Normal human serum (HS) contains trypanolytic activity and agglutinins to Trypanosoma equiperdum, while such activities are not found in sera from a range of animals susceptible to infection. HS given to T. equiperdum-infected mice caused a rapid decrease in the number of circulating trypanosomes and protection from lethal infection. Trypanolytic activity of human serum was found to be associated, after DEAE chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, with the fraction containing 19S antibodies. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed a binding of human IgM and C1q complement component onto the surface of T. equiperdum. Anti-T. equiperdum activity of HS was specifically directed to T. equiperdum surface components and not to some mouse serum components adsorbed on parasites during the growth in the host, because HS adsorbed in vivo in CD-1 mice retained full protective and agglutinating properties. Trypanocidal activity appears in human serum about the 7th month after birth and persists until late in life. On the contrary, human purified high-density lipoprotein had no significant in vitro or in vivo trypanocidal activity. In conclusion, strong natural anti-T. equiperdum activity in human serum was mainly mediated by natural antibodies of the IgM class. The presence of natural IgM active against T. equiperdum in HS could represent one of the natural mechanisms of resistance of refractory hosts against trypanosome infections. This phenomenon provides further evidence that host specificity of trypanosomes may be partly conditioned by the presence of natural antibodies.