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To probe the factors that contributes to the relapse of the major depression after being hospitalized for a period of three consecutive months in a psychiatric clinic.
Material & methods
22 patients (8 men) who were in the clinic were examined (average age 49.2, SD=7.2) suffering from major depression and who fully recovered between episodes. The criteria for their participation in the sample were according to DSM-IV®, and the >2 relapses/year.
By the stepwise multiple regression analysis it was found that by hierarchy the factors that cause the relapse are, the fact that the patient does not respond to the first antidepressant treatment (parameter estimate p< 0.002), child or teenage depression background (p< 0.002), the presence of stressful facts (diseases, financial problems, loss of 1st degree relatives, p< 0.004) and the co morbidity with character disorders in the II (p< 0.01) axis.
The importance of a negative outcome of the major depression should be co estimated with the danger of self-destruction as a result of the illness, the difficulties of the interpersonal relationships, the professional activities, the impact on the family, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. and mainly the empirical impact on the patient.
Of this project was to study the characteristics of stress and depression in mental health professionals and the degree at which they are affected by demographic factors.
Material - method
The sample of the study includes 62 mental health professionals. An anonymous closed questionnaire by Bedford & Foulds was used. The data analysis was made with the use of SPSS 16.0.
Two factors were found statistically essential; the age[F(5,41)=0,52 p=0,004] and the marital statue [F(5,41)=0.49 p=0.008]. The married people seem to statistically develop higher anxiety (p=0,001), higher tension (p=0,002) and higher insomnia (p=0,001) in comparison to the singles, the divorced and the widows/widowers. The singles seem to keep more calm (p=0.014) in comparison to the married and the divorced (p=0.001).Working people aged 35-49 experience more intense sorrow than the other age groups (p=0,003), more intense feelings of panic (p=0,018) and tension (p=0,049). The age groups in stressful or depression situations diversify their needs as regards smoking, with the 35-49 age group being the heaviest smokers (p=0,029).
It is discovered that a different defense mechanism is used by mental health professionals as regards their marital statue and their age, developing sleeping disorders, increase in smoking and sadness elements indifference for the future, more often.
The objective of the present work was the investigation of the general health level and factors that influence the job satisfaction in a sample of health care workers that they serve in primary, secondary and tertiary health care in Central Greece.
Materials and methods
500 professionals of health were administered:
a) a closed type questionnaire of job satisfaction evaluation, based on Likert scale, and
b) the questionnaire of general health GHQ-28.
Health Care Workers in the 2 general hospitals and in the health centers of Lamia and Larissa, as well as in the Regional University Hospital of Larissa participated in the study. 386 sufficiently filled in questionnaires were evaluated. Statistics was processed with SPSS (version 15.0). Level of statistical importance was considered at p < 0.05.
93 participants (24,1%) were men and 291 (75,4%) were women. The work load, the occasions of development and the collaboration with colleagues were the critical factors in which the nurses exhibited worse statistically significantly scores in comparison with the other groups of health professionals. In the factor “job satisfaction” the nurses had lower scores (intermediate =3, IQR=2-5) compared with non- nurses (intermediate = 5, IQR=3-6) p< 0,001. In the same parameters the workers in the hospitals presented with worse scores than the workers in the health centers. The anxiety level stress of nurses is high.
The nurses constitute the group of health care workers with the lower job satisfaction and the highest anxiety levels.
Depression is a dysfunction with great range of demonstrations and according to researches appears at person with diabetes mellitus two or three times more than in general population. The knowledge although about the reasons and the way that depression affects the management of diabetes are limited.
Of this study was the examination of existence of possible depression at patients with diabetes mellitus.
164 diabetics were studied (72 male and 92 female, medieval age 66,9 ± 11,53 years) at diabetic clinics. We used the self evaluation scale of Zung (ZDRS) and structured questionnaire about demographical and body measure data.
The statistic analysis was done with the statistic package SPSS 18.0.
