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There is evidence indicating that using the current UK energy feeding system to ration the present sheep flocks may underestimate their nutrient requirements. The objective of the present study was to address this issue by developing updated maintenance energy requirements for the current sheep flocks and evaluating if these requirements were influenced by a range of dietary and animal factors. Data (n = 131) used were collated from five experiments with sheep (5 to 18 months old and 29.0 to 69.8 kg BW) undertaken at the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute of the UK from 2013 to 2017. The trials were designed to evaluate the effects of dietary type, genotype, physiological stage and sex on nutrient utilization and energetic efficiencies. Energy intake and output data were measured in individual calorimeter chambers. Energy balance (Eg) was calculated as the difference between gross energy intake and a sum of fecal energy, urine energy, methane energy and heat production. Data were analysed using the restricted maximum likelihood analysis to develop the linear relationship between Eg or heat production and metabolizable energy (ME) intake, with the effects of a range of dietary and animal factors removed. The net energy (NEm) and ME (MEm) requirements for maintenance derived from the linear relationship between Eg and ME intake were 0.358 and 0.486 MJ/kg BW0.75, respectively, which are 40% to 53% higher than those recommended in energy feeding systems currently used to ration sheep in the USA and the UK. Further analysis of the current dataset revealed that concentrate supplement, sire type or physiological stage had no significant effect on the derived NEm values. However, female lambs had a significantly higher NEm (0.352 v. 0.306 or 0.288 MJ/kg BW0.75) or MEm (0.507 v. 0.441 or 0.415 MJ/kg BW0.75) than those for male or castrated lambs. The present results indicate that using present energy feeding systems in the UK developed over 40 years ago to ration the current sheep flocks could underestimate maintenance energy requirements. There is an urgent need to update these systems to reflect the higher metabolic rates of the current sheep flocks.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
In this work, we proposed a possible mechanism for the formation S-type planet in close binaries (0.5 au < aB < 3 au). Numerical simulations showed that the maximum capture probability is ∼ 10%, which can be comparable to the tidal capture probability of hot Jupiters in single star systems. The capture probability is related to binary configurations. Furthermore, we find that S-type planets with retrograde orbits can be naturally produced via capture process. These planets on retrograde orbits can help us distinguish in situ formation and post-capture origin for S-type planet in close binaries. The forthcoming missions (PLATO or TESS) will provide the opportunity and feasibility to detect such planets.
Recent researches have showed that probiotics promote bone health in humans and rodents. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotics have the similar effects in laying hens. Ninety-six 60-week-old White Leghorn hens were assigned to four-hen cages based on their BW. The cages were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: a layer diet mixed with a commercial probiotic product (containing Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) at 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg feed (Control, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0×) for 7 weeks. Cecal Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher in all probiotic groups (P<0.001) compared with the control group. The percentage of unmarketable eggs (cracked and shell-less eggs) was decreased in both 0.5× and 2.0× groups compared with the control group (P=0.02), mainly due to the reduction of shell-less eggs (P=0.05). The increases in tibial and femoral mineral density and femoral mineral content (P=0.04, 0.03 and 0.02, respectively), with a concomitant trend of increases in humerus mineral density and tibial mineral content (P=0.07 and 0.08, respectively), occurred in the 2.0× group. However, the bone remodeling indicators of circulating osteocalcin and c-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were similar among all groups (P>0.05). In addition, the plasma concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α) and corticosterone as well as the levels of heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar between the 2.0× group and the control group (P>0.05). In line with these findings, no differences of cecal tonsil mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were detected between these two groups (P>0.05). These results suggest that immune cytokines and corticosterone may not involve in the probiotic-induced improvement of eggshell quality and bone mineralization in laying hens. In conclusion, the dietary probiotic supplementation altered cecal microbiota composition, resulting in reduced shell-less egg production and improved bone mineralization in laying hens; and the dietary dose of the probiotic up to 2.0× did not cause negative stress reactions in laying hens.
