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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation (Wenshan, Yunnan Province, southwestern China) consists of a series of continental deposits with an outstanding plant megafossil diversity. More than 20 years ago, this formation was interpreted as ‘Siegenian' (∼Pragian) in age based on palynology. However, such interpretation needs further evidence because of the known differences between the dispersed spore assemblages from South China and Euramerica/northwestern Gondwana. Here, we present new dispersed spore assemblages recently recovered from the Posongchong Formation. The isolated spore diversity is highly diverse, with 18 genera and 32 species. The recognised taxa include, among others, Ambitisporites avitus, Aneurospora conica, Aneurospora posongchongensis sp. nov., Aneurospora xujiachongensis, Apiculiretusispora plicata, Archaeozonotriletes chulus, Concentricosisporites agradabilis, Dibolisporites echinaceus, Emphanisporites rotatus, Gneudnaspora divellomedia, Latosporites ovalis, Retusotriletes triangulatus, Tetrahedraletes medinensis and Verrucosporites polygonalis, with Aneurospora and Retusotriletes being the most abundant forms. The known Posongchong palynoflora (previous spore data included) suggests that the Posongchong Formation assemblages can be correlated with the Pragian interval of the polygonalis–wetteldorfensis Oppel Zone (PoW). This age determination is supported by the presence of index species of PoW, such as Verrucosporites polygonalis, Dictyotriletes subgranifer and Camarozonotriletes parvus (sensu Steemans, 1989), the latter being known only from the Pragian of Belgium and Germany. Recent advances in the study of the marine faunas in the overlying sequences also indicate a Pragian age for the Posongchong Formation. This new investigation of the Posongchong palynoflora highlights differences of abundance at species level between the Gondwanan–Laurussian floras during the Early Devonian.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
A new death line for radio pulsars is presented in this paper within the framework of vacuum gap and inverse Compton scattering (ICS) induced pair production process. The 8.5s period pulsar PSR J2144-3933 is located above the death line without any additional assumptions. An “appearance line” instead of the so-called “Hubble line”, is also presented in this paper. Both of those two lines fit observations well.
While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD).
Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome.
By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.22, p < 0.001] and remission (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.63, p = 0.01). Compared to escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days–2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08–1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation.
Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up early oral antidepressant efficacy.
We derive zphot for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) H-HDF-N field with the EAzY code, based on PSF-matched broad-band (U band to IRAC 4.5 μm) photometry. Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We find σNMAD = 0.029 for non-X-ray sources. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through SED fitting. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms CDF-N main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources, we improve their zphot quality (σNMAD = 0.035) by adding three additional AGN templates. We make our photometry and zphot catalog publicly available.
A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.
Preliminary geological work on samples from Davdar in China indicate that emerald occurs in quartz veins hosted within upper greenschist grade Permian metasedimentary rocks including quartzite, marble, phyllite and schist. Fluid inclusion studies indicate highly saline fluids ranging from approximately 34 to 41 wt.% NaCl equivalent, with minimal amounts of CO2 estimated at a mole fraction of 0.003. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and petrographic studies indicate the Davdar emeralds crystallized from highly saline brines in greenschist facies conditions at a temperature of ∼350°C and a pressure of up to 160 MPa. The highly saline fluid inclusions in the emeralds, the trace-element chemistry and stable isotope signatures indicate that the Davdar emeralds have some similarities to the Khaltaro and Swat Valley emerald deposits in Pakistan, but they show the greatest similarity to neighbouring deposits at Panjshir in Afghanistan.
