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Breast-feeding is thought to facilitate young children’s acceptance of new foods, including vegetables, but the evidence for this relationship appears inconsistent across studies. Increasing children’s vegetable intake remains challenging; therefore the present study aimed to investigate whether breast-feeding duration predicts vegetable intake in 2–6-year-old children.
Actual vegetable intake was measured in studies across three European countries. General linear model analyses with breast-feeding duration, sex and age of the child and maternal education as variables were used to predict children’s vegetable intake per country. Additionally, the relationships between child eating behaviour characteristics (asked through the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) and vegetable intake were investigated via Pearson correlations.
Daycare centres, schools and home settings in Denmark, Greece and the Netherlands.
Children aged 2–6 years (n 750).
Breast-feeding duration was positively associated with children’s vegetable intake at 2–6 years old in Denmark (P<0·01) and the Netherlands (P<0·05), but not in Greece (P=0·17). Age of the child, maternal education and sex of the child did not predict vegetable intake in our sample. All countries showed an inverse relationship between food neophobia and children’s vegetable intake and a positive relationship between vegetable liking and intake.
The present study found that breast-feeding duration is a predictor of later vegetable intake, but that current child eating behaviour characteristics, such as vegetable liking, food neophobia and enjoyment of food, also influence vegetable intake. Besides encouragement of breast-feeding duration, strategies that support vegetable liking and food enjoyment and decrease food neophobia are needed to support young children’s vegetable intake.
Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the activity of numerous enzymes. Supplemental zinc is considered normal for ruminant livestock to ensure that requirements are met. Although zinc deficiency is not generally recognised in the UK, there is considerable evidence that this supplemental zinc is beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partially replacing zinc oxide with a zinc proteinate in the diet of ewes in late pregnancy and lactation on performance and health of ewes and lambs.
The use of direct fed microbials has been shown to enhance digestion in the ruminant. One source of microbial live populations is a yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisae (Yea-Sacc1026, CBS 493.94; Alltech Inc, USA), and its use in ruminants has been associated with a range of benefits including an overall increase in dry matter and fiber digestibility (Wiedmeier and Arambel, 1985), combating heat stress in lactating cows (Huber and Higgenbotham, 1985) and increased performance (Fallon and Harte, 1987). Glade and Biesik (1982) working with yearling horses, demonstrated increased DM and N digestibility when S. cerevisae was added to the diet. It was suggested that S. cerevisae enhanced cellulolytic activity, triggering microbial metabolism changes in the horse’s large intestine that enhance hemicellulose fermentation. They also reported that the addition of S. cerevisae results in smaller percentages of absorbed nitrogen excreted in the urine, indicating that the biological value of the S. cerevisae -supplemented diets may be more than the direct contribution of the nitrogen within the yeast itself. The aim of this review is to determine the effects of S. cerevisae on performance parameters of bulls.
Tidal flexure in ice shelf grounding zones has been used extensively in the past to determine grounding line position and ice properties. Although the rheology of ice is viscoelastic at tidal loading frequencies, most modelling studies have assumed some form of linear elastic beam approximation to match observed flexure profiles. Here we use density, radar and DInSAR measurements in combination with full-Stokes viscoelastic modelling to investigate a range of additional controls on the flexure of the Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf. We find that inclusion of observed basal crevasses and density dependent ice stiffness can greatly alter the flexure profile and yet fitting a simple elastic beam model to that profile will still produce an excellent fit. Estimates of the effective Young's modulus derived by fitting flexure profiles are shown to vary by over 200% depending on whether these factors are included, even when the local thickness is well constrained. Conversely, estimates of the grounding line position are relatively insensitive to these considerations for the case of a steep bed slope in our study region. By fitting tidal amplitudes only, and ignoring phase information, elastic beam theory can provide a good fit to observations in a wide variety of situations. This should, however, not be taken as an indication that the underlying rheological assumptions are correct.
Introduction: Active substance use and unstable housing are both associated with increased emergency department (ED) utilization. This study examined ED health care costs among a cohort of substance using and/or homeless adults following an index ED visit, relative to a control ED population. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting to an inner-city ED between August 2010 and November 2011 who reported unstable housing and/or who had a chief presenting complaint related to acute or chronic substance use were evaluated. Controls were enrolled in a 1:4 ratio. Participants’ health care utilization was tracked via electronic medical record for six months after the index ED visit. Costing data across all EDs in the region was obtained from Alberta Health Services and calculated to include physician billing and the cost of an ED visit excluding investigations. The cost impact of ED utilization was estimated by multiplying the derived ED cost per visit by the median number of visits with interquartile ranges (IQR) for each group during follow up. Proportions were compared using non-parametric tests. Results: From 4679 patients screened, 209 patients were enrolled (41 controls, 46 substance using, 91 unstably housed, 31 both unstably housed and substance using (UHS)). Median costs (IQR) per group over the six-month period were $0 ($0-$345.42) for control, $345.42 ($0-$1139.89) for substance using, $345.42 ($0-$1381.68) for unstably housed and $1381.68 ($690.84-$4248.67) for unstably housed and substance using patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: The intensity of excess ED costs was greatest in patients who were both unstably housed and presenting with a chief complaint related to substance use. This group had a significantly larger impact on health care expenditure relative to ED users who were not unstably housed or who presented with a substance use related complaint. Further research into how care or connection to community resources in the ED can reduce these costs is warranted.