57,3% of diabetics were overweight, and 30,5% obese, with high rates of central obesity (83,3% at males and 92,4% at females), while the big Index of Body Maze [r = 0,309, p = 0,001] and central obesity [t(162)=4,773, p = 0,001] were related significantly with depression. 50% of diabetics appeared depression symptoms at mild levels and 20% at medium levels, with the females [t(162)=3,26, p = 0,001] and elder to be related statistically significant with depression.
The majority of the sample appeared a level of mild or medium depression and correlation was observed between bad glycemic examinations. The daily and for many years effort of diabetes control can create the suitable situation for depressive symptomatology appearance. The examination and evaluation of the causative factors can help at the adaptation of diabetic and the solution of his problems.
Anxiety is considered to be a situation of agony, anguish and is being experienced as psychological pressure. At Mental Health Professionals’ work environment, a lot of factors may contribute to anxiety appearance and create the conditions of depression symptomatology development. The smoking habit is being connected with a great range of psychiatric diagnosis, including anxiety and depression.
Of this study was the examination of the relationship of smoking habit with the appearance of anxiety and depression at Mental Health Professionals.
317 mental health professionals were being examined (144 male, 173 female, with medieval age 38, 64 ± 7,945 years) and their smoking habits were recorded. For anxiety and depression examination the DSSI/Sad QUESTIONNAIRE was being used. The analysis of data was done by the use of statistical package SPSS 16.0.
Smokers have higher levels of depression (t(315) = 2,417, p = 0,016) as well as of anxiety (t(315) = 2,219, p = 0,027). However no one of the specific degrees was related with the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers (r = 0,022, p = 0,777 for depression, r = 0,133, p = 0,084 for anxiety)
The smoking habit appeared to be related with anxiety and depression, it cannot although be considered as the reason but as the result of emotional difficulty of the participants. Even though smoking decreases the privative symptoms, it does not decrease the anxiety and the depression or the confrontation of their deeper reasons. It is being seen the need of development and materialization of interventions of effective support for Mental Health Professional at their own work environment.
The presence of macro vascular diseases is common among patients with diabetes mellitus, with result the increase of danger for depression appearance.The attack of greater vessels (macro vascular disease) conducts to the appearance of coronary disease, vascular brain episodes(strokes) and peripheral vasculopathy.
of this study was the examination of the relation between depression and the existence of macro vascular diseases at patients with diabetes mellitus type II.
164 diabetics were examined (72 male and 92 female, medieval age 66,9 ± 11,53 years), at diabetological clinics. The tools that were used at this study was the scale of depression self evaluation of Zung and a structured questionnaire about the existence of macro vascular diseases. The analysis was done with the statistic package SPSS 18.0.
64,6% of diabetics reported hypertension and 61% dyslipidemia, 30,5% suffered from coronary disease and 26.2% of vascular brain episode (stroke), while 13,4% suffered from heart attack and 19,5% from other diseases. 50% of diabetics had depression at mild levels and another 20% at medium levels.
The majority of the sample appeared mild or medium degree depression and relation was observed between accompanying macro vascular diseases. The coronary disease, hypertension and dyslipidemia seemed to be independent prognostic factors of depression even after the abstraction of age effect and diseases duration effect, while the depressive effect of heart attack or stroke seemed to be effected mainly by age.
Stress and depression are among the most common complaints in primary healthcare settings.
To investigate stress and depression levels in chronic patients of a rural area.
Materials and methods:
118 chronic patients (53 males and 65 females, mean age 61 ± 4 years) that used primary healthcare services during the first three months of this study were interviewed. the Personal Disturbance Scale (DSSI/sAD), the Zung self-rating scale, and a structured demographic questionnaire were the tools used by the researchers. Statistical analysis was done with the SPSS 18.0 software.
