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Conservation research is essential for advancing knowledge but to make an impact scientific evidence must influence conservation policies, decision making and practice. This raises a multitude of challenges. How should evidence be collated and presented to policy makers to maximise its impact? How can effective collaboration between conservation scientists and decision-makers be established? How can the resulting messages be communicated to bring about change? Emerging from a successful international symposium organised by the British Ecological Society and the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, this is the first book to practically address these questions across a wide range of conservation topics. Well-renowned experts guide readers through global case studies and their own experiences. A must-read for practitioners, researchers, graduate students and policymakers wishing to enhance the prospect of their work 'making a difference'. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Whenever Geneva is mentioned one thinks of Calvin, Beza and the establishment of Reformed structures and theology. The great names that stand out are other ministers (Des Gallars), famous printers (Estienne) and Calvin’s great opponents: Castellio, Servetus and Bolsec.1 Thus, Geneva becomes more the place where Calvin lived and wrote and less a locale with its own history and idiosyncratic historical context.2 In particular, one forgets that Geneva was a city-state Republic squeezed by an expansionist Berne, a revanchist Savoy and a turbulent France. By focusing on Calvin and the Reformation one forgets that Geneva’s adoption of Protestantism was the direct result of the city’s Revolution from Savoy. By discussing the city’s government, the spotlight returns to this political upheaval that created the city-state in which Calvin found refuge. Geneva’s political structures were critical in facilitating (and complicating) Calvin’s work and must be understood in their own right.
The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among young people experiencing homelessness, and many of these smokers are motivated to quit. However, there is a lack of readily available cessation services for this population, which is highly mobile and can be challenging to engage in services.
We describe the development of a smoking cessation text messaging intervention (TMI) for homeless youth who are interested in quitting smoking.
Participants were 18–25 years old and recruited from drop-in centers serving homeless youth. Three focus groups (N = 18) were conducted with smokers to refine the TMI content, and a separate sample of smokers (N = 8) provided feedback on the TMI after using it for 1 week. Survey data assessed the TMI's acceptability and feasibility.
Participants generally rated the TMI as helpful and relevant, and nearly all had cell phone plans that included unlimited texting and were able to view TMI content with few difficulties. Qualitative feedback on strengths/limitations of the TMI in terms of content, tone, and delivery parameters was used to finalize the TMI for a future evaluation.
Results suggest that a TMI is a feasible and acceptable option for young people experiencing homelessness who are interested in quitting smoking.
For the problem of horizontal convection the Nusselt number based on entropy production is bounded from above by
as the horizontal convective Rayleigh number
for some constant
(Siggers et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70). We re-examine the variational arguments leading to this ‘ultimate regime’ by using the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method to solve the variational problem in the
limit and exhibiting solutions that achieve the ultimate
scaling. As expected, the optimizing flows have a boundary layer of thickness
pressed against the non-uniformly heated surface; but the variational solutions also have rapid oscillatory variation with wavelength
along the wall. As a result of the exact solution of the variational problem, the constant
is smaller than the previous estimate by a factor of
for no-slip and
for no-stress boundary conditions. This modest reduction in
indicates that the inequalities used by Siggers et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70) are surprisingly accurate.
Diaphragm dysfunction following surgery for congenital heart disease is a known complication leading to delays in recovery and increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with diaphragm plication in children undergoing cardiac surgery and evaluate timing to repair and effects on hospital cost and length of stay.
We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective observational cohort study. Forty-three hospitals from the Pediatric Health Information System database were included, and a total of 112,110 patients admitted between January 2004 and December 2014 were analysed.
Patients less than 18 years of age who underwent cardiac surgery were included. Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery was utilized to determine procedure complexity. The overall incidence of diaphragm dysfunction was 2.2% (n = 2513 out of 112,110). Of these, 24.0% (603 patients) underwent diaphragm plication. Higher complexity cardiac surgery (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 5–6) and age less than 4 weeks were associated with a higher likelihood of diaphragm plication (p-value < 0.01). Diaphragmatic plication was associated with increased hospital length of stay (p-value < 0.01) and increased medical cost.
Diaphragm plication after surgery for congenital heart disease is associated with longer hospital length of stay and increased cost. There is a strong correlation of prolonged time to plication with increased length of stay and medical cost. The likelihood of plication increases with younger age and higher procedure complexity. Methods to improve early recognition and treatment of diaphragm dysfunction should be developed.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
Subclinical adolescent alcohol use is highly prevalent and may have deleterious effects on important psychosocial and brain outcomes. Prior research has focused on identifying endophenotypes of pathological drinking, and the predictors of normative drinking remain understudied. This study investigated the incremental predictive value of two potential psychophysiological endophenotypes, P3 amplitude (an index of decision making) and midfrontal theta power (a correlate of attentional control), for prospectively predicting the expression and initiation of alcohol use emerging in adolescence.
