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Dietary Zn has significant impacts on the growth and development of breeding rams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn source and concentration on serum Zn concentration, growth performance, wool traits and reproductive performance in rams. Forty-four Targhee rams (14 months; 68 ± 18 kg BW) were used in an 84-day completely randomized design and were fed one of three pelleted dietary treatments: (1) a control without fortified Zn (CON; n = 15; ~1 × NRC); (2) a diet fortified with a Zn amino acid complex (ZnAA; n = 14; ~2 × NRC) and (3) a diet fortified with ZnSO4 (ZnSO4; n = 15; ~2 × NRC). Growth and wool characteristics measured throughout the course of the study were BW, average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (G : F), longissimus dorsi muscle depth (LMD), back fat (BF), wool staple length (SL) and average fibre diameter (AFD). Blood was collected from each ram at four time periods to quantify serum Zn and testosterone concentrations. Semen was collected 1 to 2 days after the trial was completed. There were no differences in BW (P = 0.45), DMI (P = 0.18), LMD (P = 0.48), BF (P = 0.47) and AFD (P = 0.9) among treatment groups. ZnSO4 had greater (P ≤ 0.03) serum Zn concentrations compared with ZnAA and CON treatments. Rams consuming ZnAA had greater (P ≤ 0.03) ADG than ZnSO4 and CON. There tended to be differences among groups for G : F (P = 0.06), with ZnAA being numerically greater than ZnSO4 and CON. Wool staple length regrowth was greater (P < 0.001) in ZnSO4 and tended to be longer (P = 0.06) in ZnAA treatment group compared with CON. No differences were observed among treatments in scrotal circumference, testosterone, spermatozoa concentration within ram semen, % motility, % live sperm and % sperm abnormalities (P ≥ 0.23). Results indicated beneficial effects of feeding increased Zn concentrations to developing Targhee rams, although Zn source elicited differential responses in performance characteristics measured.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metric was created by the American Heart Association with the goal of educating the public on seven modifiable factors that contribute to heart health. While it is well documented that these ideal health behaviors lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, the association between the LS7 ideal health metrics and end stage renal disease (ESRD) risk has not been examined in a lower socioeconomic population at high risk for both ESRD and CVD. Our objective is to examine the association between the LS7 score and incident ESRD in a cohort of white and black men and women in the southeastern US, where rates of CVD and ESRD are high. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study recruited ~86,000 low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Utilizing a nested case-control design, our analysis included 1628 incident cases of ESRD identified via linkage of the cohort with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2015. Controls (n = 4884) were individually matched 3:1 with ESRD cases based on age, sex, and race. Demographic, medical, and lifestyle information were obtained via baseline questionnaire. The AHA definitions for ideal health were used for non-smoking (never or quit >12 months), body mass index (BMI<25kg/m2) and physical activity (>75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or >150min/week of moderate/vigorous activity). Modified definitions were used for consuming a healthy diet [Healthy Eating Index (HEI10) score>70] and for blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol, based on self-reported no history of diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. The number of ideal health parameters were summed to generate the LS7 score, which ranged from 0-7 with higher scores indicating more ideal health. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident ESRD associated with LS7 score were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for income and education. The SCCS ESRD case-cohort dataset will be available by TS 2019 and analyses will be completed to adjust for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function and to examine whether eGFR modifies the relationship between LS7 and incident ESRD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 54 years, 55% (3600) of participants were women, and 87% (5656) were black. A total of 58% (943) of ESRD cases were non-smokers compared to 54% (2633) of controls. ESRD cases had higher prevalence of BMI>25 kg/m2 (81% vs. 74%), hypertension (84% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (48% vs. 34%), and diabetes (66% vs. 22%) compared to controls. A total of 18% (839) of controls and 12% (194) of ESRD cases met ideal exercise recommendations, and 20% of either cases (302) or controls (916) had a HEI10 score above 70. The median LS7 score for controls and ESRD cases was 3 and 2, respectively, and 17% (983) of participants had a low score (0-1) while 2% (105) met 6 or 7 ideal health metrics. Higher LS7 score was associated with lower odds of ESRD (P-trend<0.001). Participants with LS7 score >3 (above median) had 75% reduced odds of ESRD (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.22, 0.29) compared to those with a score of 2 or less. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In the SCCS population, the presence of any 3 or more ideal health behaviors is associated with reduced odds of developing ESRD. The components of the LS7 represent important modifiable risk factors that may be targets for future interventions driven by the patient. The attributable risk due to each factor is needed to dissect which ideal behaviors are the most beneficial.
