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This paper provides a solution to the active vibration control of a microsatellite with two solar panels. At first, the microsatellite is processed as a finite element model containing a rigid body and two flexible bodies, according to the principles of mechanics, and that the dynamic characteristics are solved by modal analysis. Secondly, the equation involving vibration control is established according to the finite element calculation results. There are several actuators composed of macro fibre composite on the two solar panels for outputting control force. Furthermore, the control voltage for driving actuator is calculated by using fuzzy algorithm. It is clear that the smart structure consists of the flexible bodies and actuators. Finally, the closed-loop control simulation for suppressing harmful vibration is established. The simulation results illustrate that the responses to the external excitation are decreased significantly after adopting fuzzy control.
Prolactin (PRL) data from adolescents treated with olanzapine are presented.
Data from 454 adolescents (13-18, mean=15.9 yrs) with schizophrenia or bipolar mania were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5-20.0mg/day) studies (4-32 weeks; 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [combined for acute phase endpoint PRL levels] with open-label extensions; 2 open-label studies). Age- and sex-specific Covance reference ranges defined normal PRL; categorical increases were based on multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). Baseline-to-endpoint PRL changes in adolescents were compared with data pooled from 84 olanzapine clinical trials in adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had mean PRL increases at both the acute (11.4μg/L) and open-label endpoints (4.7μg/L). Of those patients with normal PRL levels at baseline (N=311), high PRL occurred in 54.7% at anytime; 32.2% at endpoint. The percentage of patients in which PRL levels shifted from normal-to-abnormal was smaller at endpoint than at anytime during treatment; 26.7% shifted to a higher category. Among patients with normal baseline PRL, 32.7% remained <=1X ULN; 32.3% increased to 1¬<=2X; 6.0%, >2-<=3X; and 1.2%, >3X at anytime; 4.6% had at >=1 potentially PRL-related adverse event. Adolescents had significantly higher mean changes at endpoint (p=.004), and a greater incidence of high PRL levels at anytime during olanzapine treatment (p<.001) versus adults.
Incidence of high PRL was significantly higher, and mean increases in PRL were significantly greater in adolescents versus adults. Mean increases and high PRL incidence were lower at the open-label compared with the acute phase endpoint.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
The changes in metabolic parameters in olanzapine-treated adolescents were examined.
Data from 454 adolescents (13–18, mean=15.9 years) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5–20.0mg/day) studies (4–32 weeks). Changes in metabolic parameters in adolescents were compared with those of olanzapine-treated adults (pooled from 84 clinical trials); changes in weight and BMI were compared with US age- and sex-adjusted standardized growth curves.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had significant increases from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (p=.021); total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p<.001); and significant decreases in HDL (p<.001). Significantly more adolescents gained >=7% of their baseline weight versus adults (65.1% vs. 35.6%, p<.001); mean change from baseline-to-endpoint in weight was significantly greater in adolescents (7.0 vs. 3.3kg, p<.001). Adolescents had significantly lower mean changes from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (0.3 vs. 0.1mmol/L, p=.002) and triglycerides (0.3 vs. 0.2mmol/L, p=.007) versus adults. Significantly more adults experienced treatment-emergent normal-to-high changes at anytime in fasting glucose (4.8% vs. 1.2%, p=.033), total cholesterol (6.9% vs. 1.1%, p=.001), LDL (5.8% vs. 1.5%, p=.014), and triglycerides (25.7% vs. 17.4%, p=.030). Compared with standardized growth curves, olanzapine-treated adolescents had greater increases from baseline-to-endpoint in weight (1.0 vs. 7.1kg, p<.001), height (0.5 vs. 0.7cm, p<.001), and BMI (0.2 vs. 2.2kg/m2, p<.001).
Olanzapine-treated adolescents may gain significantly more weight compared with adults, but may have smaller changes in other metabolic parameters. Clinicians may want to consider both efficacy and changes in metabolic parameters when selecting treatment options for individual adolescent patients.
An increasing number of studies have described the relationship between velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and schizophrenia. in a family-based study, we found that rs10314, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the 3’-flanking region of the CLDN5 gene, was associated with schizophrenia among a Chinese population. High false positive rate is a common problem with the association study of human diseases. It is very important to replicate an initial finding with different samples and experimental designs.
A total of 749 patients with schizophrenia and 383 age and sex matched healthy control subjects in Chinese population were recruited. PCR-based RFLP protocol was applied to genotype rs10314 to see its disease association.
