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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to help concretize the relevant constructs, and then usied these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively creating domain-specific survey items, and then further discussed and refining the number, grouping, and wording of the items. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression of the specific leadership attribute and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Means, medians, standard deviations, and ranges of each item were calculated and tabulated. A complete (Pearson) correlation matrix was computed so that the raw inter-item relationships can be observed. For each a priori Domain an equal weighted summary scale was created and tabulated for review. The internal consistency of each a priori scale was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha (α). Items with low Item to Construct coefficients were candidates for elimination or modification, and overall scales with low’s will undergo further discussion. To challenge our assumptions of the construction and integrity of each domain, we employed exploratory Principal Components Analysis (PCA), followed by orthogonally rotated Factor Analysis (FA). We also forced the PCA / FA analysis to extract the a priori dimensions that allowed us to compare if the empirical and a priori structures match. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are partnering with the CTSA programs at Penn and Yale to assess issues of generalizability and scalability. We are working with Vanderbilt to install survey onto REDCap for ease of dissemination. Will continue to assess psychometric properties and refine as we receive more input.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
In an earlier study, melt/freeze rates beneath most of the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, were estimated using an assumption of a steady-state ice shelf applied to a velocity field derived from RADARSAT and ERS-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data and an ice-thickness map inferred from ERS-1 satellite radar altimeter data. Here, we use these basal accumulation rates and the InSAR velocity data to estimate the distribution and thickness of marine ice beneath the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf. These estimates are compared with a marine-ice thickness map derived from radio-echo sounding (RES) data and airborne radar altimetry. In general, we find close agreement between these estimates. In the few locations where there are significant differences, the discrepancies are largely attributable to artifacts in the radar-altimeter thickness map. With improvements such as a much smaller footprint, the next generation of altimeters should overcome many of these limitations, leading to improved marine-ice accumulation estimates. Overall, the good agreement with the RES data validates the InSAR-based estimates over much of the Ronne Ice Shelf.
Recent satellite investigations revealed that in the 1990s the grounding line of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers, West Antarctica, retreated several km, the ice surface on the interior of the basins lowered 10 cm a–1, and Pine Island Glacier thinned 1.6 ma–1. These observations, however, were not sufficient to determine the cause of the changes. Here, we present satellite radar interferometry data that show the thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier are caused by an acceleration of ice flow of about 18 ± 2% in 8 years. Thwaites Glacier maintained a nearly constant flow regime at its center, but widened along the sides, and increased its 30 ± 15% mass deficit by another 4% in 4 years. The combined mass loss from both glaciers, if correct, contributes an estimated 0.08 ± 0.03 mma–1 global sea-level rise in 2000.
The acoustic impedance of the subglacial material beneath 7.2 km profiles on four ice streams in Antarctica has been measured using a seismic technique. The ice streams span a wide range of dynamic conditions with flow rates of 35–464 m a–1. The acoustic impedance indicates that poorly lithified or dilated sedimentary material is ubiquitous beneath these ice streams. Meanacoustic impedance across each profile correlates well with basal shear stress and the slipperiness of the bed, indicating that acoustic impedance is a good diagnostic not only for the porosity of the subglacial material, but also for its dynamic state (deforming or non-deforming). Beneath two of the ice streams, lodged (non-deforming) and dilated (deforming) sediment coexist but their distribution is not obviously controlled by basal topography or ice thickness. Their distribution may be controlled by complex material properties or the deformation history. Beneath Rutford Ice Stream, lodged and dilated sediment coexist and are distributed in broad bands several kilometres wide, whileon Talutis Inlet there is considerable variability over much shorter distances; this may reflect differences in the mechanism of drainage beneath the ice streams. The material beneath the slow-moving Carlson Inlet is probably lodged but unlithified sediment; this is consistent with the hypothesis that Carlson Inlet was once a fast-flowing ice stream but is now in a stagnant phase, which could possibly be revivedby raised basal water content. The entire bed beneath fast-flowing Evans Ice Stream is dilated sediment.
