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We are investigating complete samples of southern hemisphere flat spectrum extra-galactic radio sources drawn from the Parkes 2.7 GHz Survey (see Bolton et al. 1979 and references therein). These samples are being used for a variety of investigations, including a determination of the space distribution and luminosity function of radio QSOs, their radio size distribution, as well as the structures of the individual sources. Accurate positions are being determined, as well, in order to establish an extra-galactic position reference frame in the southern hemisphere.
Differences by ethnic group in STI diagnosis rates have long been recognized in England. We investigated whether these may be explained by ethnic disparities in socioeconomic deprivation (SED). Data on all diagnoses made in sexual health clinics in England in 2013 were obtained from the mandatory STI surveillance system. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of STIs, by ethnicity, with and without adjustment for index of multiple deprivation (IMD) a measure of area-level deprivation. Unadjusted IRRs (95% confidence intervals) were highest for gonorrhoea [8·18 (7·77–8·61) and 5·76 (5·28–6·29)] and genital herpes [4·24 (3·99–4·51) and 3·58 (3·23–3·98)] for people of black Caribbean and non-Caribbean/non-African black ethnicity and IRRs were highest for syphilis [8·76 (7·97–9·63)] and genital warts [2·23 (2·17–2·29)] for people of non-British/non-Irish white ethnicity compared to white British ethnicity. After adjustment for IMD, IRRs for gonorrhoea [5·76 (5·47–6·07)] and genital herpes [3·73 (3·50–3·97)] declined but remained highest for black Caribbeans and IRRs for syphilis [7·35 (6·68–8·09)] and genital warts [2·10 (2·04–2·16)] declined but remained highest for non-British/non-Irish white compared to white British. In England, ethnic disparities in STI diagnosis rates are partially explained by SED, but behavioural and contextual factors likely contribute. Clinic and community-based interventions should involve social peer networks to ensure they are targeted and culturally sensitive.
Nanostructures offer the opportunity to control the vibrational properties of via the scattering of phonons due to boundaries and mass disorder as well as through changes in the phonon dispersion due to spatial confinement. Advances in understanding these effects have the potential to lead to thermoelectrics with an improved figure of merit by lowering the thermal conductivity and to provide insight into electron-phonon scattering rates in nanoelectronics. Characterizing the phonon population in nanomaterials has been challenging because of their small volume and because optical techniques probe only a small fraction of reciprocal space. Recent developments in x-ray scattering now allow the phonon population to be evaluated across all of reciprocal space in samples with volumes as small as several cubic micrometers. We apply this approach, synchrotron x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS), to probe the population of phonons within a Si/SiGe/Si trilayer nanomembrane. The distributions of scattered intensity from Si/SiGe/Si trilayer nanomembranes and Si nanomembranes with uniform composition are qualitatively similar, with features arising from the elastic anisotropy of the diamond structure. The TDS signal for the Si/SiGe/Si nanomembrane, however, has higher intensity than the Si membrane of the same total thickness by approximately 3.75%. Possible origins of the enhancement in scattering from SiGe in comparison with Si include the larger atomic scattering factor of Ge atoms within the SiGe layer or reduced phonon frequencies due to alloying.
The U.K. 1.2 metre Schmidt Telescope acquired its first full aperture objective prism in 1975. This was a very low dispersion prism (2400 Å/mm at 4300 Å) which has been found to be particularly useful in searching for faint QSO’s.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Objectives: 1) To assess temporal patterns in historical patient arrival rates in an emergency department (ED) to determine the appropriate number of shift schedules in an acute care area and a fast-track clinic and 2) to determine whether physician scheduling can be improved by aligning physician productivity with patient arrivals using an optimization planning model.
Methods: Historical data were statistically analyzed to determine whether the number of patients arriving at the ED varied by weekday, weekend, or holiday weekend. Poisson-based generalized additive models were used to develop models of patient arrival rate throughout the day. A mathematical programming model was used to produce an optimal ED shift schedule for the estimated patient arrival rates. We compared the current physician schedule to three other scheduling scenarios: 1) a revised schedule produced by the planning model, 2) the revised schedule with an additional acute care physician, and 3) the revised schedule with an additional fast-track clinic physician.