The majority of our sample were living permanently in the area, 52% were married, and 73% had completed primary education. 76% complained of hypertension, 51% had dyslipidemia, and 28% suffered from stress and anxiety disorders under treatment. 61% had sleep problems, and 40% reported they had an undefined sense of unhappiness. Sexual dysfunction, eating disorders and pessimism about the future showed the worst Zung total scores. the analysis showed that coronary disease, hypertension and dyslipidemia seem to be independent prognostic factors for depression and anxiety disorders even after excluding age (r = 0,307, p = 0,001).
Early detection and management of mental disorders, as well as the identification of contributing factors to these disorders, seem to be key targets of primary health care.
The last decade the parents of autistic children have become objects of many controversial studies and theories. A lot of studies have revealed a positive relationship between father's age and the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders.
In the present study, we investigated the association between paternal age and an increased risk of autism in offspring.
Samples consist of 88 autism cases from the Children's Health Center of Thessaly, Greece. Each case was matched with questionnaire on parental education, child's gender, dominant hand, presence of seizures. Six categories of paternal age were created. the relationship between the variables was investigated using Cramer's V correlation coefficient and chi-square tests to explore the relationship between categorical variables. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v. 18.0 (SPSS) was used.
The data show a significant association between higher paternal ages and an increased risk of autism presented a strong, positive relation (Cramer's v = 0.468; p = 0.001< 0.05). An analysis of the combined effect of the incidence rates seizures (30%), offspring's gender (65.9%) male and (34.1%) female were found. in addition, the data shows the right hand is used (67%) more than the left (33%), furthermore the education also revealed that parents with higher education had an increased risk of having autistic children.
Our study provides evidence of the association of paternal age and risk of autism. However, the findings in our sample do not constitute a causal relationship but lay the foundations for thought and further research.
This study examines the clinical and familial correlates of bipolar disorder (BPD) when it occurs with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity in a well characterized research referred population of youth with BPD. We hypothesized that in youth with BPD the clinical and familial correlates of BPD will be comparable irrespective of the comorbidity with ASD.
Clinical correlates and familial risk was assessed using data from a large family study of youth with bipolar I disorder (BPD-I; probands N = 157; relatives N = 487). Findings in BPD-I youth were compared with those of youth with ADHD without BPD-I (probands N = 162; relatives N = 511) and age and sex matched controls without BPD-I or ADHD (probands N = 136; relatives N = 411). All subjects were comprehensively assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of non overlapping measures assessing multiple dimensions of functioning.
Thirty percent (47/155) of the BPD-I probands met criteria for ASD. The age at onset of BPD was significantly earlier in the presence of ASD comorbidity (4.7±2.9 vs. 6.3±3.7 years; p = 0.01). The phenotypic and familial correlates of BPD were similar in youth with and without ASD comorbidity.
A clinically significant minority of youth with BPD-I suffers from comorbid ASD. Phenotypic and familial correlates of BPD were typical of the disorder in the presence of ASD comorbidity. BPD-I comorbidity with ASD represents a very severe psychopathologic state in youth.
Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders, with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide.
While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified.
To assess the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these euphoric versus irritable pediatric mania.
Systematic review of the available studies assessing the phenomenology, course and outcome of pediatric mania.
Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95–100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age.
Severe irritability is the most common presentation of abnormal mood described in children with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies of samples with irritable versus elated mood presentation and chronic versus episodic course may help clarify whether these are factors predicting different long-term course, treatment-response and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We aim to study of the formation and evolution of galaxies with high spatial and temporal
resolution. We describe a new chemodynamical code to describe the physical interplay
between the stars and the multiphase interstellar medium in galaxies, including a dust
component. Preliminary results can be found in Champavert (2007).
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of gas dynamics are used to study the flow
pattern in a close binary system after it has reached the steady-state accretion regime.