This paper presents an overview of internal layering across Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, as measured from airborne-radar data acquired during a survey conducted by the British Antarctic Survey and the University of Texas in the 2004/05 season. Internal layering is classified according to type (continuous/discontinuous/missing) and the results compared with InSAR velocities. Several areas exhibit disruption of internal layers that is most likely caused by large basal shear stresses. Signs of changes in flow were identified in a few inter-tributary areas, but overall the layering classification and distribution of layers indicate that only minor changes in ice-flow regime have taken place. This is supported by bed-topography data that show the main trunk of the glacier, as well as some of the tributaries, are topographically controlled and located in deep basins.
The basic theory of crevasse formation suggests that crevasses initiate at or near the surface. However, due to variations in stress with depth, it has been suggested that it is possible for crevasses to initiate at depths of 10–30m. From December 2006 to January 2007, hot-water drilling on Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, was found to trigger crevasses. Satellite imagery and field investigations in 2008, including ice cores, radar and GPS, revealed that these formed a new band of arcuate (curvilinear) crevasses around 70 km long and 100 m deep. This new band is located 10 km upstream from the previous limit of the arcuate crevasse zone. The crevasses were triggered on drilling through an exceptional ice layer at >20m depth. Ice layers within the firn will change both the strength and stress intensity. As the firn changes spatially and temporally (e.g. with the burial of an ice layer), it is possible for the position of crevasse initiation to change whilst the along-stream strain-rate profile remains constant. However, the main cause of an upstream migration of the arcuate crevasse zone on Pine Island Glacier is still likely to be an increase in strain rate.
Airborne radio-echo sounding investigations in the upper reaches of Bailey Ice Stream and Slessor Glacier, Coats Land, East Antarctica, have shown that enhanced-flow tributaries are associated with well-defined areas of relatively thicker ice, and are separated from each other by areas of relatively thinner ice. A numerical modelling study has revealed that while internal ice deformation might account for all the observed flow in inter-tributary areas and the majority in the Slessor tributaries, a significant proportion of the flow of Bailey tributary is attributable to basal motion. Further, investigations of depth-corrected basal reflection power indicate that the bed underlying both Bailey and Slessor enhanced-flow tributaries is significantly smoother than in the slower-moving inter-tributary areas. It is thus proposed that enhanced motion within Bailey tributary (and also perhaps Slessor) may be facilitated by a reduction in basal roughness, caused by the accumulation of water and/or sediments within subglacial valleys, or by the erosion and smoothing of bed obstacles.
Rutford Ice Stream and Carlson Inlet are neighbouring glaciers in West Antarctica. Rutford Ice Stream flows at speeds greater than 350 m a−1, whereas Carlson Inlet, which has some similar dimensions and supports a similar driving stress, flows 10–50 times slower. We discuss a range of observations concerning Carlson Inlet, and conclude that there is good indirect evidence that it is a relict ice stream, which ceased streaming more than 240 years BP, but sufficiently recently that its surface morphology, basal water content and basal morphology still retain characteristics produced by streaming. An analysis of expected subglacial drainage pathways indicates that Carlson Inlet is not streaming because it is currently starved of subglacial water, which is currently directed beneath Rutford Ice Stream. This current state of water piracy by Rutford Ice Stream is, however, sensitive to minor thickness changes on the ice streams; a ∼120 m (<4%) thickening of Rutford Ice Stream would divert almost all the subglacial water in the system towards Carlson Inlet and could reactivate its flow. The result highlights the importance of subglacial drainage in controlling ice-stream evolution and the requirement for ice-sheet models to couple ice flow with subglacial drainage.
