1. Most of our sample galaxies are strong or extremely strong FeII emitters with a ratio of FeII/Hβ larger than 2. There also exists an anti-correlation of the ratio of FeII/Hβ with EW(OIII) and FWHM(Hβ).
2. We fit the continuum for all sample galaxies. Aside from a few objects which could be fitted well by a power-law model, the continuum for most sample Seyfert 1 galaxies can be fitted well by a blackbody model or by composites of power–law and blackbody models. For Seyfert 1 galaxies which fit a power–law, E(B-V) is small and in the range of optically selected Seyfert 1 galaxies. However, for Seyfert 1 galaxies fitting a blackbody model, the temperature increases as E(B-V) increases. This is strong observational evidence to support the evolutionary scenario from starbursts to optical QSOs/Seyfert 1s.
3. We also discuss the possible mechanism for strong FeII emission from the point of view of evolution of mergers to AGNs.
We observed a total of 13 low-redshift AGN with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) during the course of the Astro-1 and Astro-2 missions. Of these, 4 show intrinsic Lyman-limit absorption — NGC 1068, NGC 4151, NGC 3516 and NGC 3227. AU galaxies with optically thick Lyman limits have extended narrow-line regions with bi-polar morphologies. All AGN with no absorption are Seyfert Is with compact NLRs. These observations support geometrical shadowing as the means for collimating the ionizing radiation in unified models of AGN, most likely in a photoionized atmosphere above the obscuring torus.
The first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Shanghai, China in March 2013. An additional 32 cases of human H7N9 infection were identified in the following months from March to April 2013 in Shanghai. Here we conducted a case-control study of the patients with H7N9 infection (n = 25) using controls matched by age, sex, and residence to determine risk factors for H7N9 infection. Our findings suggest that chronic disease and frequency of visiting a live poultry market (>10 times, or 1–9 times during the 2 weeks before illness onset) were likely to be significantly associated with H7N9 infection, with the odds ratios being 4·07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–12·56], 10·61 (95% CI 1·85–60·74), and 3·76 (95% CI 1·31–10·79), respectively. Effective strategies for live poultry market control should be reinforced and ongoing education of the public is warranted to promote behavioural changes that can help to eliminate direct or indirect contact with influenza A(H7N9) virus.
Based on the researches on the temperature and microstructures dependent fracture strength and temperature dependent thermal shock resistance, the new thermal shock resistance models for ultra-high-temperature ceramics were proposed. The effect of density on the fracture strength of material was investigated. A damage term was introduced to reveal the effects of uncertain factors on fracture strength. The roles of residual stress and microstructure sizes at different initial thermal shock temperatures in the thermal shock resistance were studied using the models. The study showed that the models can reveal the relationships among the residual stress, microstructure sizes and the temperature dependent thermal shock resistance well. The better thermal shock resistance is found for ultra-high-temperature ceramics having small SiC grains and relatively large micro-cracks around SiC grains. Large enhancement in thermal shock resistance can be achieved through our studies.
A numerical method based on a homogeneous single-phase flow model is presented to simulate the interaction between pressure wave and flow cavitation. To account for compressibility effects of liquid water, cavitating flow is assumed to be compressible and governed by time-dependent Euler equations with proper equation of state (EOS). The isentropic one-fluid formulation is employed to model the cavitation inception and evolution, while pure liquid phase is modeled by Tait equation of state. Because of large stiffness of Tait EOS and great variation of sound speed in flow field, some of conventional compressible gasdynamics solvers are unstable and even not applicable when extended to calculation of flow cavitation. To overcome the difficulties, a Godunov-type, cell-centered finite volume method is generalized to numerically integrate the governing equations on triangular mesh. The boundary is treated specially to ensure stability of the approach. The method proves to be stable, robust, accurate, time-efficient and oscillation-free.
Novel numerical experiments are designed to investigate unsteady dynamics of the cavitating flow impacted by pressure wave, which is of great interest in engineering applications but has not been studied systematically so far. Numerical simulation indicates that cavity over cylinder can be induced to collapse if the object is accelerated suddenly and extremely high pressure pulse results almost instantaneously. This, however, may be avoided by changing the traveling speed smoothly. The accompanying huge pressure increase may damage underwater devices. However, cavity formed at relatively high upstream speed may be less distorted or affected by shock wave and can recover fully from the initial deformation. It is observed that the cavitating flow starting from a higher freestream velocity is more stable and more resilient with respect to perturbation than the flow with lower background speed. These findings may shed some light on how to control cavitation development to avoid possible damage to operating devices.
An AlxGa1-xN/GaN-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure is developed by depositing a Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 film on a modulation-doped Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN heterostructure. In high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, the sheet concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas at the Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN interface in the MFS structure decreases from 1.56 × 1013cm-2to 5.6 × 1012cm-2under the –10 V applied bias. A ferroelectric C-V window of 0.2 V in width near –10V bias is observed, indicating that the AlxGa1-xN/GaN MFS structure can achieve memory performance without the reversal of the ferroelectric polarization. The results indicate that AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures are promising semiconductor channel candidates for MFS field effect transistors.
Magnetotransport properties of Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN modulation-doped heterostructures have been studied at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. The inter-subband scattering of the two-dimensional electron gas was observed. The inter-subband scattering is very weak and depends weakly on temperature when temperature is between 1.3 K and 10 K and becomes stronger with increasing temperature when temperature is higher than 10 K. The strain relaxation of the Al0.22Ga0.78N layer influences the inter-subband scattering. It is suggested that the inter-subband scattering is dominant by the elastic scattering when temperature is lower than 10 K, and changes to be dominant by the inelastic scattering of the acoustic phonons when temperature is higher than 10 K.
CNx films with x around 1.0 have been made by inverted cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering. RBS, XPS, IR spectroscopy, ERD and SEM were used to characterize the composition and bonding properties of the films, while X-ray diffraction was used for crystal structure determination. XPS data indicated the existence of the tetrahedral C3N4 phase in the CNx films, which was consistent with the C-N single bond suggested by IR spectra. The annealing effect on CNx films will also be discussed.
By vapor-phase pyrolysis of Fe(CO) 5 and NH3 induced by CW CO2 laser, γ'-Fe4N and ε- Fe3N nanoparticles(≤35nm) were prepared in Ar and N2 atmospheres. In Ar, γ'-Fe4N accompanied by a little α-Fe was formed at low temperatures below 650°C, while higher temperatures favored the formation of γ-Fe. In N2 atmospheres, a mixture of Fe4N and Fe3N nanoparticles were obtained at high temperatures. In addition, the influences of synthesis parameters on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were discussed.
Nanometer-scale GaN dots were successfully fabricated on sapphire using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) by two-step method, including depositing around 500 IC and annealing at 1050 °C. The density of GaN dots is from 5×108cm−2 to 6×109 cm−2, and the size is around 40nm in diameter. The density and size of GaN dots are determined by an atomic force microscope(AFM), and they are controllable by changing temperature and duration of the growing. GaN dots only formed after annealing at high temperature, which is explained that the initial layer deposited around 500 °C is a high energy intermediate phase in which the large strain energy can not be relaxed because of the low temperature growing.