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) at 2years.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used to compare AE frequencies for long-term treatment with those for short-term treatment (ARM-TD and AIM-TD). This analysis reports results up to 2 years (Week106).
343 patients were enrolled (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 received deutetrabenazine). There were 331.4 patient-years of exposure in this analysis. Through Week 106, EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine and placebo, including AEs of interest (akathisia/restlessness [long-term EAIR: 0.02; short-term EAIR range: 0–0.25], anxiety [0.09; 0.13–0.21], depression [0.09; 0.04–0.13], diarrhea [0.06; 0.06–0.34], parkinsonism [0.01; 0–0.08], somnolence/sedation [0.09; 0.06–0.81], and suicidality [0.02; 0–0.13]). The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.15) was similar to those observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.08), dose reduction (0.17), and dose suspension (0.06) were uncommon.
These results confirm the safety outcomes seen in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies, demonstrating that deutetrabenazine is well tolerated for long-term use in TD patients.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California,USA
Funding Acknowledgements: Funding: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
Under current Australian industry pre-slaughter guidelines, lambs may be off feed for up to 48 h before slaughter. The purpose of this study was to examine what proportion of circulating metabolites at slaughter are due to stress and feed deprivation and if this response differs between Merino and Terminal genotypes. In addition the effect of feed deprivation on carcass weight and meat quality was examined. Jugular blood samples were collected from 88 Merino and Terminal sired lambs at rest and at slaughter following 24, 36 and 48 h of feed deprivation and plasma analysed for glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB). From the same carcasses hot carcass weight (HCWT) were measured as well as a suite of meat quality traits measured such as M. longissimus lumborum (loin) and M. semitendinosus pH at 24 h postmortem. Loin samples were also analysed for intramuscular fat content and Warner–Bratzer Shear Force. Merino sired lambs had a higher NEFA response compared to Terminal sired lambs at slaughter after 24, 36 and 48 h of feed deprivation, with NEFA levels up to 35% higher than previously reported in the same animals at rest in animal house conditions, whereas BHOB response to feed deprivation was not affected by sire type (P>0.05) and similar to previously reported at rest. In addition to the metabolic effects, increasing feed deprivation from 36 h was associated with a 3% reduction in HCWT and dressing percentage as well as causing increased ultimate pH in the M. semitendinosus in Merino sired lambs. Findings from this study demonstrate that Merino and Terminal sired lambs differ in their metabolic response to feed deprivation under commercial slaughter conditions. In addition, commercial feed deprivation appears to have a negative effect on ultimate pH and carcass weight and warrants further investigation.
