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Compared with conventional identification methods, DNA-based genetic approaches such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and satellites are much more reliable for pig identification and meat traceability. In this study, multiallelic amplification fragments with multiple SNPs, incorporating the advantages of both SNPs and microsatellites, were explored for the first time for pig identification and meat traceability. Primer pairs for multiallelic fragments and their optimal SNPs were successfully selected and used for identification of individuals from Suzhong and Duroc populations. Meanwhile, the combined panel of the above mentioned primer pairs together with their optimal SNPs for Suzhong and/or Duroc pigs were validated for identification of the hybrids (Suzhong×Duroc). Therefore, we have successfully selected multiallelic amplification fragments with multiple SNPs to identify pigs and their meat samples from Suzhong, Duroc or their hybrids. Our study demonstrates that our method is more powerful for pig identification or meat traceability than SNPs or microsatellites.
Iron-deficiency anemia is a public health concern that frequently occurs in pregnant mammals and neonatal offspring. Ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate (Fe-CGly) is a newly designed iron fortifier with proven effects in iron-deficient rats and weanling piglets. However, the effects of this new compound on pregnant mammals are unknown. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe-CGly on sow reproductive performance and iron status of both sows and neonatal piglets. A total of 40 large-white sows after second parity were randomly assigned to two groups (n=20). They were receiving a diet including 80 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 or Fe-CGly, respectively, from day 85 of gestation to parturition. The serum (day 110 of pregnancy) and placentas of sows were sampled. Litter size, mean weight of live born piglets, birth (live) litter weight, number of live born piglets, and the number of still-born piglets, mummies, and weak-born piglets were recorded. Once delivered, eight litters were randomly selected from the 20 litters per treatment, and one new-born male piglet (1.503±0.142 kg) from each selected litter was slaughtered within 3 h after birth from the selected litters, without colostrum ingestion. The serum, longissimus muscle, liver and kidneys of the piglets were collected. The iron status of the serum samples and the messenger RNA level of iron-related genes in the placenta, liver and kidney were analyzed. The results showed that litter weight of live born piglets was higher (P=0.030) in the Fe-CGly group (19.86 kg) than in the FeSO4 group (17.34 kg). Fe-CGly significantly increased placental iron concentration (P<0.05) of sows. It also significantly increased iron saturation and reduced the total iron-binding capacity of piglets (P<0.05) at birth. However, the results revealed that supplementation of Fe-CGly in sows reduced liver and kidney iron concentration of neonatal piglets (P<0.05), indicating decreased iron storage. In addition, the concentration of iron in the colostrum was not significantly changed. Therefore, the present results suggested that replacement of maternal FeSO4 supplement with Fe-CGly in the late-gestating period for sows could improve litter birth weight, probably via enhanced iron transportation in the placenta.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Characterization and gene cloning of acetylecholinesterase (AChE) in the insecticide-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) insects have been reported in the past. However, the studies focused mostly on herbivorous pests, rather than predacious species, such as ladybird beetles. Using R and S Propylaea japonica (thunberg), a full-length cDNA sequence (2928 bp) of the ace1-type AChE gene was determined for the first time. The ace1 encoding a protein of 645 amino acids contained typical conserved motifs, such as FGESAG domains, catalytic triad, acyl pocket, oxyanino hole, choline binding site, peripheral anionic site, omega loop and conserved aromatic residues. R P. japonica displayed 50-times greater resistance to chlorpyrifos or mathamidophos with a significantly lower AChE sensitivity to paraoxon, malaoxon, chlorpyrifos or methamidophos than its S counterpart. Five amino acids in the ace1 of R P. japonica differed from those found in S P. japonica. One of them, F358S, located in the acyl-binding pocket, might play a crucial role in the resistance of the insect to organophosphates (OPs). Whereas, K493E and I538V, which were close to some of the conserved aromatic amino acids (i.e., H509, Y511, and W499) in the gorge, and G571R and T576A near C593 that formed the disulfide bonds with C471, might also involve in the change of insecticide resistance in P. japonica. AChE insensitivity and amino acid replacements, particularly F358S, might be the determining factors in the alteration of OPs-resistance in P. japonica.
Gamma-ray observations for Supernova remnant (SNR)-molecular cloud (MC) association systems play an important role in the research on the acceleration and propagation of cosmic-ray protons. Through the analysis of 5.6 years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope observation data, here we report on the detection of a gamma-ray emission source near the SNR Kesteven 41 with a significance of 24σ in 0.2–300 GeV. The best-fit location of the gamma-ray source is consistent with the MC with which the SNR interacts. Several hypotheses including both leptonic and hadronic scenarios are considered to investigate the origin of these gamma-rays. The gamma-ray emission can be naturally explained by the decay of neutral pions produced via the collision between high energy protons accelerated by the shock of Kesteven 41 and the adjacent MC. The electron energy budget would be too high for the SNR if the gamma-rays were produced via inverse Compton (IC) scattering off the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.
Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (P<0.05) in normal and PSE-like muscle samples after transportation. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in normal muscle samples increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with that in the controls after stress. The protein expression of HSP70 increased significantly in normal muscle samples and decreased significantly (P<0.05) in PSE-like muscles. Immuno-fluorescence showed that HSP70 was present in the cytoplasm and on surface membranes of PM muscle cells in the normal samples following stress. Meanwhile, HSP70 was present on the surface membranes and extracellular matrix but was barely visible in the cytoplasm of the PSE-like samples. Principal component analysis showed high correlations between HSP70 and meat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.