Introduction: Substance use and unstable housing are associated with heavy use of the Emergency Department (ED). This study examined the impact of substance use and unstable housing on the probability of future ED use. Methods: Case-control study of patients presenting to an urban ED. Patients were eligible if they were unstably housed for the past 30 days, and/or if their chief complaint was related to substance use. Following written informed consent, patients completed a baseline survey and health care use was tracked via electronic medical records for the next six months. Controls were enrolled in a 1:4 ratio. More than 2 ED visits during the follow-up was pre-specified as a measure of excess ED use. Descriptive analyses included proportions and medians with interquartile ranges (IQR). Binomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of housing status, high-risk alcohol use (AUDIT) and drug use (DUDIT), and combinations of these factors on subsequent acute care system contacts (ED visits + admissions). We controlled for age, gender, comorbidities at baseline, and baseline presenting acuity. Results: 41 controls, 46 substance using, 91 unstably housed, and 31 both unstably housed and substance using patients were enrolled (n = 209). Median ED visits during follow up were 0 (IQR: 0-1.0) for controls, 1.0 (IQR: 0-3.3) for substance using, 1.0 (IQR: 0-4.0) for unstably housed and 4 (IQR: 2-12.3) for unstably housed and substance using patients. The median acute care system contacts over the same period was 1.0 (IQR 0-2.0) for controls, 1.0 (IQR: 0-4.0) for substance using, 1.0 (IQR: 0-5.0) for unstably housed and 4.5 (IQR: 2.8-14.3) for unstably housed and substance using patients. Being unstably housed was the factor most strongly associated with having > 2 ED visits (b=3.288, p<0.005) followed by high-risk alcohol and drug use (b=2.149, p<0.08); high risk alcohol use alone was not significantly associated with ED visits (b=1.939, p<0.1). The number of comorbidities present at baseline was a small but statistically significant additional risk factor (b=0.478, p<0.05). The model correctly predicted 70.1% of patients’ ED utilization status. Conclusion: Unstable housing is a substantial risk factor for ED use; high-risk alcohol and drug use, and comorbidities at baseline increased this risk. The intensity of excess ED use was greatest in patients who were unstably housed and substance using.
The design and construction of the 30 m2 Bicentennial Gamma Ray Telescope at Woomera South Australia is described. This novel instrument is now completed and commissioning is underway. It is designed to observe astronomical sources at energies greater than ∼ 500 GeV by means of atmospheric Cerenkov light. It contains 55 spherical, glass mirrors of focal length 2.66 m arranged in three groups of 10 m2, to focus the light onto three sets of detectors operated in fast co-incidence. The recording electronics includes a rubidium clock to enable pulsars to be studied.
The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave is one of the most important sites for the study of the earliest manifestations and development of prehistoric art at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. Different dating techniques have been performed thus far (AMS 14C, U/Th TIMS, 36Cl dating) to model the chronological framework of this decorated cave. The cave yielded several large charcoal fragments, which enabled the opportunity for obtaining multiple dates; thus, a First Radiocarbon Intercomparison Program (FIP) was initiated in 2004 using three charcoal pieces. The FIP demonstrated that those cross-dated samples belonged to a time period associated with the first human occupation. One of the statistical interests of an intercomparison program is to reduce the uncertainty on the sample age; thus, to further assess the accuracy of the chronological framework, the Second Intercomparison Program (SIP) involving 10 international 14C laboratories was carried out on two pieces of charcoal found inside two hearth structures of the Galerie des Mégacéros. Each laboratory used its own pretreatment and AMS facilities. In total, 21 and 22 measurements were performed, respectively, which yielded consistent results averaging ∼32 ka BP. Two strategies have currently been developed to identify statistical outliers and to deal with them; both lead to quasi-identical calibrated combined densities. Finally, the new results were compared with those of the FIP, leading to the important conclusion that five different samples from at least three different hearth structures give really tightened temporal densities, associated with one short human occupation in the Galerie des Mégacéros.
Observations of the spectrum of solar radio bursts at meter wavelengths have indicated the desirability of measuring positions on the sun's disk not only as a function of time but also as a function of frequency. With this objective in view, we are now using a swept-frequency interferometer to determine the east-west disk coordinate of the transient solar sources at time intervals of ½ second and freqency intervals of about 5 Mc/s within the frequency range 40 to 70 Mc/s. The accuracy to which the centroid of the source is located is about ±1 minute of arc. In its initial form , the interferometer contained two aerials separated by a distance of 1 km. As a result of preliminary tests, two major additions have been made: (1) a second interferometer of much smaller spacing (¼ km) has been added to resolve the usual ambiguities associated with two-aerial interferometry, and (2) an automatic system of lobe-switching and phase-calibration has been incorporated to facilitate the reduction of the complex data recorded.