The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic response to feed deprivation up to 48 h in low and high yielding lamb genotypes. It was hypothesised that Terminal sired lambs would have decreased plasma glucose and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB) concentrations in response to feed deprivation compared to Merino sired lambs. In addition, it was hypothesised that the metabolic changes due to feed deprivation would also be greater in progeny of sires with breeding values for greater growth, muscling and leanness. Eighty nine lambs (45 ewes, 44 wethers) from Merino dams with Merino or Terminal sires with a range in Australian Sheep Breeding Values (ASBVs) for post-weaning weight (PWT), post-weaning eye muscle depth and post-weaning fat depth (PFAT) were used in this experiment. Blood samples were collected via jugular cannulas every 6 h from time 0 to 48 h of feed deprivation for the determination of plasma glucose, NEFA, BHOB and lactate concentration. From 12 to 48 h of feed deprivation plasma glucose concentration decreased (P < 0.05) by 25% from 4.04 ± 0.032 mmol/l to 3.04 ± 0.032 mmol/l. From 6 h NEFA concentration increased (P < 0.05) from 0.15 ± 0.021 mmol/l by almost 10-fold to 1.34 ± 0.021 mmol/l at 48 h of feed deprivation. Feed deprivation also influenced BHOB concentrations and from 12 to 48 h it increased (P < 0.05) from 0.15 ± 0.010 mmol/l to 0.52 ± 0.010 mmol/l. Merino sired lambs had a 8% greater reduction in glucose and 29% and 10% higher NEFA and BHOB response, respectively, compared to Terminal sired lambs (P < 0.05). In Merino sired lambs, increasing PWT was also associated with an increase in glucose and decline in NEFA and BHOB concentration (P < 0.05). In Terminal sired lambs, increasing PFAT was associated with an increase in glucose and decline in NEFA concentration (P < 0.05). Contrary to the hypothesis, Merino sired lambs showed the greatest metabolic response to fasting especially in regards to fat metabolism.
People with brain impairments are less active than the general population and consequently have an increased risk of chronic disease. To increase activity requires interventions that are theory driven and evidence based. Here, we describe the adapted physical activity program (APAP), a physical activity promotion program with demonstrated efficacy in community dwelling adults with brain impairments. Distinguishing features of the APAP include the following: delivery in the participants home/or community environment and the utilisation of the principals of community-based rehabilitation; the assessment of each of the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (i.e., health conditions, impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions and personal and environmental characteristics) to determine how they will impact physical activity adoption and maintenance; the incorporation of theory-based physical activity adoption and maintenance strategies; the utilisation of lifestyle physical activity programs (including client-centred selection of activities) and/or structured exercise programs (requiring principles of exercise prescription). It is anticipated that this program description will permit researchers and/or practitioners to implement the program, replicate its evaluation and/or translate the program into multi-professional rehabilitation settings.
The choice of animal-based traits to identify and deal with production diseases is often a challenge for pig farmers, researchers and other related professionals. This systematic review focused on production diseases, that is, the diseases that arise from management practices, affecting the digestive, locomotory and respiratory system of pigs. The aim was to classify all traits that have been measured and conduct a meta-analysis to quantify the impact of diseases on these traits so that these can be used as indicators for intervention. Data were extracted from 67 peer-reviewed publications selected from 2339 records. Traits were classified as productive (performance and carcass composition), behavioural, biochemical and molecular traits. A meta-analysis based on mixed models was performed on traits assessed more than five times across studies, using the package metafor of the R software. A total of 524 unique traits were recorded 1 to 31 times in a variety of sample material including blood, muscle, articular cartilage, bone or at the level of whole animal. No behavioural traits were recorded from the included experiments. Only 14 traits were measured on more than five occasions across studies. Traits within the biochemical, molecular and productive trait groups were reported most frequently in the published literature and were most affected by production diseases; among these were some cytokines (interleukin (IL) 1-β, IL6, IL8 and tumour necrosis factor-α), acute phase proteins (haptoglobin) and daily weight gain. Quantification of the influence of factors relating to animal characteristics or husbandry practices was not possible, due to the low frequency of reporting throughout the literature. To conclude, this study has permitted a holistic assessment of traits measured in the published literature to study production diseases occurring in various stages of the production cycle of pigs. It shows the lack of consensus and common measurements of traits to characterise production diseases within the scientific literature. Specific traits, most of them relating to performance characteristics or immunological response of pigs, are proposed for further study as potential tools for the prognosis and study of production diseases.
