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Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei is the largest urban agglomeration in northern China, but the spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence in this area have been unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HBV infection and quantify the association between HBV infection and socio-economic risk factors. The data on HBV cases in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei from 2007 to 2012 was collected for each county. The Bayesian space–time hierarchy model and the GeoDetector method were used to reveal spatiotemporal patterns and detect risk factors. High-risk regions were mainly distributed in the underdeveloped rural areas in the north and mid-south of the study region, while low-risk regions were mainly distributed in the urban and western areas. The HBV annual incidence rate decreased substantially over the 6-year period, dropping from 7.34/105 to 5.51/105. Compared with this overall trend, 38.5% of high-risk counties showed a faster decrease, and 35.9% of high-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Meanwhile, 29.7% of low-risk counties had a faster decrease, and 44.6% of low-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Socio-economic factors were strongly associated with the spatiotemporal patterns and variation. The population density and gross domestic product per capita were negatively associated with HBV transmission, with determinant powers of 0.17 and 0.12, respectively. The proportion of primary industry and the number of healthcare workers were positively associated with the disease incidence, with determinant powers of 0.11 and 0.8, respectively. The interactive effect between population density and the other factors exerted a greater influence on HBV transmission than that of these factors measured independently.
The response of soil microbial communities to soil quality changes is a sensitive indicator of soil ecosystem health. The current work investigated soil microbial communities under different fertilization treatments in a 31-year experiment using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The experiment consisted of five fertilization treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), low manure rate and chemical fertilizer (LOM), and high manure rate and chemical fertilizer (HOM). Soil samples were collected from the plough layer and results indicated that the content of PLFAs were increased in all fertilization treatments compared with the control. The iC15:0 fatty acids increased significantly in MF treatment but decreased in RF, LOM and HOM, while aC15:0 fatty acids increased in these three treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to determine factors defining soil microbial community structure using the 21 PLFAs detected in all treatments: the first and second PCs explained 89.8% of the total variance. All unsaturated and cyclopropyl PLFAs except C12:0 and C15:0 were highly weighted on the first PC. The first and second PC also explained 87.1% of the total variance among all fertilization treatments. There was no difference in the first and second PC between RF and HOM treatments. The results indicated that long-term combined application of straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices improved soil microbial community structure more than the mineral fertilizer treatment in double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space–time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. The highest risk period was in the summer, with an average monthly incidence of 4·17/103, whereas the index in wintertime was 0·16/103. Meteorological variables influenced temporal changes in HFMD. A 1 °C rise in air temperature was associated with an 11·5% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·122). A 1% rise in relative humidity was related to a 9·51% increase in the number of HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·100). A 1 hPa increment in air pressure was related to a 0·11% decrease in HFMD (corresponding RR 0·999). A 1 h increase in sunshine was associated with a 0·28% rise in HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·003). A 1 m/s rise in wind speed was related to a 6·2% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·064). High-risk areas were mainly large cities, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and their neighbouring areas. These findings can contribute to risk control and implementation of disease-prevention policies.
In nanocrystalline (nc) metals, it is still not clear how local grain boundary (GB) structures accommodate GB migration at atomic scales and what dominates the motion of atoms at the inherently unstable GB front. Here, we report the adjustment of the local GB structures at atomic scales during self-driven GB migration, simultaneously involving GB dissociation, partial dislocation emission from GB, and faceting/defaceting in the nc Cu. Furthermore, we reveal that the fundamental of GB migration ability is closely related to the local structure, i.e. the GB segment consisting of “hybrid” structural units and delocalized GB dislocations is relatively unstable.
The false thyroid capsule is an important anatomical structure involved in thyroidectomy, yet it is rarely studied. This study aimed to define the anatomy of the false thyroid capsule, and its clinical significance.
A prospective study was performed involving 151 patients with goitre who underwent thyroid lobectomy. The anatomy of the false thyroid capsule was carefully documented intra-operatively.
