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A staple theme in clinical psychology, emotion regulation, or the ability to manage one's emotions, is directly linked with personal wellbeing and the ability to effectively navigate the social world. Until recently, this concept has been limited to a focus on intrapersonal processes, such as suppression. Less emphasis has been placed on developmental, social, and cultural aspects of emotion regulation. We argue here that as social beings, our engagement in emotion regulation may often occur interpersonally, with trusted others helping us to regulate our emotions. This review will highlight recent research on interpersonal emotion regulation processes.
The first observations of the [CII] line toward the nuclei of gas-rich external galaxies, showed that the far-infrared line emission contributes up to 1% of the total luminosity and most likely originates from dense photon-dominated regions (PDRs) associated with the surfaces of molecular clouds exposed to FUV from external or embedded OB stars (Crawford et al. 1985, Lugten et al. 1986, Stacey et al. 1991). We have mapped the [CII] emission toward NGC 6946 over an 8' × 6' (23 × 17 kpc) (Madden et al. 1991) using the Max-Planck Instutute/U.C.Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO).
We report 55″ resolution images of the 15μm [CII] fine structure line from the spiral galaxies M83, M51, and NGC6946. We drive variations in the global star formation activity within and between these galaxies.
Latest Sandbian to early Katian sequences across Laurentia's epicontinental sea exhibit a transition from lithologies characterized as ‘warm-water’ carbonates to those characterized as ‘cool-water'carbonates. This shift occurs across the regionally recognized M4/M5 sequence stratigraphic boundary and has been attributed to climatic cooling and glaciation, basin reorganization and upwelling of open ocean water, and/or increased water turbidity and terrigenous input associated with the Taconic tectophase. Documentation of oxygen isotopic trends across the M4/M5 and through bracketing strata provides a potential means of distinguishing among these alternative scenarios; however, oxygen isotopic records generated to date have failed to settle the debate. This lack of resolution is because δ18O records are open to multiple interpretations and potentially confounding factors related to local environmental conditions have not been tested by examining the critical interval in multiple areas and different depositional settings. To begin to address this shortcoming, we present new species-specific and mixed assemblage conodont δ18O values in samples spanning the M4/M5 boundary from the Upper Mississippi Valley, Alabama, and Virginia. The new results are combined with previous studies, providing a record of δ18O variability across SE Laurentia. The combined dataset allows us to test for regional trends at a resolution not previously available. Our results document a ~1.5‰ decrease in values across Laurentia instead of increasing δ18O values across the M4/M5 as predicted in various ‘cool-water’ scenarios. In short, these results do not support a shift to ‘cool-water’ conditions as an explanation for changes in early Katian carbonates across the M4/M5.
We have made 55″ resolution maps of the 158 μm [CII] emission line in the region of the curved, thermal filaments and the +20 / +50 kms−1 molecular clouds in Sgr A. The [CII] emission is spatially well correlated with the radio continuum in the filaments. The large intensity of the [CII] radiation excludes shocks as the origin of the ionization and we conclude that the curved filaments are most likely photo-ionized HII regions at the surface of dense molecular clouds. Our [CII] maps of the +20 / +50 kms−1 clouds indicate that the +50 kms−1 cloud is close to (<10pc) Sgr A west while the more massive +20 kms−1 cloud is at a greater distance from the center (>30pc).
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( − 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.
Response to dietary fat manipulation is highly heterogeneous, yet generic population-based recommendations aimed at reducing the burden of CVD are given. The APOE epsilon genotype has been proposed to be an important determinant of this response. The present study reports on the dietary strategy employed in the SATgenɛ (SATurated fat and gene APOE) study, to assess the impact of altered fat content and composition on the blood lipid profile according to the APOE genotype. A flexible dietary exchange model was developed to implement three isoenergetic diets: a low-fat (LF) diet (target composition: 24 % of energy (%E) as fat, 8 %E SFA and 59 %E carbohydrate), a high-saturated fat (HSF) diet (38 %E fat, 18 %E SFA and 45 %E carbohydrate) and a HSF-DHA diet (HSF diet with 3 g DHA/d). Free-living participants (n 88; n 44 E3/E3 and n 44 E3/E4) followed the diets in a sequential design for 8 weeks, each using commercially available spreads, oils and snacks with specific fatty acid profiles. Dietary compositional targets were broadly met with significantly higher total fat (42·8 %E and 41·0 %E v. 25·1 %E, P ≤ 0·0011) and SFA (19·3 %E and 18·6 %E v. 8·33 %E, P ≤ 0·0011) intakes during the HSF and HSF-DHA diets compared with the LF diet, in addition to significantly higher DHA intake during the HSF-DHA diet (P ≤ 0·0011). Plasma phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the proportion of DHA after consumption of the HSF-DHA diet for 8 weeks, which was independent of the APOE genotype. In summary, the dietary strategy was successfully implemented in a free-living population resulting in well-tolerated diets which broadly met the dietary targets set.