The majority of lambs in the United States are born from late winter to early spring and pregnant ewes are generally sheared in the last third of pregnancy. Although there are benefits to shearing before parturition, shorn animals may be more vulnerable to the cold, highly variable climatic conditions associated with these seasons. The objective of this study was to determine if late gestation shearing induces differences in individual BW, dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma metabolite concentration of finewool ewes managed outdoors during winter. Thirty-six mature, pregnant Rambouillet ewes (3.8±0.45 years; 76.8±11.4 kg) were managed in a drylot with ad libitum access to pelleted alfalfa in bunks capable of measuring individual daily DMI. The treatment group consisted of ewes sheared at ~5 weeks before the estimated parturition date (shorn; n=18). Unshorn ewes (n=18) remained in full fleece throughout the experiment and were shorn on the last day of the experiment ~2 weeks before the estimated parturition date. Blood was collected on days 0 (before shearing shorn group), 7, 14 and 21 (before shearing unshorn group) of the trial, and plasma was isolated and analyzed for non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose (GLU) concentrations. There was no effect of shearing on ewe DMI or BW during the trial (P⩾0.35). Plasma NEFA and GLU concentrations were similar (P⩾0.36) between shearing groups, though plasma BHB concentration was 103.7 μmol/l greater (24.1%; P<0.01) in unshorn ewes. Lamb BW at birth was not affected (P=0.30) by ewe shearing treatment. Under conditions of this study, no differences in economically important aspects of sheep production were observed between shorn and unshorn pregnant ewes.
The environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is responsible for the potentially fatal disease melioidosis. Factors responsible for the temporospatial distribution of cases are incompletely understood, although a combination of rainfall, groundwater levels and the physicochemical properties of soil are important. The distribution of culture-positive cases of melioidosis from 1996 to 2016 in Far North Queensland, Australia, was investigated to determine the association with different soil types and landforms in Cairns, the region's largest city. Cases were clustered on alluvial fan landforms of strongly bleached gradational textured and yellow massive gradational textured soils indicating these soils are more suitable for B. pseudomallei and risk of melioidosis infection is higher in these areas, cases were less frequent on other soil types on alluvial fan landforms (despite comparable population density) and beach ridges. This indicates that the combination of these soils might be more suitable for B. pseudomallei, increasing the risk of disease in these locations. Sociodemographic characterisics of the population in cluster locations were considered. Knowledge of local soil characteristics may help predict cases of melioidosis and inform public health strategies to prevent the disease. Because melioidosis case clusters were identified, testing for the presence of B. pseudomallei across the study area is a useful target of future research.
Papal relations with monarchs in the later eleventh and twelfth centuries have often been characterized as ‘feudal’, as indicative of some sort of papal dominium mundi, or as an effort to advance papal ‘empire’ over the kingdoms of Christendom. More recent scholarship has drawn a distinction between ‘protection’ and ‘feudal’ relationships with kings. However, the supposed distinction between the papacy's temporal overlordship of rulers and its spiritual protection may have obscured more than it has revealed. It was only after the disputes over lay investiture of bishops in the period 1078–1122 that a distinctive protective relationship began to emerge. Previously, rulers had been willing to ‘accept their kingdom from the pope's hand’ or to participate in ceremonies of investiture. In the twelfth century these relationships became more codified and any suggestion that the papacy actually gave kingdoms to kings faded. Thus, the nature of papal ‘empire’ – or, at least, temporal authority over kings – changed markedly during this period.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo, and was generally well tolerated.
To evaluate the long-term safety/tolerability and efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD. Week 54 open-labelresults are reported in this interim analysis.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12 mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48 mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safetymeasures included incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), drug-related AEs, and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. This analysis reports results up to Week 54.
304 patients enrolled in the extension study. There were 215 patient-years of exposure in this analysis, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs) of AEs (incidence/patient-years) were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine treatment and placebo. The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.14) was similar to rates observed with short-termplacebo (EAIR 0.33) and deutetrabenazine (EAIR range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to study discontinuation (EAIR 0.08), dose reduction (EAIR 0.17), and dose suspension (EAIR 0.09) were uncommon.
