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Psychiatry is facing major challenges during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic. These challenges involve its actual and perceived role within the medical system, in particular how psychiatric hospitals can maintain their core mission of attending to people with mental illness while at the same time providing relief to overstretched general medicine services. Although psychiatric disorders comprise the leading cause of the global burden of disease, mental healthcare has been deemphasised in the wake of the onslaught of the pandemic: to make room for emergency care, psychiatric wards have been downsized, clinics closed, psychiatric support systems discontinued and so on. To deal with this pressing issue, we developed a pandemic contingency plan with the aim to contain, decelerate and, preferably, avoid transmission of COVID-19 and to enable and maintain medical healthcare for patients with mental disorders.
To describe our plan as an example of how a psychiatric hospital can share in providing acute care in a healthcare system facing an acute and highly infectious pandemic like COVID-19 and at the same time provide support for people with mental illness, with or without a COVID-19 infection.
This was a descriptive study.
The plan was based on the German national pandemic strategy and several legal recommendations and was implemented step by step on the basis of the local COVID-19 situation. In addition, mid- and long-term plans were developed for coping with the aftermath of the pandemic.
The plan enabled the University Hospital to maintain medical healthcare for patients with mental disorders. It has offered the necessary flexibility to adapt its implementation to the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The plan is designed to serve as an easily adaptable blueprint for psychiatric hospitals around the world.
Amid public health concerns over climate change, “precision public health” (PPH) is emerging in next generation approaches to practice. These novel methods promise to augment public health operations by using ever larger and more robust health datasets combined with new tools for collecting and analyzing data. Precision strategies to protecting the public health could more effectively or efficiently address the systemic threats of climate change, but may also propagate or exacerbate health disparities for the populations most vulnerable in a changing climate. How PPH interventions collect and aggregate data, decide what to measure, and analyze data pose potential issues around privacy, neglecting social determinants of health, and introducing algorithmic bias into climate responses. Adopting a health justice framework, guided by broader social and climate justice tenets, can reveal principles and policy actions which may guide more responsible implementation of PPH in climate responses.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest in, or ability to experience pleasure from, common rewarding stimuli – is implicated in addictive behaviors. Integrative reviews of extant research on the role of anhedonia in understanding addictive behaviors are dated and overlook nonsubstance addictions. This chapter reviews the anhedonia construct, describes theoretical models of mechanisms linking anhedonia to addiction, summarizes and synthesizes the empirical evidence on anhedonia in addictive behaviors in humans, and proposes future research directions. From the literature review and integration, it is concluded that: (1) anhedonia may be a risk factor and consequence of addictive behaviors, (2) anhedonia may increase motivation to engage in addictive behaviors to offset deficient pleasure, and (3) anhedonia is generally correlated with onset, escalation, persistence, and relapse to a variety of addictive behaviors in prior research. Addictive agents, intervention applications, and other topics overlooked in the study of anhedonia in addictive behaviors warrant further inquiry to advance addiction science and practice.
Implantable neural interfaces are important tools to accelerate neuroscience research and translate clinical neurotechnologies. The promise of a bidirectional communication link between the nervous system of humans and computers is compelling, yet important materials challenges must be first addressed to improve the reliability of implantable neural interfaces. This perspective highlights recent progress and challenges related to arguably two of the most common failure modes for implantable neural interfaces: (1) compromised barrier layers and packaging leading to failure of electronic components; (2) encapsulation and rejection of the implant due to injurious tissue–biomaterials interactions, which erode the quality and bandwidth of signals across the biology–technology interface. Innovative materials and device design concepts could address these failure modes to improve device performance and broaden the translational prospects of neural interfaces. A brief overview of contemporary neural interfaces is presented and followed by recent progress in chemistry, materials, and fabrication techniques to improve in vivo reliability, including novel barrier materials and harmonizing the various incongruences of the tissue–device interface. Challenges and opportunities related to the clinical translation of neural interfaces are also discussed.
Many plant bugs (Miridae) are generalist herbivores that feed on multiple host species. The reasons these bugs move across hosts and the behavioural mechanisms responsible for their retention at specific hosts remain elusive. Green mirids (Creontiades dilutus) are endemic to Australia. These insects are important pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and even in low numbers can cause substantial damage to crops. These bugs are also present in relatively much higher numbers on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) planted alongside cotton fields, and evidence shows they move across these crops in both directions. Observations of these highly mobile insects in the field are challenging, but indirect evidence suggests that they may be nocturnal. This study evaluated: (1) the diel (24 h) period in which C. dilutus adults were most active, (2) whether they respond to plant volatiles immediately prior to landing on host substrates, and (3) if their presence on a host is in response to attraction or arrestment cues. The results suggest that C. dilutus bugs are typically most active early in the evenings, after remaining motionless during the day (unless disturbed). Their movement (at night) was arrested by hosts prior to touching plant tissues. There was no evidence to suggest that these bugs are attracted by volatiles beyond 2 cm. These outcomes demonstrate that insect behaviours need to be investigated within their typical activity periods, and that arrestment cues possibly play a central role in the host finding process of generalist C. dilutus and probably, therefore, other mirid species.
