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Stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumours can expose patients to radiation pneumonitis (RP) (<6 months after irradiation) and lung fibrosis (beyond 6 months). The aim of this study was to describe post-irradiation radiographics appearances.
Materials and methods:
This retrospective study of 90 patients with a stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma reports a detailed description of the computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography/CT changes that can be observed after treatment, according to modified Kimura score for RP and Koenig’s classification for fibrosis. This evaluation was realised at 1 month and then every 3–4 months, with a median follow-up of 35 months.
The most common radiological RP pattern was diffuse consolidation. It appears in a mean time of 4 months and reaches its maximum at 9 months after radiotherapy. Seventy-three per cent of the RP evolved to fibrosis. Most of these findings were encompassed in the 35 Gy isodose.
Radiological parenchymal changes are frequent in the treatment region, which renders the tumour response monitoring by tumour size, particularly by response evaluation criteria in solid tumours, unsuitable.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes including prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) have been associated with life-long chronic disease risk for the infant. Stress during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Many studies have reported the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Indigenous populations and a smaller number of studies have measured rates of stress and depression in these populations. This study sought to examine the potential association between stress during pregnancy and the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote communities in New South Wales. This study found a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy than the general population. There was also a higher incidence of prematurity and LBW deliveries. Unfortunately, missing post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptomatology data impeded the examination of associations of interest. This was largely due to the highly sensitive nature of the issues under investigation, and the need to ensure adequate levels of trust between Indigenous women and research staff before disclosure and recording of sensitive research data. We were unable to demonstrate a significant association between the level of stress and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes at this stage. We recommend this longitudinal study continue until complete data sets are available. Future research in this area should ensure prioritization of building trust in participants and overestimating sample size to ensure no undue pressure is placed upon an already stressed participant.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Commensal epizoozoans and episkeletozoans are rarely preserved attached to the external exoskeleton of the Late Ordovician trilobite Flexicalymene. Of nearly 15,000 Flexicalymene specimens examined, 0.1% show epizoozoans or episkeletozoans. Factors limiting Flexicalymene fouling include a shallow burrowing life style, frequent molting of the host, larval preference for other substrates, observational bias caused by overlooking small fouling organisms, and the loss of the non-calcified, outermost cuticle prior to fossilization or as the trilobite weathers from the encasing sediment. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, cornulitids, and a tube-dwelling/boring nonbiomineralized organism represent the preserved members of the Late Ordovician marine hard substrate community fouling Flexicalymene. This assemblage of organisms is less diverse than the hard substrate community fouling Late Ordovician sessile epibenthic organisms. Fouling is not restricted to only large Flexicalymene specimens as observed in previous studies but occurs in medium to large individuals interpreted as early to late holaspid specimens.
Epizoozoans fouling the carcasses or molt ensembles of 16 Flexicalymene specimens provide insight into the life habits of the host and these fouling organisms. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, and cornulitids preferentially attached to elevated portions of the dorsal exoskeleton, and preferentially aligned in either the direct line or lee side of currents generated by Flexicalymene walking on the sea floor or swimming through the water column.
In the field of document examination, several approaches can be taken to probe the authenticity of a piece of ancient writing. Scholars have the task of analyzing, and possibly translating, the language and content of a document, and assessing the character and quality of the script. Materials characterization plays another role. Both the document substrate and the ink can be examined to determine whether the materials and methods of creation are consistent with those known to be used during the historical period to which the document is attributed.
The introduction of a fifth amphibole group, the Na-Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn-Li group, defined by 0.50 < B(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+,Li) < 1.50 and 0.50 ≤ B(Ca,Na) ≤ 1.50 a.f.p.u. (atoms per formula unit), with members whittakerite and ottoliniite, has been required by recent discoveries of B(LiNa) amphiboles. This, and other new discoveries, such as sodicpedrizite (which, here, is changed slightly, but significantly, from the original idealized formula), necessitate amendments to the IMA 1997 definitions of the Mg-Fe-Mn-Li, calcic, sodic-calcic and sodic groups. The discovery of obertiite and the finding of an incompatibility in the IMA 1997 subdivision of the sodic group, requires further amendments within the sodic group. All these changes, which have IMA approval, are summarized.