Long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine was generally safe and well tolerated in patients with TD, and did not result in cumulative toxicity.
Presented at: The American Psychiatric Association 2017 Annual Meeting; May 20–24, 2017; San Diego, California, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder resulting from exposure to dopamine-receptor antagonists. In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine demonstrated significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo, and was generally well tolerated.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term deutetrabenazine therapy in patients with TD.
Patients with TD who completed the ARM-TD or AIM-TD studies were eligible to enter this open-label, single-arm, long-term safety study after they completed the 1-week washout period and final evaluation in the blinded portion of the trial. Efficacy endpoints included the change in AIMS score from baseline, and treatment success (defined as “much improved” or “very much improved”) on the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). This analysis reports results up to Week 54.
304 patients enrolled in the extension study. At Week 54, the mean (standard error) change in AIMS score was –5.1 (0.52). After 6 weeks of deutetrabenazine treatment, the proportion of patients who achieved treatment success was 58% per the CGIC and 53% per the PGIC, and by Week 54 was 72% per the CGIC and 59% per the PGIC, thus demonstrating maintenance or enhancement of benefit over time. Deutetrabenazine was well tolerated for up to 54 weeks, and compared with the ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, no new safety signals were detected.
54 weeks of deutetrabenazine treatment was generally efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in patients with TD.
Presented at: The American Psychiatric Association 2017 Annual Meeting; May 20–24, 2017; San Diego, California, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that is often irreversible, can affect any body region, and can be debilitating. In the ARM-TDand AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine treatment demonstrated statistically and clinically significant reductions in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo (primary endpoint).
To evaluate the efficacy of deutetrabenazine, as measured by the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale, in patients with TD from the pooled ARM-TDand AIM-TD (24 and 36 mg/day doses) data sets, as compared with the pooled placebo cohort.
ARM-TD and AIM-TD were 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that evaluated the safety and efficacy of deutetrabenazine for thetreatment of TD. The key secondary endpoint of each study was the proportion of patients “much improved” or “very much improved” (treatment success) at Week 12 on theCGIC.
At Week 12, the odds of treatment success among patients treated with deutetrabenazine (n=152) was more than double that of patients given placebo (n=107; odds ratio: 2.12; P=0.005). In a categorical analysis of CGIC ratings, patients treated with deutetrabenazine showed greater improvement than patients given placebo (P=0.003). Patients treated with deutetrabenazine also had a significantly better treatment response than those given placebo (least-squares mean CGIC score treatment difference: –0.4; P=0.006).
Deutetrabenazine treatment led to statistically and clinically significant improvements in TD symptoms based on the CGIC result, suggesting that clinicians were able to recognize the benefit in patients treated with deutetrabenazine.
Presented at: The International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders; June 4–8, 2017; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
These studies were funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Dietary protein is the main source of nitrous oxide and nitrates, harmful pollutants which are produced in pig units. So reducing the level of protein in the diet may be environmentally friendly. But will this compromise performance? This study compared three ‘nutritional strategies’ providing different protein and energy levels as pigs of two breeds grew from 40 to 120kg live weight.
Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50–64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period.
Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome – both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment.
The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.
Einstein X-ray observations of the young supernova remnants Cassiopeia A (Murray et al. 1980) and Tycho (Seward, Gorenstein and Tucker 1982) indicate that the swept-up mass does not much exceed that of the observed ejecta. The initial density distribution of the ejecta and surrounding material is then important in determining the X-ray structure and evolution. Some aspects of this behaviour have been dealt with in previous numerical (e.g. Gull 1973; Itoh 1977; Jones, Smith and Straka 1981) and analytical (e.g. Chevalier 1982a,b) studies. We present here results obtained from numerical models covering a wider range of initial conditions. In particular, we consider the effect of a constant stellar wind from the progenitor star on the expansion of the remnant. We have previously suggested that variable mass loss from SN1006 may explain its warm filled interior (Fabian, Stewart and Brinkmann 1982).