Recent evidence points to relationships between intra-specific seed mass variation and viability loss in response to ageing stress. However, little is known about how seed quality may change temporally in response to such stress. Here we examined seed–water relations of mass-separated Rudbeckia mollis seeds to better understand physiological status among mass classes. We then evaluated seed viability and vigour changes in response to various storage conditions or post-storage vigour tests (a 41°C, 75% RH stress for up to 45 d). We found similar pre-storage physiology among mass classes. However, seeds of lower mass deteriorated up to 1.5-fold faster than heavier seeds under certain conditions. Stressing seeds after storage resulted in distinct vigour differences among mass classes. For example, vigour in lower mass seeds tended to decline more compared to heavier seeds following storage in a climate-controlled room. Alternatively, vigour loss varied among mass classes following storage in a non-climate-controlled shed. Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing between pre-sowing storage and post-storage vigour effects when quantifying relative levels of viability loss among seeds of different mass. Furthermore, differential responses to storage and ageing stress among mass classes may have important implications for post-storage regeneration and subsequent population dynamics.
Female and male alcohol dependent patients present an inhomogeneous group regarding to the drinking outcome. Stress, as well as stress-coping-styles are relevant predictive factors for the progress of alcohol dependence.
Social data, data of drinking behaviour, stress-styles and cortisol concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 130 patients with alcohol dependence (35F and 95M) before and after inpatient treatment.
The age of onset alcohol dependence, the amount of alcohol consumption since last 3 months, the responsibility for education from children, living situation, and the practice of positive ore negative stress coping styles were investigated.
Female alcohol dependent patients show a significant higher age of onset for alcohol dependence (p=0.02) and have a significant lower consumption of alcohol in relation to male alcohol dependent patients (p=0.004).
Moreover, female alcohol dependent patients are significant more frequent involved in education of children (p=0.04), and are living significant less alone (p=0.023).
The cortisol levels in plasma and CSF between female and male alcohol dependent patients does not differ. However, female alcoholics show a significant higher score of negative stress-coping styles than male alcoholics (p= 0.023).
There are significant psychosocial differences between female and male alcohol dependent patients. These gender specific differences relating to social stressors and handling with stress may be clinical relevant for treatment and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an important treatment in conjunction with psychopharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. However, there is only very little research on the effects of such interventions on brain function.
Recent studies have suggested that jumping to conclusions and a specific attributional bias is a predominant cognitive style in patients which might lead to the development of delusions. In this multi-centre fMRI trial, we investigated the effect of nine months of CBT on neural correlates of “jumping to conclusions” and the “attributional style” in patients with psychosis. Eighty patients and 80 control subjects were recruited in six centres and measured with 3-Tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) before and after CBT.
It could be shown that CBT ameliorates differences in brain activations between patients and controls after nine months.
These results support the feasibility of fMRI multicenter trials and sheds further light into the mechanisms relating psychotherapy to brain function in Schizophrenia.
There is evidence that patients with persecutory delusions tend to attribute excessively hypothetical positive events to internal causes and hypothetical negative events to external causes, arrive at hasty conclusions and fail in gathering and assessing adequate feedback, particularly when emotionally salient material is involved. Research on the neural correlates of the corresponding neural correlates and even more so on the potential effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the associated cerebral networks is almost unavailable.
The first and preliminary results of a multicentre fMRI study will be presented.
In this study eighty schizophrenia patients from the POSITIVE clinical trial and eighty healthy subjects were recruited at six German university hospitals (Bonn, Duisburg-Essen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, Tubingen). After nine months of therapy (either with CBT or Supportive Therapy) patients and controls were re-examined enabling the study correlates of cerebral reorganization processes.
We found reliable differences in brain activation relating to phenomena of decision making under uncertainty, and biased attribution (self- vs. external reference of emotional events).
The comparison of both groups revealed significant decreased activation in key areas for decision making, self-reflection, self-relevance and agency attribution of patients with schizophrenia.