The χ2 goodness-of-fit test showed that the genotypic distributions of rs10314 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the patient group (χ2=1.12, P=0.289) and the control group (χ2=0.22, P=0.639). rs10314 was associated with schizophrenia with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 in the male subjects (χ2=5.45, P=0.02, 95% CI 1.05-1.67) but not in the female subjects (χ2=0.64, P=0.425, OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.57). the χ2 test showed a genotypic association only for combined samples (χ2=7.80, df=2, P=0.02). SNP rs10314 is a G to C base change. Frequency of the genotypes containing the C allele was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group.
The present work shows that the CLDN5 gene polymorphism is more likely to be involved in schizophrenic men than women, suggesting that this gene may contribute to the gender differences in schizophrenia.
The main aim of the present studies is to determine whether, or to some extent, specific cognitive domains could differentiate the main subtypes of mood disorder in the depressed and clinically remitted status respectively.
Three groups of bipolar I (n = 92), bipolar II (n = 131) and unipolar depression patients (n = 293) were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, contrasting with 202 healthy controls on cognitive performance.
At the acute depressive state, the three patients groups (bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression) showed cognitive dysfunction in processing speed, memory, verbal fluency and executive function but not attention compared with controls. And post comparisons revealed that bipolar I patients performed significantly worse in these impaired cognitive domain than bipolar II and unipolar depression patients in verbal fluency and executive function. After treatment, clinically remitted bipolar I and bipolar II patients only displayed cognitive impairment in processing speed and visual memory in relative to controls, while remitted unipolar depression patients showed cognitive impairment in executive function in addition to processing speed and visual memory.
Bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression patients have a similar pattern of cognitive impairment during the state of acute depressive episodes. At the clinically remission, still both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression patients showed cognitive deficits in processing speed and visual memory, and executive dysfunction might be a status-maker for bipolar disorder, but a trait-marker for unipolar depression
The main aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of a number of variables from four dimensions (clinical, psychosocial, cognitive and genetic domains) to predict the antidepressant treatment outcome, and combined the predictors in one integrate regression model with the aim to investigate which predictor contributed most.
In a semi-naturalistic prospective cohort study with a total of 241 fully assessed MDD patients, decrease in HAM-D scores from baseline to after 6 weeks of treatment was used to measure the antidepressant treatment outcome.
The clinical and psychosocial model (R2 = 0.451) showed that HAM-D scores at baseline and MMPI-2 scale paranoia was the best clinical and psychosocial predictor of treatment outcome respectively. The cognitive model (R2 = 0.502) revealed that combination of better performance on TMT-B test and worse performance on TOH and WAIS-R Digit Backward testes could predict decline in HAM-D scores. The genetics analysis only found median of percent improvement in HAM-D scores in G-allele of GR gene BclI polymorphism carriers (72.2%) was significant lower than that in non-G allele carriers (80.1%). The integrate model showed that three predictors, combination of HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, explained 57.1% of the variance.
Three markers, HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, might serve as predictor of antidepressant outcome in daily psychiatric practice.
Although alienation toward parents is important for children (for current mental health status or later interpersonal relationships in adulthood), it is undervalued and even lacks a standardized tool of assessment. Moreover, the large number of left-behind children in China is a cause of public concern. However, their experienced alienation toward their parents remains unclear, which may be important for early detection or intervention for behavioral problems in this population. Hence, the current study aimed to develop an alienation inventory for children and then use it to investigate the experienced alienation toward parents in Chinese left-behind children.
Two studies were carried out. Study 1 was designed to develop a standard inventory of alienation toward parents (IAP). In study 2, 8361 children and adolescents (6704 of them were left-behind status) of the Chongqing area, aged between 8 and 19 years old, were recruited for investigation. All participants were surveyed with a standard sociodemographic questionnaire, children's cognitive style questionnaire, children's depression inventory, adolescent self-rating life events checklist, and newly built IAP in study 1.
In study 1, we developed a two-component (communication and emotional distance) and 18-item (9 items for maternal or paternal form, respectively) IAP questionnaire. In study 2, exploratory factor analysis indicated an expected two-factor structure of IAP, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed a good reliability (0.887 and 0.821 for maternal and paternal form, respectively). Children with absent mother experienced the highest alienation toward parents. Boys as well as children aged 8–10 years old experienced higher alienation toward parents. Poor communication with parents (sparse or no connection), level of left-behind condition (parents divorced, been far away from parents), and psychosocial vulnerability (stressful life events, negative cognitive style) were risk factors of alienation toward parents.