Applying ab initio calculation and molecular dynamics simulation methods, we have been calculating and predicting the essential phase transition and self-assembly of two lower diamondoids (adamantane and diamantane), three of their important derivatives (amantadine, memantine and rimantadine), and two organometallic molecules that are built by substituting one hydrogen ion with one sodium ion in both adamantane and diamantine molecules (ADM•Na and Optimized DIM•Na). To study their self-assembly and phase transition behaviors, we built seven different MD simulation systems, and each system consisting of 125 molecules. We obtained self-assembly structures and simulation trajectories for the seven molecules. Radial distribution function studies showed clear phase transitions for the seven molecules. Higher aggregation temperatures were observed for diamondoid derivatives. We also studied the density dependence of the phase transition which demonstrates that the higher the density - the higher the phase transition points.
We describe a theory of coulomb blockade of tunneling through molecular-assembled metallic nanoparticles based on the Non-equilibrium Green's function method. We apply the theory to study current transport through a single metallic nanoparticle connected to the leads through two molecular bridges with arbitrary metal-molecule coupling and electron-molecular vibration coupling. We present model calculations of the current-voltage characteristics.
D. Niyogi, Purdue University, USA,
R. Mera, University of California at Los Angeles, USA,
Yongkang Xue, University of California at Los Angeles, USA,
G. Wilkerson, North Carolina State University, USA,
F. Booker, North Carolina State University, USA
The Alpert–Stein Factor Separation Methodology (FS) method has been utilized in the study of the biophysical response to changes in the environment to assess the relative contribution of different atmospheric factors to the biological system. In this chapter we will discuss crop simulation and land surface model-based assessments of the sensitivity to past and future changes in climatic conditions: increasing CO2, soil moisture, temperature and radiative conditions, and crop management procedures (irrigation). FS is applied to discern specific contributions to plant responses by single variables or combinations of environmental conditions. Our FS analysis has shown that it is important to understand that biological responses are inherently dependent on multiple variables in the natural world and should not be limited to assessments of single specific parameters.
In this chapter we demonstrate how the FS analysis technique is a useful tool for crop–climate change (crop-clim) studies. Important interactions between the atmosphere and biophysical processes occur under land surface and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level changes. We employ the Alpert–Stein FS Methodology (Stein and Alpert, 1993; Alpert, 1997) to investigate the direct as well as the interactive effects of soil moisture, temperature, and radiative changes on the direct effects of CO2 doubling for different land-use/vegetation types, including agricultural production.
N-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-p-phenylenediamine (NBPDA) was used as ultrahigh density data storage medium by scanning tunneling microscope (STM) technique. Data marks of 1.4nm in diameter were written by applying voltage pulses between the STM tip and the substrate. Structures of single crystal and thin films were characterized by IR, UV–Vis, XRD, STM and verified by DFT quantum chemical calculation.
Using solution chemistry, epitaxial films of rare-earth oxides of the general formula RE2O3 (where RE = Sm to Lu) were prepared on cubic-textured nickel tapes. Solutions of metal methoxyethoxides or metal acetate/methoxyethoxides in 2-methoxyethanol were used to coat rolltextured nickel tapes using either spin-coating or dip-coating. Coated tapes were subsequently heated in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between 950 °C and 1160 °C for varying lengths of time. Film quality was determined using X-ray diffraction and electron and surface probe microscopy. Films were found to be oriented both in and out-of-plane of the substrate, free of pinholes and gross defects, and of sufficient quality for use as substrates for high Tc, superconductors.
This paper studies a flexible strain sensor from PPy-coated fabric prepared by a chemical vapor deposition procedure under low temperature. The mechanisms of its strain sensing behavior were investigated. In-situ tensile tests in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted for PPy-coated electrically conducting yarns prepared in the same procedure as that for the PPy-coated fabric. The results exhibited the developed PPy-coated fabric possessed the high strain sensitivity and the large workable strain range, which attribute to the high performance of PPy-coated PU fibers and the crack-opening and crack-closing mechanism happened on the surface of PU fibers, as well as the excellent properties of knitted fabric structure.