To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
Tungsten oxide (WO3) films were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Substrate temperature and sputtering pressure were adjusted to vary the microstructure. The films were found to contain nanoclusters; while their size L, and porosity θ and surface roughness zRMS of the film can be varied. After adding a palladium coating on the film surface, the hydrogen (H2) sensing properties of the films, including sensitivity of detection, response time and recovery time were measured. Their dependences on L, θ and zRMS were analyzed and interpreted. The information achieved is useful for improving H2 sensor technology.
To explore the pathology, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and prognosis of primary temporal inverted papilloma.
We present one of the first reported cases of primary temporal inverted papilloma with premalignant change. The available data are reviewed.
To the best of our knowledge, only 10 evaluable cases of this tumour have been reported. The recurrence rate is higher for this tumour than for sinonasal inverted papilloma.
Primary temporal inverted papilloma is extremely rare, and its diagnosis should be made only following clinical exclusion of sinonasal papilloma. Therapy mainly comprises radical resection of the lesion, and long-term post-operative follow up is mandatory.
We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa.
The clinical, radiological and intra-operative findings of the patient are presented.
A five-year-old girl presented to our hospital with symptoms in the left ear consistent with middle-ear effusion. A congenital cholesteatoma was not suspected until an enlarging mass in the anteroinferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane was observed. Radiological studies revealed that the mass was located largely in the infratemporal fossa, with limited extension into the tympanic cavity. The patient underwent surgical treatment, which confirmed the clinical and radiological findings.
This patient's clinical, radiological and intra-operative findings strongly suggested the infratemporal fossa as the site of origin of her congenital cholesteatoma.
In situ X-raydiffraction measurements on almandine, (Fe0.86Mg0.07Mn0.07)3Al2Si3O12, were performed using a heating diamond-anvil cell instrument with synchrotron radiation at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilityup to 27.7 GPa and 533 K. The pressure-volume-temperature data were fitted to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The isothermal bulk modulus of K0 = 177±2 GPa, a temperature derivative of the bulk modulus of (∂K/∂T)P= –0.032±0.016 GPaK–1 and a thermal expansion coefficient (α0) of (3.1±0.7)×10–5 K–1 were obtained. This is the first time that the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus of almandine has been determined at high pressure and high temperature. Combining these results with previous results, the compositional dependence of the bulk modulus, thermal expansion, and temperature derivative of the bulk modulus are discussed.
A series of complex perovskite solid solutions of
Ba[(Mg1−xCdx)0.33Nb0.67]O3 have been synthesized by the columbite method. Detailed Rietveld refinement of their X-ray diffraction data show that
Ba[(Mg1−xCdx)0.33Nb0.67]O3 has an order trigonal structure. The ordering degree as determined by the B-site occupancies increases with the partial substitution of Cd for Mg. However, a decrease in the ordering degree in the
Ba(Cd0.33Nb0.67)O3 sample is observed, which can be attributed to a relatively lower synthesis temperature. All the impurity phases are successfully identified by X-ray quantitative phase analysis. Dielectrics properties at low frequencies for all the
Ba[(Mg1−xCdx)0.33Nb0.67]O3 compounds have been measured successfully.
The objectives of this study were to determine true phosphorus (P) digestibility, degradability of phytate-P complex and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding in weanling pigs by using the simple linear regression analysis technique. Six barrows with an average initial body weight of 12.5 kg were fitted with a T-cannula and fed six diets according to a 6 × 6 Latin-square design. Six maize starch-based diets, containing six levels of P at 0.80, 1.36, 1.93, 2.49, 3.04, and 3.61 g/kg per kg dry-matter (DM) intake (DMI), were formulated with brown rice. Each experimental period lasted 10 days. After a 7-day adaptation, all faecal samples were collected on days 8 and 9. Ileal digesta samples were collected for a total of 24 h on day 10. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values of brown rice were affected ( P < 0.01) by the P contents in the assay diets. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values increased from − 48.0 to 36.7% and from − 35.6 to 40.0%, respectively, as P content increased from 0.80 to 3.61 g/kg DMI. Linear relationships ( P < 0.05), expressed as g/kg DMI, between the apparent ileal and faecal digestible P and dietary levels of P, suggested that true P digestibility and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding could be determined by using the simple regression analysis technique. There were no differences ( P>0.05) in true P digestibility values (57.7 ± 5.4 v. 58.2 ± 5.9%), phytate P degradability (76.4 ± 6.7 v. 79.0 ± 4.4%) and the endogenous P outputs (0.812 ± 0..096 v. 0.725 ± 0.083 g/kg DMI) between the ileal and the faecal levels. The endogenous faecal P output represented 14 and 25% of the National Research Council (1998) recommended daily total and available P requirements in the weanling pig, respectively. About 58% of the total P in brown rice could be digested and absorbed by the weanling pig. Our results suggest that the large intestine of the weanling pigs does not play a significant role in the digestion of P in brown rice. Diet formulation on the basis of total or apparent P digestibility with brown rice may lead to P overfeeding and excessive P excretion in pigs.
In order to study the preferred crystal orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite
protective layers in PDP, Mg-Zr-O composite protective layers were deposited
by Electron-beam Evaporator using (MgO+ZrO2) powder mixture as
evaporation source material. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to
determine preferred crystal orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite protective
layers, surface morphologies of films were analyzed by FESEM and voltage
characteristics were examined in a testing macroscopic discharge cell of
AC-PDP. On the basis of experimental analysis, the influence of oxide
addition and deposition conditions on preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O
composite protective layers were investigated. The results showed that the
preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O films were determined by lattice
distortion of MgO crystal. The deposition conditions have great effects on
the preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O films. The preferred orientations
affect voltage characteristics through affecting surface morphology of
Mg-Zr-O films. A small amount of Zr solution in MgO can decrease firing
voltage compared with using pure MgO film. Firing voltage is closely related
with the [ ZrO2/(MgO+ZrO2)] ratio of evaporation source materials.