It has been an underlying assumption in many studies that near-surface layers imaged by ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be interpreted as depositional markers or isochrones. It has been shown that GPR layers can be approximately reproduced from the measured electrical properties of ice, but these material layers are generally narrower and more closely spaced than can be resolved by typical GPR systems operating in the range 50−400 MHz. Thus GPR layers should be interpreted as interference patterns produced from closely spaced and potentially discontinuous material layers, and should not be assumed to be interpretable as precise markers of isochrones. We present 100 MHz GPR data from Lyddan Ice Rise, Antarctica, in which near-surface (<50 m deep) layers are clearly imaged. The growth of the undulations in these layers with depth is approximately linear, implying that, rather than resulting from a pattern of vertical strain rate, they do correspond to some pattern of snowfall variation. Furthermore, comparison of the GPR layers with snow-stake measurements suggests that around 80% of the rms variability in mean annual accumulation is present in the GPR layers. The observations suggest that, at least in this case, the GPR layers do approximate isochrones, and that patterns of snow accumulation over Lyddan Ice Rise are dominated by extremely persistent spatial variations with only a small residual spatial variability. If this condition is shown to be widely applicable it may reduce the period required for measurements of surface elevation change to be taken as significant indications of mass imbalance.
We use models constrained by remotely sensed data from Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers, West Antarctica, to infer basal properties that are difficult to observe directly. The results indicate strong basal melting in areas upstream of the grounding lines of both glaciers, where the ice flow is fast and the basal shear stress is large. Farther inland, we find that both glaciers have ‘mixed’ bed conditions, with extensive areas of both bedrock and weak till. In particular, there are weak areas along much of Pine Island Glacier’s main trunk that could prove unstable if it retreats past the band of strong bed just above its current grounding line. In agreement with earlier studies, our forward ice-stream model shows a strong sensitivity to small perturbations in the grounding line position. These results also reveal a large sensitivity to the assumed bed (sliding or deforming) model, with non-linear sliding laws producing substantially greater dynamic response than earlier simulations that assume a linear-viscous till rheology. Finally, comparison indicates that our results using a plastic bed are compatible with the limited observational constraints and theoretical work that suggests an upper bound exists on maximum basal shear stress.
In recent decades, several ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula have diminished in size as a result of climate warming. Using aerial photographic, satellite and survey data we document a similar retreat of Jones Ice Shelf, which was another small ice shelf on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. This ice shelf was roughly stable between 1947 and 1969, but in the early 1970s it began to retreat and had completely disappeared by early 2003. Jones Ice Shelf has two ice fronts only a few kilometres apart and its retreat provides a unique opportunity to examine how different ice fronts retreat when subjected to similar climate forcing. We mapped the retreat of both the east and west ice fronts of Jones Ice Shelf and found that, although individual episodes of retreat may be related to particularly warm summers, the overall progress of retreat of the two ice fronts has been rather different. This suggests that in this case the course of retreat is controlled by the geometry of the embayment and location of pinning points as well as climatic events.
We present newly acquired airborne radar data showing ice thickness and surface elevation for Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica. These data, when combined with earlier measurements, suggest the presence of a lightly grounded area immediately above the grounding line of Pine Island Glacier. We identify this region as an “ice plain”. It lies close to the centre line of the glacier, has an elevation above buoyancy of <50 m and extends inland for >28 km. The upstream edge of the ice plain is defined by a “coupling line”. The configuration of the ice plain implies that nearby thinning of the ice stream would result in substantial grounding-line retreat. We suggest that the grounding-line retreat of Pine Island Glacier, observed between 1992 and 1996, probably commenced sometime after 1981.
Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean’s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt a−1. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150 m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.
The potential for future dynamical instability of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, has been addressed in a number of studies, but information on its past remains limited. In this study we use airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) data acquired over Pine Island Glacier to investigate past variations in accumulation pattern. In the dataset a distinctive pattern of layers was identified in the central part of the glacier basin. We use these layers as chronological identifiers in order to construct elevation maps of the internal stratigraphy. The observed internal layer stratigraphy is then compared to calculated stratigraphy from a three-dimensional ice-flow model that has been forced with different accumulation scenarios. The model results indicate that the accumulation pattern is likely to have changed at least twice since the deposition of the deepest identified layer. Additional RES data linked to the Byrd ice core provide an approximate timescale. This timescale suggests that the layers were deposited at the beginning of or during the Holocene period. Thus the widespread changes occurring in the coastal extent of the West Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the last glacial period could have been accompanied by changes in accumulation pattern.