The false thyroid capsule enclosed the inferior and middle thyroid veins and the superior thyroid vessels, forming a mesentery-like structure by attaching to the gland. Once the unilateral lobe had been removed, the thyroid mesentery could be seen to have a C-shaped edge. The recurrent laryngeal nerve, inferior thyroid artery and parathyroid glands were located beneath the C-shaped edge of the thyroid mesentery.
The thyroid mesentery is a distinctive structure that can be used as a guide for surgical dissection.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
To review the genotype and cochlear implantation outcome of patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.
Twenty-one Chinese children with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct underwent genetic examination. A DNA microarray was used to screen for the IVS7-2A>G and H723R mutations. Any DNA samples with one or none of the two mutant alleles were sequenced to detect other mutations in the SLC26A4 and FOXI1 genes.
Twelve SLC26A4 mutations were detected, including three novel mutations. The most common mutations detected were IVS7-2A>G and H723R. Twelve patients received cochlear implants, and subsequently demonstrated excellent speech perception.
Three novel mutations were detected in Chinese patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct. The SLC26A4 mutation spectrum in the Chinese population is similar to that in other East Asian populations. Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective treatment in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct.
Over the past decade, the PV industry has witnessed tremendous growth in manufacturing scale and technology advancement, with PV generated electricity cost ever approaching grid parity. Among them, Si based thin film technology has made substantial progress in demonstrating its inherent advantages in lower material cost, ease of manufacturing and higher energy yield, etc. More recently, reduced product prices and competing technologies from crystalline silicon and other thin film technologies have made amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based thin film technology very challenging, and requires further increase in module efficiency and decrease in manufacturing cost. As one of the few companies in the world with significant manufacturing capacity for tandem thin film Si PV products, Chint Solar (Astronergy) has been at the forefront of technology development for the mass production of large-scale (Gen. 5, 1.43m2) Si thin film solar modules in the last 5 years. We will review major technology advancements which have been mass production proven and led to the mass produced tandem silicon thin film module with 10.0% plus stabilized efficiency, along with the field performance of those modules.
A total of 100 serum samples including 22 acute phase sera and 39 paired sera collected from clinically diagnosed cases of leptospirosis in Ming-shan County, Sichuan Province, China were examined by the one-point microcapsule agglutination test (MCAT), which was developed in Japan, and by conventional microscopic agglutination tests (MAT). The one-point MCAT is more reactive to IgM antibody than MAT and is superior in detecting antibodies in the early stages of the disease.
Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PZT) films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using hydrogen peroxide as a source of reactive oxygen. Phase composition as well as structural and electrical properties of the films were studied by x-ray diffractometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, and electrical (I-V and polarization-field) measurements. The hydrogen peroxide pressure was found to control the phase composition of the films. Excess peroxide leads to PbO inclusions in PZT layers, whereas deficiency results in the TiO2 or the ZrO2 phase. The second-phase inclusions can be responsible for high leakage current in the films. Precise control over the peroxide pressure is imperative for single-phase PZT films with good ferroelectric properties.
This paper presents an approach for decoding the pressure information exerted over a piece of fabric by means of resistive sensing. The proposed sensor includes a distributed resistive grids constructed by two systems of orthogonally contacted electrical conductive yarns, with no external sensing element to be attached on the fabric. Since the conductive yarns serve as the sensing and wiring elements simultaneously, this design simplifies the fabrication process, reduces the cost and makes the production of large area flexible pressure sensor possible. The location of the pressure applied on the fabric can be identified by detecting the position where the change of the resistances occurs between two embroidered yarns. Meanwhile, the magnitude of the pressure can be acquired by measuring the variations of the resistance. In order to eliminate the “crosstalk” effect between adjoining fibers, the yarns were separately wired on the fabric surface.
A twenty-year follow-up study was carried out at Baiyun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine in China, This mine has been mined since 1958. Its ore contains 0.04% of ThO2 and 10% of SiO2. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible health effects in dust-exposed miners following long-term exposure to thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. By using the negative high voltage exhaled thoron progeny measurement system to estimate the miner’s thorium lung burden. The highest thorium lung burden among 1 158 measurements of 638 miners was 11.11 Bq. The incidence of stage 0+ pneumoconiosis was increased among dust-exposed miners. An epidemiological study showed that the lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners was significantly (p < 0.005) higher than that of the non-exposed group. It is suggested that the difference results in the long-term exposure to thorium-containing dusts (carcinogens are ThO2 and SiO2) and thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation for the dust-exposed miners and the controls were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively.