Accumulating evidence links childhood adversity to negative health outcomes in adulthood. However, most of the available evidence is retrospective and subject to recall bias. Published reports have sometimes focused on specific childhood exposures (e.g. abuse) and/or specific outcomes (e.g. major depression). Other studies have linked childhood adversity to a large and diverse number of adult risk factors and health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. To advance this literature, we undertook a broad examination of data from two linked surveys. The goal was to avoid retrospective distortion and to provide a descriptive overview of patterns of association.
A baseline interview for the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth collected information about childhood adversities affecting children aged 0–11 in 1994. The sampling procedures employed in a subsequent study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) made it possible to link n = 1977 of these respondents to follow-up data collected later when respondents were between the ages of 14 and 27. Outcomes included major depressive episodes (MDE), some risk factors and educational attainment. Cross-tabulations were used to examine these associations and adjusted estimates were made using the regression models. As the NPHS was a longitudinal study with multiple interviews, for most analyses generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used. As there were multiple exposures and outcomes, a statistical procedure to control the false discovery rate (Benjamini–Hochberg) was employed.
Childhood adversities were consistently associated with a cluster of potentially related outcomes: MDE, psychotropic medication use and smoking. These outcomes may be related to one another since psychotropic medications are used in the treatment of major depression, and smoking is strongly associated with major depression. However, no consistent associations were observed for other outcomes examined: physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking or educational attainment.
The conditions found to be the most strongly associated with childhood adversities were a cluster of outcomes that potentially share pathophysiological connections. Although prior literature has suggested that a very large number of adult outcomes, including physical inactivity and alcohol-related outcomes follow childhood adversity, this analysis suggests a degree of specificity with outcomes potentially related to depression. Some of the other reported adverse outcomes (e.g. those related to alcohol use, physical inactivity or more distal outcomes such as obesity and cardiovascular disease) may emerge later in life and in some cases may be secondary to depression, psychotropic medication use and smoking.
D. R. Viete, G. J. H. Oliver and S. A. Wilde comment: First, we would like to commend Aoki et al. (2013) on a careful study and thought-provoking manuscript. Their interpretation of the Barrovian metamorphism as a fundamentally retrograde feature offers a refreshing alternative to the more conventional ‘peak-metamorphic’ models.
Considerable evidence now links childhood adversity to a variety of adult health problems. Unfortunately, almost all of these studies have relied upon retrospective assessment of childhood events, creating a vulnerability to bias. In this study, we sought to examine three associations using data sources that allowed for both prospective and retrospective assessment of childhood events.
Methods. A 1994 national survey of children between the ages of 0 and 11 collected data from a ‘person most knowledgeable’ (usually the mother) about a child. It was possible to link data for n = 1977 of these respondents to data collected from the same people in a subsequent adult study. The latter survey included retrospective reports of childhood adversity. We examined three adult health outcomes in relation to prospectively and retrospectively assessed childhood adversity: major depressive episodes, excessive alcohol consumption and painful conditions.
Results. A strong association between childhood adversities (as assessed by both retrospective and prospective methods) and major depression was identified although the association with retrospective assessment was stronger. Weaker associations were found for painful conditions, but these did not depend on the method of assessment. Associations were not found for excessive alcohol consumption irrespective of the method of assessment.
These findings help to allay concerns that associations between childhood adversities and health outcomes during adulthood are merely artefacts of recall bias. In this study, retrospective and prospective assessment strategies produced similar results.
The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization, and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection.
In this paper, we have studied whether digital holographic microscopy (DHM) may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique with high-power digitally enhanced Nomarski optics. The main advantage of digital holography is that high-resolution three-dimensional quantitative sample imaging may be automatically produced by numerical refocusing of a two-dimensional image at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DHM generates useful information on the dimensions and structure of human sperm, not revealed by conventional phase-contrast microscopy, in particular the volume of vacuoles, and suggest its use as an additional prognostic tool in assisted reproduction technology.
For this pilot study, we compared performance of 15 adolescents with moderate–severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to that of 13 typically developing (TD) adolescents in predicting social actions and consequences for avatars in a virtual microworld environment faced with dilemmas involving legal or moral infractions. Performance was analyzed in relation to cortical thickness in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Groups did not differ in number of actions predicted nor in reasons cited for predictions when presented only the conflict situation. After viewing the entire scenario, including the choice made by the avatar, TD and TBI adolescents provided similar numbers of short-term consequences. However, TD adolescents provided significantly more long-term consequences (p = .010). Additionally, for the Overall qualitative score, TD adolescents’ responses were more likely to reflect the long-term impact of the decision made (p = .053). Groups differed in relation of the Overall measure to thickness of right medial prefrontal cortex/frontal pole and precuneus, with stronger relations for the TD group (p < .01). For long-term consequences, the relations to the posterior cingulate, superior medial frontal, and precentral regions, and to a lesser extent, the middle temporal region, were stronger for the TBI group (p < .01). (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–10.)
Generic and interaction aspects of oxygen precipitation, related defect formation and denudation in Cz-Si wafers are presented. Bulk defect profiles and homogenization control are shown to be achievable by proper design of post-growth annealing.
Gettering-related phenomena are discussed including stacking fault-rich bulk defect structures and peculiarities in different epitaxy systems.