The ApRES (autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder) instrument is a robust, lightweight and relatively inexpensive radar that has been designed to allow long-term, unattended monitoring of ice-shelf and ice-sheet thinning. We describe the instrument and demonstrate its capabilities and limitations by presenting results from three trial campaigns conducted in different Antarctic settings. Two campaigns were ice sheet-based – Pine Island Glacier and Dome C – and one was conducted on the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice-shelf site demonstrates the ability of the instrument to collect a time series of basal melt rates; the two grounded ice applications show the potential to recover profiles of vertical strain rate and also demonstrate some of the limitations of the present system.
Since the 1970s, the sudden, rapid collapse of 20% of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has led to large-scale thinning and acceleration of its tributary glaciers. The leading hypothesis for the collapse of most of these ice shelves is the process of hydrofracturing, whereby a water-filled crevasse is opened by the hydrostatic pressure acting at the crevasse tip. This process has been linked to observed atmospheric warming through the increased supply of meltwater. Importantly, the low-density firn layer near the ice-shelf surface, providing a porous medium in which meltwater can percolate and refreeze, has to be filled in with refrozen meltwater first, before hydrofracturing can occur at all. Here we build upon this notion of firn air depletion as a precursor of ice-shelf collapse, by using a firn model to show that pore space was depleted in the firn layer on former ice shelves, which enabled their collapse due to hydrofracturing. Two climate scenario runs with the same model indicate that during the 21st century most Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves, and some minor ice shelves elsewhere, are more likely to become susceptible to collapse following firn air depletion. If warming continues into the 22nd century, similar depletion will become widespread on ice shelves around East Antarctica. Our model further suggests that a projected increase in snowfall will protect the Ross and Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelves from hydrofracturing in the coming two centuries.
The presence of crevasses on the surface of ice masses indicates that a fracture criterion has been met. Understanding how crevasses form will provide information about the stress and strain-rate fields in the ice. This study derives a relationship between measurements of strain rate and observations of crevassing on the surface of ice masses. A literature search yielded 17 polar and alpine locations where strain rates had been measured and crevassing recorded. By plotting strain rates (converted to stresses using a creep law) using axes representing the surface-parallel principal stresses, failure envelopes were derived by enclosing measurements where surface crevassing was absent. The derived failure envelopes were found to conform well to theoretical ones predicted by the Coulomb and the maximum octahedral shear stress (von Mises) theories of failure. The derived failure envelopes were scaled by the tensile strength, which was found to vary from 90 to 320 kPa. There was no systematic variation of tensile strength with either temperature at 10 m depth or the method used to locate the crevasses. The observed variation in tensile strength could result from variations in ice properties (e.g. crystal size, impurity content or density) or could be related to uncertainty in the constitutive relation. Creep flow and fracture share a very similar temperature dependence, suggesting similar crystal-scale processes are responsible for both. The observed relationship will provide a supplementary tool with which to verify and test models of ice dynamics against remotely sensed imagery. The study also indicates that a temperature rise of a few degrees throughout the ice column will not result directly in any increase in calving rates from the large Antarctic ice shelves such as the Filchner–Ronne or Ross Ice Shelves.
The positions of ice-stream grounding zones are uniquely sensitive to changes in the mass balance of the ice sheet. Present methods for locating groundingzone features are either imprecise or require considerable effort in interpretation and so are of little value for change studies. We present a new method which uses the kinematic GPS technique to locate the position of the limit of tidal flexure. The method involves the collection of at least two surface-elevation profiles along the same track through the grounding zone, at different times during the tidal cycle. The elevation profiles obtained coincide upstream of the: limit of flexure but diverge downstream of the limit of flexure. Subtracting the profiles produces a tidal-def1ection profile which shows directly the response of the ice shelf to the tidal forcing.
We present two examples of the use of this method, both on Rutford Ice Stream. Antarctica. The first is across the grounding zone and shows that the method is capable of measuring grounding positions to around 200 m precision. The second, taken across an active shear margin, shows a tidal-deflection profile, with an absence of steps that would indicate the presence of fracture planes penetrating from the ice base to sea level.