It is shown that an additional spiral density wave can exist in the inner parts of the
cold accretion disk, where gas-dynamical perturbations are negligible. This spiral wave is
due to the retrograde precession of the flowlines in the binary system. It is found that
shape and position of a substantial part of the disk are specified by a precessional
density wave. On timescales comparable to the orbital period, the precessional wave (and
hence an appreciable fraction of the disk) will be virtually stationary in the observer’s
frame, whereas the positions of other elements of the flow will vary due to the orbital
rotation. The periodic variations of the positions of the disk and the bow shock formed
when the inner parts of the circumbinary envelope flow around the disk result in
variations of both the rate of angular-momentum transfer to the disk and the flow
structure near the Lagrange point L3. All these factors lead to a periodic
increase of the matter flow into the outer layers of the circumbinary envelope through the
vicinity of L3.
In this brief review I sum up some recent progress in the area of stellar dynamics,
focusing on the dynamics of self-bound stellar associations in isolation and in
(approximate) equilibrium. The basics of stellar dynamics are first outlined and the
importance of stellar evolution is stressed. Subsequently I argue that the evolution of
multi-mass clusters in the point-mass approximation still holds clues to the dynamics of
galaxy nuclei. I take a more personal standpoint when discussing the role of stellar
evolution on the dynamics over relaxation time scales and draw from several recent models
to underscore that a major step forward has been made in the coupling of stellar evolution
and dynamics. I then briefly visit the issue of multiple stars and highlight some as yet
We present a novel solver for an analogue to Poisson’s equation in the framework of
modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). This equation is highly non-linear and hence standard
codes based upon tree structures and/or FFT’s in general are not applicable; one needs to
defer to multi-grid relaxation techniques. We present results from the first cosmological
simulations we made to compare cosmological structure formation of in the two paradigms.
We found compatible results between the two simulations, at least at redshift
z = 0.
We investigate the influence of radiative transport on the growth of the
magnetorotational instability (MRI) in accretion discs. A general dispersion relation
describing the growth of small disturbances on a homogeneous background shear flow is
provided. It includes compressibility and radiative effects in the flux-limited diffusion
approximation. All the effects of radiation transport can be subsumed into one single
parameter, an effective speed of sound. Radiative diffusion does not affect the region
where the MRI operates, but it alters the growth rates of the MRI either by increasing or
decreasing them. We report about corresponding numerical simulations, which are also used
for a first investigation of the non-linear stage of the MRI in gas-pressure dominated
accretion discs with radiation transport included.
Hot, underdense bubbles powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are likely to play a key
role in halting catastrophic cooling in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters. We
present three-dimensional simulations that capture the evolution of such bubbles, using an
adaptive-mesh hydrodynamic code, FLASH3, to which we have added a subgrid model of
turbulence and mixing. Pure-hydro simulations indicate that AGN bubbles are disrupted into
resolution-dependent pockets of underdense gas. However, proper modeling of subgrid
turbulence shows that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities act to mix the heated regions with
their surroundings, while at the same time preserving them as coherent structures,
consistent with observations. Thus bubbles are transformed into hot clouds of mixed
material as they move outwards in the hydrostatic intracluster medium. Properly capturing
the evolution of such clouds has important implications for many ICM properties.
We present a numerical study on the behavior of the density power spectrum resulting from
compressible hydrodynamic, thermally unstable simulations with different rms Mach numbers
Mrms. We find that the spectrum becomes shallower as
M increases and that spectral index values that are consistent with
those reported from observations.
Recently, the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the VLTI has shown that
dust tori in the two nearby Seyfert galaxies NGC 1068 and the Circinus galaxy are
geometrically thick and can be well described by a thin, warm central disk, surrounded by
a colder and fluffy torus component. By carrying out hydrodynamical simulations with the
help of the TRAMP code (Klahr et al. 1999), we follow the evolution of a young nuclear star cluster in terms of
discrete mass-loss and energy injection from stellar processes. This naturally leads to a
filamentary large scale torus component, where cold gas is able to flow radially inwards.
The filaments join into a dense and very turbulent disk structure. In a post-processing
step, we calculate spectral energy distributions and images with the 3D radiative transfer
code MC3D Wolf (2003) and compare them to
observations. Turbulence in the dense disk component is investigated in a separate