A large (N = 594) epidemiological sample was prospectively assessed at ages 11/14/17. Alcohol/substance use was assessed at all ages via a computerized self-report inventory. EEG was recorded at age-14 during a visual oddball task to elicit P3 and theta.
Reduced target-related P3 and theta at age-14 prospectively predicted drinking at age-17 independent of one another. Among alcohol-naive individuals at age-14, attenuated P3 and theta increased the odds of new-onset alcohol behaviors 3 years later. Importantly, the endophenotypes provided significant incremental predictive power of future non-clinical alcohol use beyond relevant risk factors (prior alcohol use; tobacco/illicit drug initiation; parental alcohol use disorder).
The current report is the first of our knowledge to demonstrate that deviations in parietal P3 and midfrontal theta prospectively predict the emergence of normative/non-pathological drinking. P3 and theta provide modest yet significant explanatory variance beyond prominent self-report and familial risk measures. Findings offer strong evidence supporting the predictive utility of P3 and theta as candidate endophenotypes for adolescent drinking.
The WHO African region is characterised by the largest infectious disease burden in the world. We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis using records of all infectious disease outbreaks formally reported to the WHO in 2018 by Member States of the African region. We analysed the spatio-temporal distribution, the notification delay as well as the morbidity and mortality associated with these outbreaks. In 2018, 96 new disease outbreaks were reported across 36 of the 47 Member States. The most commonly reported disease outbreak was cholera which accounted for 20.8% (n = 20) of all events, followed by measles (n = 11, 11.5%) and Yellow fever (n = 7, 7.3%). About a quarter of the outbreaks (n = 23) were reported following signals detected through media monitoring conducted at the WHO regional office for Africa. The median delay between the disease onset and WHO notification was 16 days (range: 0–184). A total of 107 167 people were directly affected including 1221 deaths (mean case fatality ratio (CFR): 1.14% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07%–1.20%)). The highest CFR was observed for diseases targeted for eradication or elimination: 3.45% (95% CI 0.89%–10.45%). The African region remains prone to outbreaks of infectious diseases. It is therefore critical that Member States improve their capacities to rapidly detect, report and respond to public health events.
Herbicide carrier water hardness and pH can be variable depending upon the source and geographical location. Herbicide efficacy can be affected by the pH and hardness of water used for spray solution. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of carrier water pH and hardness on premixed dicamba and glyphosate efficacy. Treatments were combinations of water pH at 4, 6.5, or 9; and water hardness at 0 (deionized water), 400, or 800 mg L-1 of CaCO3 equivalent. In the field study, dicamba and glyphosate were applied at 0.55 and 1.11 kg ae ha-1, respectively, and half of these rates were applied in the greenhouse study. There was no interaction between carrier water pH and hardness on dicamba and glyphosate efficacy; however, the main effects of carrier water pH or hardness were significant. Herbicide efficacy was reduced at carrier water pH 9 compared to 4. In the field study, common lambsquarters, common ragweed, horseweed, or Palmer amaranth control was improved 6% or more at carrier water pH 4 compared to 9. Similar results were observed with water pH for giant ragweed, Palmer amaranth, or pitted morningglory control in the greenhouse study. Carrier water hardness at 400 or 800 mg L-1 reduced common ragweed, giant ragweed, or horseweed control compared to 0 mg L-1. Similarly, common lambsquarters, Palmer amaranth, or pitted morningglory control was reduced at least 10% with carrier water hardness at 800 mg L-1 compared to 0 mg L-1. This research illustrates that carrier water at acidic pH and without hardness level is critical for dicamba and glyphosate application, and spray solution needs to be amended appropriately for an optimum efficacy.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Microcredit – joint-liability loans to the poorest of the poor – has been touted as a powerful approach for combatting global poverty, but sustainability varies dramatically across banks. Efforts to improve the sustainability of microcredit have assumed defaults are caused by free-riding. Here, we point out that the response of other group members to delinquent groupmates also plays an important role in defaults. Even in the absence of any free-rider problem, some people will be unable to make their payments due to bad luck. It is other group members’ unwillingness to pitch in extra – due to, among other things, not wanting to have less than other group members – that leads to default. To support this argument, we utilize the Ultimatum Game (UG), a standard paradigm from behavioral economics for measuring one's aversion to inequitable outcomes. First, we show that country-level variation in microloan default rates is strongly correlated (overall r = 0.81) with country-level UG rejection rates, but not free-riding measures. We then introduce a laboratory model ‘Microloan Game’ and present evidence that defaults arise from inequity-averse individuals refusing to make up the difference when others fail to pay their fair share. This perspective suggests a suite of new approaches for combatting defaults that leverage findings on reducing UG rejections.