The ability to strongly attach biomolecules such as enzymes and antibodies to surfaces underpins a host of technologies that are rapidly growing in utility and importance. Such technologies include biosensors for medical and environmental applications and protein or antibody diagnostic arrays for early disease detection. Emerging new applications include continuous flow reactors for enzymatic chemical, textile or biofuels processing and implantable biomaterials that interact with their host via an interfacial layer of active biomolecules. In many of these applications it is desirable to maintain physical properties of an underlying material whilst engineering a surface suitable for attachment of proteins or peptide constructs. Nanoscale polymeric interlayers are attractive for this purpose.
We have developed interlayers that form the basis of a new biomolecule binding technology with significant advantages over other currently available methods. The interlayers, created by the ion implantation of polymer like surfaces, achieve covalent immobilization on immersion of the surface in protein solution. The interlayers can be created on any underlying material and ion stitched into its surface. The covalent immobilization of biomolecules from solution is achieved through the action of highly reactive free radicals in the interlayer.
In this paper, we present characterisation of the structure and properties of the interlayers and describe a detailed kinetic model for the covalent attachment of protein molecules directly from solution.
A soft ionization laser-based technique using 10.5 eV photon energy has been used to probe radical growth precursors in the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) of a-Si:H. Using a Re filament, it is shown that Si, SiH3, and Si2H6are the major silicon-containing species formed from the hot wire dissociation of silane, and SiH2is at most a very minor product. However, chamber history is found to influence the radical species produced; i.e. SiH3 and Si2H6are largely related to the chamber wall and filament conditions. The gas species produced by W and Re filaments at wire temperatures between 1000oC and 2000oC have been studied and compared. Heating the filament to higher temperatures increases the flux of Si, SiH3 and Si2H6 in a similar fashion for both filament materials. Above 1800oC, the Si intensity saturates, while SiH3 and Si2H6show monotonic increase without saturation up to 2000oC.
In our previous work  we investigated the impact of cold-crystallization on the structure of nanocomposites of PVDF with Lucentite STN™ OMS and observed the crossover composition in which the crystallographic beta phase dominated over alpha phase. Here, melt crystallization of PVDF/OMS nanocomposites was studied in the range of 0 to 1.0 wt% of OMS. In crystallization from melt, a decrease in crystallinity index occurs as a result of an increase in OMS. While beta phase fraction increased with an increase of OMS content in the range of interest, the amount of alpha crystals was found to be dominant even at high OMS compositions. At 1.0 wt% of OMS, beta crystals had reached at most 30% of the total crystallinity. Polarizing optical microscopy (POM) studies showed smaller, less birefringent spherulites with higher melting temperature compared to alpha spherulites appeared with OMS addition. Growth rate of these weakly birefringent spherulites is smaller than that of the strongly birefringent alpha spherulites. The increase in size and amount of the weakly birefringent spherulites with an increase of OMS and their higher melting point suggests these spherulites may be in the beta crystallographic phase.
The choice of filament material has an effect on the decomposition of silane during the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films. The Si radicals produced from W, Re, Mo and Ta filament materials have been probed by laserbased single photon ionization (SPI) as a function of hot wire temperature. The Si radical profiles are shown to demonstrate two distinct regimes: a regime below 1600°C-1800°C (depending on filament material) limited by surface reaction at the filament in which Si concentration increases monotonically; and a mass transfer limited regime above 1600°C-1800°C where Si intensity saturates. The apparent activation energy of Si radical production in the surface reaction regime from Ta (140-170 kcal/mol) is found to be close to the corresponding Si thermal desorption energy from a Ta surface, suggesting that the Si production is controlled by the desorption process from the bare metal. On the other hand, the Si activation energies from W and Re (30-60 kcal/mol) are lower than the related desorption energies, suggesting that other rate limiting reactions play a role for these materials. The apparent activation energy for the Mo surface (60-90 kcal/mol) is intermediate between the other metal values. In addition to the Si radical study, corresponding film deposition is detected in situ by multiple internal reflection infrared (MIR-IR) spectroscopy. The IR measurements have been used to estimate the growth rate of a-Si:H deposited on a Ge substrate. The results show similar activation energies for both the growth rate and the Si formation from a W filament, implying that Si radical production and subsequent film growth may be dominated by the same elementary reactions within the decomposition and film growth processes at low pressure.