Introduction: Patients with diabetes who are in emerging adulthood, defined as the life stage between 18-29 years, have unique challenges in managing their illness and are at risk of acute complications and loss to follow-up. The studys objective was to describe emergency department (ED) utilization for hyperglycemia in emerging adults with diabetes and to characterize 30-day outcomes including return visits and admission for hyperglycemia. Methods: This was a health records review of emerging adults presenting over a one-year period to four tertiary care EDs with a diagnosis of hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Research personnel collected data on patient characteristics, treatment, disposition, and determined if patients returned to the ED for hyperglycemia within 30 days. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data where appropriate. Results: There were 185 ED encounters for hyperglycemia, representing 116 unique emerging adult patients. Mean (SD) age was 23 (3.5) years and 50.9% were female. 80 (69.0%) had known type 1 diabetes, 11 (9.5%) had type 2, and 25 (21.5%) were newly diagnosed in the ED. Of 185 visits, 98 (53.0%) resulted in hospital admission. 56 (30.3%) returned to the ED for hyperglycemia within 30 days of their initial encounter, and 21 (11.4%) resulted in admission on this subsequent visit. Conclusion: We characterized ED utilization and 30-day outcomes of emerging adults with diabetes for hyperglycemia. Future research should focus on earlier identification of those at higher risk for recurrent ED visits or admission and the efficacy of interventions to prevent these adverse outcomes.
Introduction: The Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) was developed to identify patients at risk for serious adverse events (SAE) within 30 days of an Emergency Department (ED) visit for syncope. We sought to validate the score in a new cohort of ED patients. Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study at 8 large academic tertiary-care EDs across Canada from March 2014 to Dec 2016. We enrolled adults (age 16 years) who presented within 24 hours of syncope, after excluding those with persistent altered mentation, witnessed seizure, intoxication, and major trauma requiring hospitalization. Treating ED physicians collected the nine CSRS predictors at the index visit. Adjudicated SAE included death, arrhythmias and non-arrhythmic SAE (myocardial infarction, serious structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, severe hemorrhage and procedural interventions within 30-days). We assessed area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, score calibration, and the classification performance for the various risk categories. Results: Of the 2547 patients enrolled, 146 (5.7%) were lost to follow-up and 111 (4.3%) had serious condition during the index ED visit and were excluded. Among the 2290 analyzed, 79 patients (3.4%; 0.4% death, 1.4% arrhythmia) suffered 30-day serious outcomes after ED disposition. The accuracy of the CSRS remained high with area under the ROC curve at 0.87 (95%CI 0.82-0.92), similar to the derivation phase (0.87; 95%CI 0.84-0.89). The score showed excellent calibration at the prespecified risk strata. For the very-low risk category (0.3% SAE of which 0.2% were arrhythmia and no deaths) the sensitivity was 97.5% and negative predictive value was 99.7% (95%CI 98.7-99.9). For the very high-risk category (61.5% SAE of which 26.9% were arrhythmia and 11.5% death) the specificity was 99.4% and positive predictive value was 61.5% (95% CI 43.0-77.2). Conclusion: In this multicenter validation study, the CSRS accurately risk stratified ED patients with syncope for short-term serious outcomes after ED disposition. The score should aid in minimizing investigation and observation of very-low risk patients, and prioritization of inpatient vs outpatient investigations or following of the rest. The CSRS is ready for implementation studies examining ED management decisions, patient safety and health care resource utilization.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD. Thus, we aimed to assess alterations in the inter-network interactions of these large-scale networks in IGD, and to associate the alterations with IGD-related behaviors.
DMN, ECN and SN were identified using group-level independent component analysis (gICA) in 39 individuals with IGD and 34 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs). Then alterations in the SN-ECN and SN-DMN connectivity, as well as in the modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN, using a resource allocation index (RAI) developed and validated previously in nicotine addiction, were assessed. Further, associations between these altered network coupling and clinical assessments were also examined.
Compared with HCs, IGD had significantly increased SN-DMN connectivity and decreased RAI in right hemisphere (rRAI), and the rRAI in IGD was negatively associated with their scores of craving.
These findings suggest that the deficient modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN might provide a mechanistic framework to better understand the neural basis of IGD and might provide novel evidence for the triple-network model in IGD.
Patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus may have a sentinel emergency department (ED) visit for a precipitating condition prior to presenting for a hyperglycemic emergency, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). This study’s objective was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with a sentinel ED visit prior to their hyperglycemic emergency visit.
This was a 1-year health records review of patients≥18 years old presenting to one of four tertiary care EDs with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA, or HHS. Trained research personnel collected data on patient characteristics, management, disposition, and determined whether patients came to the ED within the 14 days prior to their hyperglycemia visit. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data.