The preliminary data analysis of the still blinded treatment arms shows significantly increased activations in these areas after nine months of CBT. This suggest neuroplasitic changes according to relearning strategies in psychotic patients with schizophrenia and will hopefully give rise to a more widespread application of CBT in treatment of schizophrenia.
La couverture médiatique d’un fait suicidaire influence le taux de suicide par le biais d’un effet d’incitation, aussi nommé « effet Werther » (EW) ou d’un potentiel rôle préventif via « l’effet Papageno » (EP) . L’objectif du programme national français Papageno est d’améliorer les propriétés qualitatives du contenu médiatique dont dépendent principalement l’EW et l’EP, via l’application des recommandations de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) pour un traitement journalistique plus responsable du suicide. L’évaluation de l’efficacité du programme est donc un enjeu de prévention qui nécessite un outil d’analyse fidèle à ces recommandations.
Élaborer et valider une grille d’analyse qualitative permettant, pour chaque article de presse traitant du suicide, de mesurer le degré de compliance aux recommandations de l’OMS et de quantifier le risque d’EW et le potentiel EP.
La grille d’évaluation PReSS (Print media Reporting on Suicide Scale) combine 10 items descriptifs et 19 items qualitatifs issus de l’opérationnalisation des 11 recommandations de l’OMS. La validation de la fiabilité interjuges a été obtenue par séries de double cotation-correction de 25 articles traitant du suicide. Les critères de satisfaction des items ont été affinés après chaque série jusqu’à obtention d’un coefficient de kappa ≥ 0.7 pour chacun. À titre d’illustration, le traitement médiatique du supposé suicide du pilote d’avion A. Lubitz en mars 2015 a été analysé grâce à la PReSS.
Trois séries de cotation-correction ont été nécessaires pour valider la grille. L’analyse de la couverture du suicide présumé d’A. Lubitz montre un compliance faible aux recommandations, un score Papageno bas et un score Werther élevé.
La grille d’évaluation PReSS est un outil fiable et utile pour mesurer la compliance aux recommandations de l’OMS concernant la couverture médiatique du suicide.
L’accès aux soins des personnes à risque constitue un pilier essentiel de la prévention du suicide. Cependant, les idées reçues véhiculées autour des conduites suicidaires y opposent un obstacle significatif. Afin de cibler au mieux les campagnes d’information qui dissiperaient ces mythes, et pour en évaluer l’efficacité, les connaissances sur le suicide devraient pouvoir être quantifiées de façon fiable. À ce jour, seules quelques études anglo-saxonnes dédiées ont été validées. La limite décisive à leur interprétation tient cependant à ce qu’elles ne permettent pas d’approche normative. En effet, l’exactitude de leurs propositions n’est validée par aucun étalon officiel, alors même que certaines relèvent plus de l’expérience clinique que de connaissances issues de la littérature. Notre objectif consiste à palier cette limite en proposant une échelle dont la cotation est adaptée à l’évaluation d’un savoir normé. Le Questionnaire d’Évaluation des Connaissances sur le Suicide (QECS) est un auto-questionnaire qui explore, en 35 items, les principales connaissances relatives à l’épidémiologie et aux mythes communs concernant le suicide. Les réponses y sont recueillies par échelle visuelle analogique. La cotation finale se fait en confrontant ces réponses à celles d’un panel de référence constitué de spécialistes en suicidologie (n = 47). Nous présentons ici les résultats de ce panel, ainsi qu’une illustration des potentialités d’interprétation du QECS, via l’évaluation des connaissances d’un échantillon test d’étudiants en journalisme (n = 111). Les réponses du panel de référence étaient significativement différentes de « ni accord, ni désaccord » pour 27 des 29 items dédiés aux mythes. Pour 25 de ces items, une différence significative était retrouvée entre l’échantillon test et le panel de référence. Ainsi attestée, l’existence d’un avis expertal spécifique a servi d’étalon pour 2 modes de cotation des réponses de l’échantillon test : un score de véracité et un score de concordance aux experts.
Le suicide et les conduites auto-agressives sont fréquents dans la population adulte. De précédentes études ont prouvé que le fait de maintenir le lien avec le sujet suicidant, par lettres ou cartes postales, après la prise en charge en aigu, réduit le risque de récidive. De plus, les études de faisabilité ont montré que l’intervention par SMS est acceptable pour les patients. L‘objectif principal de cette étude est de démontrer l’efficacité du dispositif de veille par SMS sur la réduction de la récidive suicidaire à 6 mois. Nous présenterons dans un premier temps l’étude de faisabilité puis l’étude multicentrique démarrée dans 8 CHU.