Results: Statistical modelling found that patient arrival rates were different for acute care versus fast-track clinics; the patterns in arrivals followed essentially the same daily pattern in the acute care area; and arrival patterns differed on weekdays versus weekends in the fast-track clinic. The planning model reduced the unmet patient demand (i.e., the average number of patients arriving at the ED beyond the average physician productivity) by 19%, 39%, and 69% for the three scenarios examined.
Conclusions: The planning model improved the shift schedules by aligning physician productivity with patient arrivals at the ED.
A study has been carried out to investigate whether the action of triclabendazole (TCBZ) against Fasciola hepatica is altered by inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-linked drug efflux pumps. The Sligo TCBZ-resistant fluke isolate was used for these experiments and the Pgp inhibitor selected was R(+)-verapamil [R(+)-VPL]. In the first experiment, flukes were initially incubated for 2 h in R(+)-VPL (100 μm), then incubated in R(+)-VPL+triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) (50 μg mL−1, or 133·1 μm) until flukes ceased movement (at 9 h post-treatment). In a second experiment, flukes were incubated in TCBZ.SO alone and removed from the incubation medium following cessation of motility (after 15 h). In the third experiment, flukes were incubated for 24 h in R(+)-VPL on its own. Changes to the testis tubules and vitelline follicles following drug treatment and following Pgp inhibition were assessed by means of light microscope histology and transmission electron microscopy. Incubation of the Sligo isolate in either R(+)-VPL or TCBZ.SO on their own had a limited impact on the morphology of the two tissues. Greater disruption was observed when the drugs were combined, in terms of the block in development of the spermatogenic and vitelline cells and the apoptotic breakdown of the remaining cells. Sperm formation was severely affected and abnormal. Large spaces appeared in the vitelline follicles and synthesis of shell protein was disrupted. The results of this study support the concept of altered drug efflux in TCBZ-resistant flukes and indicate that drug transporters may play a role in the development of drug resistance.
In Ontario, Canada, the number of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) cases increased over the years 2005–2010. A population-based case-control study was undertaken from January to August 2011 for the purpose of identifying risk factors for acquiring illness due to SE within Ontario. A total of 199 cases and 241 controls were enrolled. After adjustment for confounders, consuming any poultry meat [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·31–3·83], processed chicken (aOR 3·32, 95% CI 1·26–8·76) and not washing hands following handling of raw eggs (OR 2·82, 95% CI 1·48–5·37) were significantly associated with SE infection. The population attributable fraction was 46% for any poultry meat consumption and 10% for processed chicken. Poultry meat continues to be identified as a risk factor for SE illness. Control of SE at source, as well as proper food handling practices, are required to reduce the number of SE cases.
A study was carried out to investigate whether the action of triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is altered by inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-linked drug efflux pumps. The Oberon TCBZ-resistant and Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible fluke isolates were used for this in vitro study and the Pgp inhibitor selected was R(+)-verapamil [R(+)-VPL]. For experiments with the Oberon isolate, flukes were incubated for 24 h with either R(+)-VPL (1×10−4m) on its own, TCBZ.SO (15 μg mL−1) alone, a combination of R(+)-VPL (1×10−4m) plus TCBZ.SO (15 μg mL−1), TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) on its own, or a combination of TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) plus R(+)-VPL (1×10−4m). They were also incubated in TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) alone or in combination with R(+)-VPL (1×10−4m) until they became inactive; and in TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) alone for a time to match that of the combination inactivity time. Flukes from the Cullompton isolate were treated with either TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) alone or in combination with R(+)-VPL (1×10−4m) until they became inactive, or with TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL−1) alone time-matched to the combination inactivity time. Morphological changes resulting from drug treatment and following Pgp inhibition were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Incubation in R(+)-VPL alone had a minimal effect on either isolate. TCBZ.SO treatment had a relatively greater impact on the TCBZ-susceptible Cullompton isolate. When R(+)-VPL was combined with TCBZ.SO in the incubation medium, however, the surface disruption to both isolates was more severe than that seen after TCBZ.SO treatment alone; also, the time taken to reach inactivity was shorter. More significantly, though, the potentiation of drug activity was greater in the Oberon isolate; also, it was more distinct at the higher concentration of TCBZ.SO. So, the Oberon isolate appears to be particularly sensitive to efflux pump inhibition. The results of this study suggest that enhanced drug efflux in the Oberon isolate may be involved in the mechanism of resistance to TCBZ.
The prognostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type is unclear. While some studies have found an association between SMCs and cognitive decline, many have found a stronger association with depression, which raises questions about their diagnostic utility.
We examined the cross-sectional association between SMC severity (as measured using the MAC-Q, a brief SMC questionnaire) and affect, memory, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (β-amyloid deposition and the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4) allele) in healthy elderly controls (HC; M = 78.74 years, SD = 6.7) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 72.74 years, SD = 8.8). We analyzed a subset of individuals drawn from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study of Aging.
SMCs were more severe in MCI patients than in HCs. SMC severity was related to affective variables and the interaction between age and group membership (HC/MCI). Within the HC group, SMC severity was related to affective variables only, while severity correlated only with age in the MCI group. SMCs were not related to cognitive variables or AD biomarkers.
SMCs were related to solely by poorer mood (greater depressive and anxious symptomatology) in the cognitively healthy elderly however mean levels were subclinical. This finding argues for the assessment of affective symptomatology in conjunction with cognitive assessment in elderly memory complainers. Future AIBL research will focus on assessing other AD biomarkers, such as brain atrophy and Aβ plasma markers, in relation to complaint severity. Once our 36-month follow-up data are collected, we propose to assess whether SMCs can predict future cognitive decline.
Viability loss during desiccation in the recalcitrant seeds of Castanea saliva, Aesculus hippocastanum and Quercus robur was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation and build up of a stable free radical within their embryonic axes. We argue that the accumulation of the free radical marks the termination of a series of destructive events following the initiation of oxidative attack during moisture stress in recalcitrant seeds.
The microstructures of ordered Ti3Al-lZr (alpha2 +Zr) and Ti-Al-Nb alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (IM) and by rapid solidification (RS) are compared. The RS Ti3Al-iZr (alpha2 structure) alloy displayed small antiphase domains (APD) of 10–20 nm in the as-produced condition, but large grain size. The latter observation is rationalized in terms of the cooling history used to produce the material. The RS Ti-Al-Nb alloy exhibited an equiaxed microstructure. The IM Ti-Al-Nb material displays a complete change in microstructure between 1010°C and 1035°C, indicating a narrow alpha+beta phase field.
Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) has proven to be a valuable tool in the development and production of state-of-the-art semiconductor devices. Application to the plasma etching of a variety of materials necessary for integrated circuit fabrication is discussed, with particular emphasis placed on etch endpoint analysis. The utility of OES techniques in monitoring photolithographic processes is also presented.
Experimental and theoretical data are used to compare the effect of three possible leach mechanisms for borosilicate glass waste buried in a granite host-rock on the release and subsequent migration of 135Cs. Protracted release episodes and variations of up to an order of magnitude in groundwater transport times and five orders in output concentrations are possible.
The fine structure of dislocations in intermetallic compounds can have a profound influence on their macroscopic mechanical properties. The development of appropriate models of deformation requires consideration of dislocation core structure, possible dissociation or decomposition reactions, overall dislocation morphology and relevant dislocation interactions based on detailed transmission electron microscopy study. This empirical information may be rationalized based on both atomistic and continuum-level dislocation modeling. The specific cases of jogged 1/2<110] ordinary dislocations in γ-TiAl and a<101> superdislocations in NiAl are discussed.
X-ray diffraction has been used to quantify the interface roughness of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multilayers. X-ray measurements, both θ-2θ and rocking-curve analyses, quantitatively determine the correlated and random components of the interface roughness as well as the correlation length of the roughness along the interface. The multilayer structures of GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As and GaAs/AlAs differ substantially in the amplitude and correlation length of the interface roughness. The change in interfacial roughness is compared to that determined from low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements, the conventional measure of interface uniformity.