High rate deposition of high quality and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were performed near the threshold of amorphous to microcrystalline phase transition using a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) method. The effect of hydrogen dilution on optic-electronic and structural properties of these films was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering and constant photocurrent method (CPM). Experiment showed that although the phase transition was much influenced by hydrogen dilution, it also strongly depended on substrate temperature, working pressure and plasma power. With optimized condition high quality and high stable a-Si:H films, which exhibit σph/σd of 4.4×106 and deposition rate of 28.8Å/s, have been obtained.
Conductive-polymer coated fabrics have been investigated as intelligent materials in the past years. In this paper, a flexible fabric strain sensor coated with polypyrrole is reported, which is featured with high sensitivity, good stability and large deformation. It is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. The effects of temperature, humidity, acid and alkaline medium have been assessed. The conductivity-strain tests reveal the sensor exhibits a high strain sensitivity of ~160 for a deformation as large as 50%, while its good stability is indicated by a small loss of conductivity after the thermal and humidity aging tests, and supported by the slight change in conductivity and sensitivity over a storage of eighteen months. The acid and alkaline solution mainly decreased their initial conductivity but have the slight effect to their sensitivity. The flexible fabric strain sensor is expected to be a promising “soft” smart material in the smart garment, wearable hardware and biomedical applications.
Self-assembled InAs quantum dot clusters (QDCs) and InGaAs QD molecules (QDMs) have been demonstrated through a growth technique called “droplet epitaxy” by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For QDCs, the size and density of QDs can be controlled with variation of InAs monolayer coverages. For QDMs, Ga contribution from GaAs mound with the interaction of InAs deposition resulted in various number of InGaAs QDs per GaAs mound, ranging from 2 to 6 (bi-QDMs to hexa-QDMs) depending on the specific InAs monolayer deposition. High step density on sidewall of GaAs mound and anisotropy of surface diffusion gave a rise to preferential formation of InAs and InGaAs QDs around GaAs mounds. This hybrid growth approach combining droplet epitaxy and typical QD growth is relatively simple and flexible and doesn't require further ex-situ surface preparation. This approach of QD arrangement can find applications in optoelectronics as well as physical study of QD interaction.
The reserved cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) for primary circuit piping in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant were studied. The changes of microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior were investigated using SEM, EPMA, TEM and nanoindentation after accelerated aging at 400°C for up to 10000 h. Microhardness of ferrite increased rapidly in the early stage and then increased slowly later. The impact energy of materials declined with the aging time and reduced to a very low level after aging for 10000 hours. Fracture morphology displayed a mixture of cleavage in ferrite along with dimple and tearing in austenite. Two kinds of precipitations were observed in ferrite by TEM after long periods of aging. The fine Cr-enriched α′ phases precipitated homogeneously in ferrite, and a few larger G phases were observed as well. The precipitation of α′ phases was considered to be the primary mechanism of thermal aging embrittlement in CASS.
The purpose of this study was to histologically and mechanically appraise the in vivo bone-bonding abilities of K2TinO2n+1 coated and uncoated Ti-15Mo-3Nb (TMN) implants. According to GB/T16886.6－1997 biological evaluation of medical devices Part 6:Tests for local effects after implantation, the two types of implants were implanted into the proximal metaphyses of Chinese white rabbits’ femurs for 12, 26 and 52 weeks and investigated by pushing out test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analyzer (EDX) and light microscopy. The bone-bonding abilities of the K2TinO2n+1 biocoating /Ti-15Mo-3Nb (KBT) gradient biomaterial implants were higher than those of T implants at different periods of implantation. The K2TinO2n+1 biocoating (KB) could stimulate new bone rapid formation at the early stages of implantation. And the implants with the biocoating eventually bonded to bone directly, with no intervening soft tissue layer, that was an osseocoalescence. However, the type of bone-bonding between TMN titanium alloy implants and bone was a simple osseocoaptation. The more excellent bone-bonding ability of the KBT implants should be attributed to the superficial characteristics, the bioactivity of low potassium titanate and biostability of high potassium titanate.