Matériel et méthode
Il s’agira d’un essai de supériorité, contrôlé, randomisé, multicentrique, d’une durée de 2 ans, et piloté par le CHRU de Brest. Les sujets seront des adultes ayant survécu à un passage à l’acte suicidaire, inclus après une prise en charge aux urgences ou une courte hospitalisation. Le recrutement s’étalera sur une période de 9 mois. Les SMS seront envoyés à j2, j7, j15, puis mensuellement. Ces messages se soucieront du bien-être du patient, et lui rappelleront les coordonnées d’urgence dont il dispose en cas de besoin. Les patients seront évalués à j0, puis à 6 et 13 mois. Le critère de jugement principal sera le nombre de patients récidivant à 6 mois, dans le groupe recevant les SMS et dans le groupe témoin (qui bénéficie de la prise en charge de référence). Les critères de jugement secondaires seront le nombre de patients récidivant à 13 mois, le nombre de tentatives de suicide à 6 et 13 mois, le nombre de décès par suicide à 6 et 13 mois, dans les deux groupes. Les idées suicidaires seront évaluées dans chaque groupe, à j0, à 6 mois, et à 13 mois. Enfin, les coûts médicaux et la satisfaction seront évalués à 13 mois.
La fréquence de récidive attendue à 6 mois dans le groupe témoin est de l’ordre de 18 %. Nous espérons la réduire à 9 % grâce au contact par SMS. Afin d’y parvenir, le nombre de sujets nécessaires a été évalué à 530, soit 265 dans chaque bras.
Ce dispositif de veille par SMS s’appuie sur de précédentes interventions, aux résultats significatifs dans le domaine, et est facilement reproductible. Nous proposons d’évaluer son efficacité dans la réduction du risque de récidive suicidaire au sein d’une population d’adultes ayant fait un passage à l’acte.
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is one of the most disabling of psychiatric disorders, affecting about 1/3 of patients. First-line treatments include both atypical and typical antipsychotics. The original atypical, clozapine, is a final option, and although it has been shown to be the only effective treatment for TRS, many patients do not respond well to clozapine. Clozapine use is related to adverse events, most notably agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal blood disorder which affects about 1% of those prescribed clozapine and requires regular blood monitoring. This as a barrier to prescription and there is a long delay in access for TRS patients, of five or more years, from first antipsychotic prescription. Better tools to predict treatment resistance and to identify risk of adverse events would allow faster and safer access to clozapine for patients who are likely to benefit from it. The CRESTAR project (www.crestar-project.eu) is a European Framework 7 collaborative project that aims to develop tools to predict i) treatment response, particularly patients who are less likely to respond to usual antipsychotics, indicating treatment with clozapine as early as possible, ii) patients who are at high or low risk of adverse events and side effects, iii) extreme TRS patients so that they can be stratified in clinical trials for novel treatments. CRESTAR has addressed these questions by examining genome-wide association data, genome sequence, epigenetic biomarkers and epidemiological data in European patient cohorts characterized for treatment response, and adverse drug reaction using data from clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring and linked National population medical and pharmacy databases, to identify predictive factors. In parallel CRESTAR will perform health economic research on potential benefits, and ethics and patient-centred research with stakeholders.
Lack of adherence to recommended treatment poses major clinical and economic challenges for psychiatry, and requires further study.
Objectives and aims:
We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between the level of understanding of psychiatric emergency department (ED) discharge recommendations and presence of a companion with short term treatment adherence.
Sixty subjects were evaluated twice: upon ED discharge and a month later. Instruments included a structured questionnaire based on the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment, MMSE, and corroboration of data with the computerized hospital medical file.
There was a significant association between patient understanding and adherence with medication instructions (p< .01) and adherence to psychiatric follow-up (p< .05). There was also an association between the presence of a companion and adherence to medication instructions (x2(1)=7.0, p< .01).
Ensuring patients' understanding of treatment recommendations and encouraging the company of patients are achievable, practical strategies that may improve adherence and thereby promote better outcomes.
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a frequently and effectively used treatment in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Other than First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), which mainly exert their pharmacologic effect in subcortical dopaminergic systems, SGAs additionally affect partly serotonergically innervated structures within prefrontal areas, such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). However, only few controlled, randomized studies have so far investigated direct and indirect effects of SGAs on the ACC.
The present study investigated differential effects of one SGA (quetiapine) and one FGA (flupentixol) on the human action monitoring system.
ACC function in 18 quetiapine-medicated patients and 13 flupentixol-treated patients suffering from schizophrenia was assessed by means of the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological marker of ACC function, in a pre-post design. Results Between-group comparisons revealed different effects of quetiapine and flupentixol on ACC function despite similar improvement in psychopathology, cognitive performance and quality of life. Whereas SGA treatment was associated with an increase in amplitudes over time, there were prolonged ERN peak latencies in patients treated with the FGA. Moreover, treatment effects depended on baseline PFC function in both groups.