Of 833 visits for hyperglycemia, 142 (17.0%; 95% CI: 14.5% to 19.6%) had a sentinel ED presentation within the preceding 14 days. Mean (SD) age was 50.5 (19.0) years and 54.4% were male; 104 (73.2%) were discharged from this initial visit, and 98/104 (94.2%) were discharged either without their glucose checked or with an elevated blood glucose (>11.0 mmol/L). Of the sentinel visits, 93 (65.5%) were for hyperglycemia and 22 (15.5%) for infection. Upon returning to the ED, 61/142 (43.0%) were admitted for severe hyperglycemia, DKA, or HHS.
In this unique ED-based study, diabetic patients with a sentinel ED visit often returned and required subsequent admission for hyperglycemia. Clinicians should be vigilant in checking blood glucose and provide clear discharge instructions for follow-up and glucose management to prevent further hyperglycemic emergencies from occurring.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Background: Patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) often visit the emergency department (ED) for management of hyperglycemic episodes, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). It has been previously reported that risk factors for readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in DKA include older age, female sex and the presence of significant comorbidity including sepsis. However, there are no ED-based studies on this topic, particularly in a Canadian setting, and data on outcomes such as recurrent ED visits, hospital or ICU admission after discharge in these patients is lacking. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to derive and internally validate a clinical risk tool for prognosis of patients presenting with hyperglycemic emergencies to identify those at higher risk of adverse outcomes within 30 days of initial ED presentation. Methods: This will be a multicentre prospective cohort study of eligible consecutive adult patients with an ED diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA or HHS. We will include all visits of adult (≥18 years) ED patients with either a known or unknown history of DM and a diagnosis of hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11.0 mmol/L), DKA or HHS. We will include patients with co-morbid diagnoses in addition to hyperglycemia. We will exclude patients: a) with advanced care directives for resuscitation involving refusal of treatment, and b) who are initially assessed at a peripheral hospital and transferred to our sites for ongoing management. Research assistants will then contact the enrolled participants via telephone for follow-up regarding clinical outcomes, including repeat visits to see a health care provider, changes in diabetic medications, and time taken off of work or school. Participants will be followed to determine if they have further ED visits, admissions or ICU admissions after their ED visit for hyperglycemia. Data on missed patients or those who refused consent will be collected to assess for selection/enrolment bias. Statistical considerations: The primary outcome will be an unplanned return ED visit for hyperglycemia within 30 days of initial presentation. Secondary outcomes will include unplanned admission to hospital or ICU for hyperglycemia, or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Additionally, we hope to characterize patient-important and health-care system outcomes such as time taken off work or school and follow-up visits to see a healthcare provider. We will conduct descriptive statistics on investigations, treatments, disposition and patient-important outcomes. We will perform an initial univariate logistic regression, followed by a multivariate analysis to identify predictor variables associated with adverse events such as recurrent ED visits, and admission to hospital or ICU for hyperglycemia within 30 days. We will include individual patients who have multiple recurrent visits to the ED during the study period and statistically weight for these using generalized estimating equations (GEE), which are used to develop regression models for correlated data that arise from repeated measures of the same individuals over time. Finally, a clinical risk tool will be derived by rounding the beta co-efficients. Internal validation will be conducted using bootstrapping techniques. Importance: ED visits for hyperglycemia significantly affect both the healthcare system overall and the individual patient. The results of this project will assist clinicians to better identify these patients and enable them to intervene either medically or educationally to prevent subsequent visits to the ED. As a result, patients will have improved care, better blood glucose control, and be identified for closer follow-up with a family physician or diabetes specialist. Furthermore, by aiming to reduce the number of recurrent visits, this project may reduce ED utilization and the associated healthcare costs with frequent visits and admissions for hyperglycemia.
Following release by emergency department (ED) for acute heart failure (AHF), returns to ED represent important adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to document relapse events and factors associated with return to ED in the 14-day period following release by ED for patients with AHF.
The primary outcome was the number of return to ED for patients who were release by ED after the initial visit, for any related medical problem within 14 days of this initial ED visit.