Identifying risk factors of individuals in a clinical-high-risk state for psychosis are vital to prevention and early intervention efforts. Among prodromal abnormalities, cognitive functioning has shown intermediate levels of impairment in CHR relative to first-episode psychosis and healthy controls, highlighting a potential role as a risk factor for transition to psychosis and other negative clinical outcomes. The current study used the AX-CPT, a brief 15-min computerized task, to determine whether cognitive control impairments in CHR at baseline could predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up.
Baseline AX-CPT data were obtained from 117 CHR individuals participating in two studies, the Early Detection, Intervention, and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) and the Understanding Early Psychosis Programs (EP) and used to predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 19 individuals converted to a first episode of psychosis (CHR-C), 52 remitted (CHR-R), and 46 had persistent sub-threshold symptoms (CHR-P). Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to test prediction models.
Baseline AX-CPT performance (d-prime context) was less impaired in CHR-R compared to CHR-P and CHR-C patient groups. AX-CPT predictive validity was robust (0.723) for discriminating converters v. non-converters, and even greater (0.771) when predicting CHR three subgroups.
These longitudinal outcome data indicate that cognitive control deficits as measured by AX-CPT d-prime context are a strong predictor of clinical outcome in CHR individuals. The AX-CPT is brief, easily implemented and cost-effective measure that may be valuable for large-scale prediction efforts.
Stellarators are a promising route to steady-state fusion power. However, to achieve the required confinement, the magnetic geometry must be highly optimized. This optimization requires navigating high-dimensional spaces, often necessitating the use of gradient-based methods. The gradient of the neoclassical fluxes is expensive to compute with classical methods, requiring
flux computations, where
is the number of parameters. To reduce the cost of the gradient computation, we present an adjoint method for computing the derivatives of moments of the neoclassical distribution function for stellarator optimization. The linear adjoint method allows derivatives of quantities which depend on solutions of a linear system, such as moments of the distribution function, to be computed with respect to many parameters from the solution of only two linear systems. This reduces the cost of computing the gradient to the point that the finite-collisionality neoclassical fluxes can be used within an optimization loop. With the neoclassical adjoint method, we compute solutions of the drift kinetic equation and an adjoint drift kinetic equation to obtain derivatives of neoclassical quantities with respect to geometric parameters. When the number of parameters in the derivative is large (
), this adjoint method provides up to a factor of 200 reduction in cost. We demonstrate adjoint-based optimization of the field strength to obtain minimal bootstrap current on a surface. With adjoint-based derivatives, we also compute the local sensitivity to magnetic perturbations on a flux surface and identify regions where tight tolerances on error fields are required for control of the bootstrap current or radial transport. Furthermore, the solve for the ambipolar electric field is accelerated using a Newton method with derivatives obtained from the adjoint method.
Prior research has shown that person-level characteristics (e.g., temperament, personality) correlate and interact with social-contextual factors (e.g., parent–child relationship quality, antisocial peer affiliation) to predict adolescent substance use, but less research has examined similar processes for adult substance use problems. We addressed this gap by testing for personality × romantic partner context interplay in relation to symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD) at ages 24 and 29. Participants were twins in the longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2,769; 52% female). Results support the corresponsive principle of personality in that we found that key personality traits in late adolescence (low constraint, negative emotionality) predicted subsequent “selection” into key social contexts in early adulthood (poorer quality romantic relationships and greater romantic partner alcohol use), which subsequently reinforced those traits and associated outcomes (including correlated AUD symptoms) through late young adulthood. There were few meaningful gender differences in these associations. There was also no support for the personality × romantic partner context interaction as a significant predictor of AUD symptoms at ages 24 or 29. Taken together with prior studies, these results suggest that such interactions may be less relevant to the development of young adult AUD compared to adolescent substance use problems.
We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
Little is known about prescribers’ attitudes regarding clinical nurses and antimicrobial stewardship. We conducted focus groups of prescribers and inquired about attitudes regarding nurses and stewardship. During 6 focus groups, prescribers were receptive to nursing involvement in stewardship activities, but noted structural barriers and knowledge gaps that should be addressed.