We conclude that both flupentixol and quetiapine improve prefrontal function especially in patients with weak initial ACC function which might be due to their shared affinity for 5HT-receptors in frontal brain regions. However, since this affinity is more pronounced for SGAs, patients treated with quetiapine seemed to profit more evidently concerning PFC function compared to patients of the flupentixol group, who exhibited a compensatory prolongation of processes.
Conventional ambulatory heart rhythm monitoring is limited in its ability to provide rapid diagnosis of arrhythmias in athletes participating in water or high-intensity sports. This case report is of a 17-year-old female competitive swimmer who underwent loop recorder implantation with Confirm Rx™ ICM 3500 (Abbott, Minneapolis, MN) to monitor for arrhythmias during swimming. The purpose of this case report is to describe the utility of implantable loop recorders in arrhythmia diagnosis and symptom evaluation in water sport athletes.
To compare the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among a wide range of ethnoracial groups in the US.
Non-probabilistic longitudinal clinical research.
Participants enrolling into the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Unified Data Set recruited via multiple approaches including clinician referral, self-referral by patients or family members, or active recruitment through community organizations.
Cognitively normal individuals 55 and older at the initial visit, who reported race and ethnicity information, with at least two visits between September 2005 and November 2018.
Ethnoracial information was self-reported and grouped into non-Latino Whites, Asian Americans, Native Americans, African Americans (AAs), and individuals simultaneously identifying as AAs and another minority race (AA+), as well as Latinos of Caribbean, Mexican, and Central/South American origin. MCI was evaluated clinically following standard criteria. Four competing risk analysis models were used to calculate MCI risk adjusting for risk of death, including an unadjusted model, and models adjusting for non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors.
After controlling for sex and age at initial visit, subhazard ratios of MCI were statistically higher than non-Latino Whites among Native Americans (1.73), Caribbean Latinos (1.80), and Central/South American Latinos (1.55). Subhazard ratios were higher among AA+ compared to non-Latino Whites only in the model controlling for all risk factors (1.40).
Compared to non-Latino Whites, MCI risk was higher among Caribbean and South/Central American Latinos as well as Native Americans and AA+. The factors explaining the differential MCI risk among ethnoracial groups are not clear and warrant future research.
Cardichelyon rogerwoodi is an enigmatic fossil turtle from the late Paleocene to early Eocene of North America. Previous analyses suggested affiliation with Testudinoidea, in particular the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum, based on the presence of multiple musk-duct foramina and a large head. We here highlight previously undocumented characteristics for this turtle, notably the presence of short costiform processes, a rib-like axillary process, and a posterior plastral hinge. Phylogenetic analysis places Cardichelyon rogerwoodi within Testudinoidea, but the exclusion of testudinoids suggest an affiliation with Dermatemydidae. Using consilience with external data we favor placement within Kinosternoidea. Cardichelyon rogerwoodi is therefore an aberrant, hinged kinosternoid that developed in situ in North America during the Paleocene long before the arrival of testudinoids on this continent in the early Eocene.
Misalignment of day/night and feeding rhythms has been shown to increase fat deposition and the risk for metabolic disorders in humans and rodents. In most studies, however, food intake and intake patterns are not controlled. We studied the effects of circadian misalignment on energy expenditure in pigs while controlling for food intake as well as intake patterns. Twelve groups of five male pigs were housed in respiration chambers and fed either during the day (10.00–18.00 hours; DF) or night (22.00–06.00 hours; NF), bihourly the same sequential meals, representing 15, 10, 25, 30 and 20 % of the daily allowance. Paired feeding was applied to ensure equal gross energy intake between treatments. Apparent total tract digestibility, energy balances and heat partitioning were measured and analysed using a mixed linear model. Apparent total tract energy and DM digestibility tended to be lower for NF-pigs than DF-pigs (P < 0·10). Heat production was 3 % lower for NF-pigs than DF-pigs (P < 0·026), increasing fat retention by 7 % in NF-pigs (P = 0·050). NF-pigs were less active than DF-pigs during the feeding period, but more active during the fasting period. RMR was greater for DF-pigs than NF-pigs during the fasting period. Methane production was 30 % greater in NF-pigs than DF-pigs (P < 0·001). In conclusion, circadian misalignment has little effect on nutrient digestion, but alters nutrient partitioning, ultimately increasing fat deposition. The causality of the association between circadian misalignment and methane production rates remains to be investigated.