Metallic manganite oxides, La1-xDxMnO3 (D=Sr, Ca, etc.), display “colossal” magnetoresistance (CMR) near their magnetic phase transition temperatures (Tc) when subject to a Tesla-scale magnetic field. This phenomenal effect is the result of the strong interplay inherent in this class of materials among electronic structure, magnetic ordering, and lattice dynamics. Though fundamentally interesting, the CMR effect achieved only at large fields poses severe technological challenges to potential applications in magnetoelectronic devices, where low field sensitivity is crucial. Among the objectives of our research effort involving manganite materials is to reduce the field scale of MR by designing and fabricating tunnel junctions and other structures rich in magnetic domain walls. The junction electrodes were made of doped manganite epitaxial films, and the insulating barrier of SrTiO3. The interfacial expitaxy has been imaged by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We have used self-aligned lithographic process to pattern the junctions to micron scale in size. Large MR values close to 250% at low fields of a few tens of Oe have been observed. The mechanism of the spin-dependent transport is due to the spin-polarized tunneling between the half-metallic electrodes, in which the spins of the conduction electrons are nearly fully polarized. We will present results of field and temperature dependence of MR in these structures and discuss the electronic structure of the manganite inferred from tunneling measurement. Results of large MR at low fields due to the grain-boundary effect will also be presented.
Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) and metal containing DLN (Me-DLN) films, synthesized in a combined process of deposition of carbon-silicon precursor and magnetron sputtering of a metal target, have been examined by Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman and IR spectroscopy, nanoindentation and internal stress measurements. The stability of the films under ion and electron irradiation and thermal annealing has been tested.
Well-resolved band-edge exciton photoluminescence (PL) has been observed in strained Si1-xGex. heterostructures grown on Si(100) by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition. The luminescence is due to shallow-impurity bound excitons at low temperatures (under 20K) and at higher temperatures is due to free excitons or electron-hole plasmas, depending on the pump power. The luminescence can also be electrically pumped, with both the electroluminescence and PL persisting above room temperature in samples with a sufficient bandgap offset. Loss of carrier confinement and subsequent non-radiative recombination outside the Si1-xGex. is found to be the reason for reduced PL and EL at high temperature.
We have observed photoluminescence from strained SiGe quantum well layers at energies approximately equal to twice the SiGe band-gap energy. This luminescence is caused by the simultaneous recombination of two electron hole pairs yielding a single photon. Detection of luminescence at twice the band-gap has been previously used in Si to observe luminescence originating from electron-hole droplets, biexcitons, bound multiexciton complexes and polyexcitons. Time resolved spectra at twice the band-gap have been obtained from our SiGe samples prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MIRE) as well as rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). This new luminescence clearly distinguishes multiexciton or dense e-h plasma processes from single exciton processes such as bound excitons, free excitons or localized excitons, which are difficult to separate in the usual nearinfrared luminescence.
Well-resolved band edge photoluminescence spectra were obtained from SiGe quantum wells of various widths. In addition to the usual shallow bound exciton features, we observed a highly efficient deeper luminescence process, under conditions of low excitation density, in thick SiGe quantum wells. This luminescence band can be attributed to excitons localized by fluctuations in alloy concentration. The binding energy of the localized exciton feature is found to decrease with decreasing well width. In the thinnest quantum well samples only a single luminescence feature is observed at all power levels, while in several other thin quantum well samples having very sharp lines the localized exciton feature appears at higher energy than the bound exciton. Despite these changes in the spectra, the localized exciton luminescence could be identified in all cases by its characteristic intensity saturation at low excitation power density, as well as its slow decay time (∼ 1 ms). The mechanism behind the changes in the localized exciton luminescence may originate from limiting the exciton motion to two dimensions in thin wells, which at low temperatures would hinder migration to the lowest energy alloy fluctuation centers.
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