Hf-family compounds have been widely studied as high k gate dielectric materials, they can be elaborated in a wide range of deposition techniques but ALD and MOCVD are the most advanced. In this contribution, the deposition of pure HfO2 is performed by Atomic Vapour Deposition, which is a sort of pulsed-mode MOCVD. The precursor, diluted into a solvent, is pulsed through specific injectors (TriJet®), micro-droplets are vaporised and distributed to the substrate through a showerhead. ATR-FTIR and Hg-probe measurements have been extensively used to evaluate the materials. The advantage of this specific MOCVD system is that it allows working within a wide range of liquid injection frequencies. Thus, we have been able to show that the frequency of injection has a huge impact on the structural and electrical properties of the material. It has been evidence that working at low frequencies is crucial in order to get good electrical behaviour. Higher temperature deposition shows also a clear benefit. An EOT of 1.15 nm with 6.10−2 A/cm2 at |Vfb| + 1 V, that is to say about 3 orders of magnitude below what is obtained with SiO2 has been obtained on capacitors with TiN gate. This is a very good achievement fore pure HfO2 deposited by MOCVD.
This work has been made in the frame of MEDEA + T207 European project with the help of Air Liquide and Epichem.
This paper shows the potentialities of merging the MEMS and micromachining with SiGe technologies in order to speed up the performances of next generation of front end in term of flexibility, reconfigurability and adaptability. MEMS technologies are presented based on Benzo-Cyclo-Butene (BCB) materials and Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) materials. Special attention is paid to ensure a full compatibility between IC and MEMS. We have shown that very innovative functions could be considered by using this MEMSIC concept.
To review the evidence regarding the effects of interventions to improve hospital design and construction on the occurrence of nosocomial infections.
Systematic review of experimental and non-experimental, architectural intervention studies in intensive care units (ICUs), surgical departments, isolation units, and hospitals in general. The studies dated from 1975, and were in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. Regardless of format, the studies were identified through seven medical databases, reference lists, and expert consultation.
One hundred seventy-eight scientific articles were identified; however, none of these described a meta-analy-sis, systematic review, or randomized, controlled trial. Most of the articles were categorized at the lowest level of evidence (expert judgment or consensus statements). Only 17 described completed concurrent or historical cohort studies matching the inclusion criteria (ICUs, 9; surgical departments, 4; isolation units, 2; hospitals in generai, 2). The interventions generally included a move to other premises or renovation. However, in many studies, the staff-to-patient ratio was also improved. Some studies showed lower infection rates after intervention, but this finding cannot be generalized because of confounding and fre-quently small study populations.
The lack of stringent evidence linking hospital design and construction with the prevention of nosocomial infection is partly attributable to the multifactorial nature of these infections, and some improvement will be seen if basic conditions such as the availability of sufficient space, isolation capac-ity, and facilities for handwashing are met. However, to our knowledge, other factors, especially the improper hand hygiene of medical staff, have greater impact.
Stress and energy distributions for crystallization of a thin amorphous film are calculated by means of 3D finite element method. The changes in energy are caused by elastic strain induced by different thermal expansion of the film and the substrate and by different mass densities of the crystal and the surrounding amorphous matrix. The calculations were performed for cubic crystal structure and for disc shaped crystals. Three crystal orientations (001), (011) and (111) were considered. Based on strain energy considerations the (001) orientation of crystals with respect to the film plane is energetically more favorable than (011) and (111) orientations. Interfacial and surface energies are certain to play a part in these effects as well.
We discuss the precessional, quasi-ballistic switching of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures. In soft spin-valve cells, fast and energy-cost effective magnetization switching can be triggered by a transverse field pulse of moderate amplitude, below the in plane anisotropy field, because of an amplification effect brought by the demagnetizing field at the early stage of the reversal. The same effect is no more possible in hard nanomagnets with perpendicular easy magnetization axis. We propose a new type of nanostructured magnetic device, designed to overcome this limitation. The speed is obtained through the use of a very high effective magnetic field, obtained by incorporating a significant exchange field which stores the energy in the form of a constrained domain wall surrounding a region of high magnetic anisotropy. This stored energy is partially available to accelerate the magnetization reversal in a precessional scenario. We illustrate the concept by studying numerically a model system. The key parameter for the reversal is the ratio of the domain wall width to the structure lateral dimension. Possible routes for device preparation are discussed. Promising application to magnetic storage are anticipated.
Changes in mass density of amorphous Pd80Si20 were monitored in situ during irradiation with He2+ and H+ ions at temperatures below 100 K and during subsequent thermal treatment. The mass density decreased with increasing ion fluence and exponentially approached a saturation value of −1.2%, corresponding to a recombination volume of 190 atomic volumes. The initial swelling rate was 2.3 atomic volumes/displaced atom. The mass density of the irradiated material increased during subsequent thermal treatment, and the irradiation-induced decrease of the mass density recovered completely at room temperature.