The use of density gradient stabilized centrifugal sedimentation (disc centrifugation) for the characterization of abrasive particles in CMP slurries is reported. For slurries prepared with ceria and colloidal silica abrasives, the technique is demonstrated as capable of providing highly repeatable analyses of the abrasive's apparent particle size distribution (PSD). The addition of water soluble organic additives to the slurries is shown to produce large shifts in the apparent PSD relative to the PSD of the pure abrasive particles. Particle-additive interactions driving the shift in apparent PSD could not be interpreted with confidence due to the lack of accurate densities for particle-abrasive complexes formed in the slurry. To address this problem, sucrose density gradients prepared using H2O and D2O were tested as spin fluids of different densities to analyze a colloidal silica standard with a narrow PSD. Preliminary results comparing experimental disc centrifuge data with theoretical simulations of the disc sedimentation pattern suggest that this technique can potentially characterize both the particle diameter and density of abrasive particles in a CMP slurry.
To examine (i) situational characteristics of young adults’ eating occasions, including away-from-home eating, social influences and multi-tasking, and (ii) how these characteristics are associated with specific foods/beverages consumed.
Participants logged numerous characteristics of eating occasions (n 1237) in real time over 7 d.
Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area (Minnesota, USA).
Forty-eight participants, aged 18–23 years.
Half of all eating occasions (46 %) occurred alone, 26 % occurred while watching television and 36 % involved other multi-tasking. Most participants (63 %) did not think about their food choices in advance of eating occasions. Eating that occurred in the absence of television viewing and/or other multi-tasking was less likely to include sweetened beverages and more likely to include items like water, fruit, vegetables, cereal, grains and entrées. Eating occasions occurring alone, and/or those occurring at home, were more likely to include snack foods that required little preparation (e.g. cookies, baked goods) and less likely to include more traditional meal items (e.g. fruits, vegetables, entrée items).
Overall, a large proportion of young adults’ eating occasions occurred alone, while engaging in other activities and with little advanced planning. Although many young adults’ eating occasions consist of a wide range of highly processed, energy-dense, convenience products, more traditional meal settings (i.e. eating at home with others in the absence of multi-tasking) may result in more structured mealtimes and better food choices, such as more fruits and vegetables. Effective behavioural strategies promoting positive eating patterns, including home meal preparation, are urgently needed among young adults.
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of disease during the periparturient period. Increased health disorders have been associated with alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Many different aspects of the bovine immune system change during the periparturient period, but uncontrolled inflammation is a dominant factor in several economically important disorders such as metritis and mastitis. In human medicine, the metabolic syndrome is known to trigger several key events that can initiate and promote uncontrolled systemic inflammation. Altered lipid metabolism, increased circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and oxidative stress are significant contributing factors to systemic inflammation and the development of inflammatory-based diseases in humans. Dairy cows undergo similar metabolic adaptations during the onset of lactation, and it was postulated that some of these physiological events may negatively impact the magnitude and duration of inflammation. This review will discuss how certain types of fatty acids may promote uncontrolled inflammation either directly or through metabolism into potent lipid mediators. The relationship of increased lipid metabolism and oxidative stress to inflammatory dysfunction will be reviewed as well. Understanding more about the underlying cause of periparturient health disorders may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will meet the energy requirements of cows during early lactation and reduce the susceptibility to disease as a function of compromised inflammatory responses.
We have begun a survey of the [CI] 370 μm fine structure line
and of mid-J CO line emission from ULIRGs and starburst galaxies
using our grating spectrometer ZEUS on the CSO. Here we present
observations from six ULIRGs: Mrk 231, Zw 049.057, NGC 6240, Arp 299,
Arp 220, and IRAS 17208. The CO (6-5)/FIR ratio in ULIRGs appears to
be lower for ULIRGs than for LIRGs. Comparing the CO SEDs of the
ULIRGs shows the necessity of obtaining CO rotational transitions up
to at least J = 7 to properly constrain LVG models.
Evidence indicates that workshop training, personalized feedback, and individual consultation can increase competence in motivational interviewing (MI) among highly motivated and skilled substance abuse counselors. Little is known, however, about the translational value of these training strategies for counselors with fewer counseling skills and less stated motivation to learn MI. This study presents evidence from a randomized, controlled trial of 129 behavioral health providers assigned to receive workshop training and enrichments to learn MI. A diverse group of Air Force behavioral health providers working in substance abuse treatment programs were trained in MI and subsequently observed in clinical sessions at 4, 8 and 12 months after training. Results indicate that training was effective in increasing the skill level of these clinicians; however, these gains had decreased by the 4-month follow-up point. Training enrichments in the form of personalized feedback and consultation phone calls did not have an expected, additive effect on clinician skill level. The results of this study lend support to the hypothesis that a greater investment of resources and incentives may be necessary to achieve gains in MI skills for counselors with relatively lower baseline skills than those commonly participating in research studies.