The current study develops a two-factor (communication and emotional distance) IAP, which offers a reliable tool to assess experienced alienation of affection toward parents in children aged between 8 and 19 years old. Our result is the first investigation of experienced alienation and potential influential factors in Chinese left-behind children. The findings that children with absent mother experience higher alienation toward parents, as well as three recognized risk factors for alienation of affection toward parents (poor communication with absent parents, worse left-behind condition, and psychosocial vulnerability), give valuable guidance for parents who intend to leave or who are already leaving as well as for government policymaking.
As an epigenetic modification, DNA methylation may reflect the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of schizophrenia (SCZ). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a promising candidate gene of SCZ. In the present study, we investigate the association of COMT methylation with the risk of SCZ using bisulfite pyrosequencing technology. Significant association between DNA methylation of COMT and the risk of SCZ is identified (P = 1.618e−007). A breakdown analysis by gender shows that the significance is driven by males (P = 3.310e−009), but not by females. DNA methylation of COMT is not significantly associated with SCZ clinical phenotypes, including p300 and cysteine level. No interaction is found between COMT genotypes and the percent methylation of this gene. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that DNA methylation of COMT is able to predict the SCZ risk in males (area under curve [AUC] = 0.802, P = 1.91e−007). The current study indicates the clinical value of COMT methylation as a potential male-specific biomarker in SCZ diagnosis.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
BMI z (BMIz) score based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts is widely used, but it is inaccurate above the 97th percentile. We explored the performance of alternative metrics based on the absolute distance or % distance of a child’s BMI from the median BMI for sex and age. We used longitudinal data from 5628 children who were first examined <12 years to compare the tracking of three BMI metrics: distance from median, % distance from median and % distance from median on a log scale. We also explored the effects of adjusting these metrics for age differences in the distribution of BMI. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to compare tracking of the metrics. Metrics based on % distance (whether on the original or log scale) yielded higher ICCs compared with distance from median. The ICCs of the age-adjusted metrics were higher than that of the unadjusted metrics, particularly among children who were (1) overweight or had obesity, (2) younger and (3) followed for >3 years. The ICCs of the age-adjusted metrics were also higher compared with that of BMIz among children who were overweight or obese. Unlike BMIz, these alternative metrics do not have an upper limit and can be used for assessing BMI in all children, even those with very high BMIs. The age-adjusted % from median (on a log or linear scale) works well for all ages, while unadjusted % from median is better limited to older children or short follow-up periods.
In evaluating the quality of table eggs and the developmental stages of embryonic eggs, spectroscopic techniques provide greater efficiency than traditional, time-consuming and laborious approaches. This review summarises recent developments in the spectroscopic analysis of table eggs, including the determination of the chemical composition (ratios of performance to standard deviation of 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, and protein in egg yolk and moisture and protein in egg albumen, respectively, have been reported). A Haugh unit detection accuracy RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) for quality of 6.29 was obtained by hyperspectral imaging) for table eggs and fertility detection (for white-shell eggs, fertility detection has been realised at a promising rate of 93.5%) and gender determination in hatching eggs. In conclusion, hyperspectral imaging generally outperforms visible or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy when evaluating both consumption eggs and hatching eggs, and near-infrared reflectance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibit a strong potential for gender determination prior to hatching. Scientists have attained a correct sexing rate above 90% at 3.5 d of egg incubation without removing the inner shell membrane. In the detection of blood-spot eggs or fertile eggs, eggshell colour proved to be a negative factor.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei is the largest urban agglomeration in northern China, but the spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence in this area have been unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HBV infection and quantify the association between HBV infection and socio-economic risk factors. The data on HBV cases in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei from 2007 to 2012 was collected for each county. The Bayesian space–time hierarchy model and the GeoDetector method were used to reveal spatiotemporal patterns and detect risk factors. High-risk regions were mainly distributed in the underdeveloped rural areas in the north and mid-south of the study region, while low-risk regions were mainly distributed in the urban and western areas. The HBV annual incidence rate decreased substantially over the 6-year period, dropping from 7.34/105 to 5.51/105. Compared with this overall trend, 38.5% of high-risk counties showed a faster decrease, and 35.9% of high-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Meanwhile, 29.7% of low-risk counties had a faster decrease, and 44.6% of low-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Socio-economic factors were strongly associated with the spatiotemporal patterns and variation. The population density and gross domestic product per capita were negatively associated with HBV transmission, with determinant powers of 0.17 and 0.12, respectively. The proportion of primary industry and the number of healthcare workers were positively associated with the disease incidence, with determinant powers of 0.11 and 0.8, respectively. The interactive effect between population density and the other factors exerted a greater influence on HBV transmission than that of these factors measured independently.