Return visits to the EDs occurred in 166 (20%) patients. Of all patients who returned to ED within the 14-day period, 77 (47%) were secondarily admitted to the hospital. The following factors were associated with return visits to ED: past medical history of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft (aOR=1.51; 95% CIs [1.01-2.24]), current use of antiarrhythmics medications (1.96 [1.05-3.55]), heart rate above 80 /min (1.89 [1.28-2.80]), systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg (1.67[1.14-2.47]), oxygen saturation (SaO2) above 96% (1.58 [1.08-2.31]), troponin above the upper reference limit of normal (1.68 [1.15-2.45]), and chest X-ray with pleural effusion (1.52 [1.04-2.23]).
Many heart failure patients (i.e. 1 in 5 patients) are released from the ED and then suffer return to ED. Patients with multiple medical comorbidities, and those with abnormal initial vital signs are at increased risk for return to ED and should be identified.
Childhoods in urban or rural environments may differentially affect risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we leveraged on dramatic urbanization and rural-urban migration since the 1980s in China to explore the hypothesis that rural or urban childhoods may differentially influence memory processing and neural responses to neutral and aversive stimuli.
Explore the underlying mechanisms of childhood environment effect on brain function and neuropsychiatric risk.
We examined 420 adult subjects with similar current socioeconomic status and living in Beijing, China, but with differing rural (n = 227) or urban (n = 193) childhoods. In an episodic memory paradigm scanned in a 3 T GE MRI, subjects viewed blocks of neutral or aversive pictures in the encoding and retrieval sessions.
Episodic memory accuracy for neutral stimuli was less than for aversive stimuli (P < 0.001). However, subjects with rural childhoods apparently performed less accurately for memory of aversive but not neutral stimuli (P < 0.01). In subjects with rural childhoods, there was relatively increased engagement of bilateral striatum at encoding, increased engagement of bilateral hippocampus at retrieval of neutral and aversive stimuli, and increased engagement of amygdala at aversive retrieval (P < 0.05 FDR corrected, cluster size > 50).
Rural or urban childhoods appear associated with physiological and behavioural differences, particularly in the neural processing of aversive episodic memory at medial temporal and striatal brain regions. It remains to be explored the extent to which these effects relate to individual risk for neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Two-sided oxidation experiments were recently conducted at 1000-1200°C in flowing steam with samples of sponge-based Zr-1Nb alloy E110. Although the old electrolytic E110 tubing exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to nodular corrosion and experienced breakaway oxidation rates in relatively short time, the new sponge-based E110 has demonstrated steam oxidation behavior comparable to Zircaloy-4. The sponge-based E110 followed the parabolic law, and the derived oxidation rate constant is in good agreement with the Cathcart-Pawel (CP) correlation at 1100-1200°C. For 1000°C oxidation, the weight-gain of sponge-based E110 is much lower than Zircaloy-4. No breakaway oxidation was observed at 1000°C up to 8000 s. Ring compression tests were conducted to evaluate the residual ductility of oxidized samples at room temperature and at 135°C. All sponge-based E110 specimens were still ductile at 135°C after being oxidized up to 20% equivalent cladding reacted at 1000-1200°C. Metallographic examinations were performed on oxidized E110 specimens to correlate material performance with microstructure.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are commonly prescribed for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, their therapeutic neural mechanisms remain unclear.
After baseline evaluation including cognitive testing of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), drug-naive children with ADHD (n = 46), aged 7–17 years, were randomly assigned to a 12-week treatment with methylphenidate (n = 22) or atomoxetine (n = 24). Intrinsic brain activity, including the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), was quantified via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and week 12.
Reductions in inattentive symptoms were related to increased fALFF in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule for ADHD children treated with methylphenidate, and in the left lingual gyrus and left inferior occipital gyrus for ADHD children treated with atomoxetine. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom reductions were differentially related to increased fALFF in the methylphenidate group and to decreased fALFF in the atomoxetine group in bilateral precentral and postcentral gyri. Prediction analyses in the atomoxetine group revealed negative correlations between pre-treatment CANTAB simple reaction time and fALFF change in the left lingual gyrus and left inferior occipital gyrus, and positive correlations between pre-treatment CANTAB simple movement time and fALFF change in bilateral precentral and postcentral gyri and left precuneus, with a negative correlation between movement time and the fALFF change in the left lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital gyrus.
Our findings suggest differential neurophysiological mechanisms for the treatment effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in children with ADHD.