Adrenoceptor stimulation enhances repolarising and depolarising membrane currents to different extents in cardiac myocytes. We investigated the opposing effects of the repolarising Ca2+-activated Cl- current (ICl(Ca)) and depolarising L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) on the action potential configuration of sheep ventricular myocytes stimulated with noradrenaline. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that noradrenaline accelerated and prolonged phase-1 repolarisation. We define the minimal potential at the end of phase-1 repolarisation as 'notch level'. Noradrenaline (1 µM) caused the notch level to fall from 14 ± 2.6 to 7.8 ± 2.8 mV (n = 24), but left action potential duration, resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude unaffected. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that 1 µM noradrenaline increased both ICa,L and ICl(Ca), but it had no significant effect on the principal K+ currents. Blockage of ICl(Ca) by 0.5 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) in both the absence and the presence of noradrenaline abolished phase-1 repolarisation. In the presence of noradrenaline, DIDS caused elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and an increase in the action potential duration. In conclusion, elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and action potential prolongation associated with an increased ICa,L upon adrenoceptor stimulation is prevented by an increased ICl(Ca) in sheep ventricular myocytes. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 151-159.
The burdens experienced by relatives of mentally ill persons are substantial.
To study the relationship between family burden and sociocultural context.
A comparative study of Euro-Americans and Latinos ascertained whether dimensions of family response are (a) non-specific to diagnostic groups; and/or (b) variable across cultural settings.
Regardless of diagnosis or ethnicity, patient misery was found most burdensome and distressing. However, considerable difference in shades of meaning and nuance across groups appears in relation to what is classed similarly as ‘misery’. Only gender was significantly associated with social performance (males reported to have greater deficits). A complex cultural – ecological effect was observed among the Latino–schizophrenia group.
Findings suggest similarities and differences in levels of family burden in relation to socio-cultural factors across cultural and diagnostic groups. The specificity of results by objective and subjective measures, types of burden, gender, ethnicity, diagnosis, and living situation confirm the importance of context and heterogeneity in understanding family burden and distress.
The International Mineralogical Association's approved amphibole nomenclature has been revised in order to simplify it, make it more consistent with divisions generally at 50%, define prefixes and modifiers more precisely and include new amphibole species discovered and named since 1978, when the previous scheme was approved. The same reference axes form the basis of the new scheme and most names are little changed but compound species names like tremolitic hornblende (now magnesiohornblende) are abolished and also crossite (now glaucophane or ferroglaucophane or magnesioriebeckite or riebeckite), tirodite (now manganocummingtonite) and dannemorite (now manganogrunerite). The 50% rule has been broken only to retain tremolite and actinolite as in the 1978 scheme so the sodic calcic amphibole range has therefore been expanded. Alkali amphiboles are now sodic amphiboles. The use of hyphens is defined. New amphibole names approved since 1978 include nyböite, leakeite, kornite, ungarettiite, sadanagaite and cannilloite. All abandoned names are listed. The formulae and source of the amphibole end member names are listed and procedures outlined to calculate Fe3+ and Fe2+ when not determined by analysis.
Changes in transverse phonon sound velocity were measured during low temperature irradiation of amorphous Pd80Si20 with 3.5 MeV krypton ions. The sound velocity decreases as a function of the ion fluence and shows a tendency to saturate at large fluences at a relative change of −4.7%. The changes in sound velocity were used to determine the changes in shear elastic constant and in Debye temperature both of which were in reasonable agreement with the value reported in the literature.
The phase transformation and densification behavior under high power millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radiation of a 30 GHz gyrotron and during fast conventional sintering of nanocrystalline γ-A12O3 powder have been investigated and compared. The powder used for compacts was synthesized from aluminum metal by application of the exploding wire technique in an oxidizing atmosphere. The particle size distribution of this powder has a maximum at about 20 nm. Magnetic pulse technique was applied for the compression of samples up to 80% of the theoretical density (TD). Both mm-wave sintering and fast firing in a conventional electrical resistance furnace enable the densification and a complete phase transformation into α-A12O3 already at a temperature of approximately 1150 %C. The average grain size of the sintered ceramic is in the range of 50 to 100 nm. With mm-waves densification starts at about 50 °C lower temperatures compared to conventional techniques and higher final densities were obtained already at 150°C lower temperatures.
Amorphous Ni69Cr14P17 specimens thinned for transmission electron microscopy have been studied in situ during thermal treatment. In the thinnest regions of the specimens (thickness d < 50 nm), a metastable hexagonal (Ni,Cr)3P phase nucleates at the perforation edge with the c-axis perpendicular to the specimen surface. The crystal width of this phase grows linearly with time. Above 530°C the hexagonal phase transforms into a stable b.c.t. (Ni,Cr)3P phase. It is concluded that the surface and grain boundary energies dominate nucleation and growth.