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Conservation research is essential for advancing knowledge but to make an impact scientific evidence must influence conservation policies, decision making and practice. This raises a multitude of challenges. How should evidence be collated and presented to policy makers to maximise its impact? How can effective collaboration between conservation scientists and decision-makers be established? How can the resulting messages be communicated to bring about change? Emerging from a successful international symposium organised by the British Ecological Society and the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, this is the first book to practically address these questions across a wide range of conservation topics. Well-renowned experts guide readers through global case studies and their own experiences. A must-read for practitioners, researchers, graduate students and policymakers wishing to enhance the prospect of their work 'making a difference'. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Introduction: The Ottawa SAH Rule was developed to identify patients at high-risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who require investigations and the 6-Hour CT Rule found that computed tomography (CT) was 100% sensitive for SAH 6 hours of headache onset. Together, they form the Ottawa SAH Strategy. Our objectives were to assess: 1) Safety of the Ottawa SAH Strategy and its 2) Impact on: a) CTs, b) LPs, c) ED length of stay, and d) CT angiography (CTA). Methods: We conducted a multicentre prospective before/after study at 6 tertiary-care EDs January 2010 to December 2016 (implementation July 2013). Consecutive alert, neurologically intact adults with a headache peaking within one hour were included. SAH was defined by subarachnoid blood on head CT (radiologists final report); xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); >1x106/L red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm on CTA. Results: We enrolled 3,669 patients, 1,743 before and 1,926 after implementation, including 185 with SAH. The investigation rate before implementation was 89.0% (range 82.9 to 95.6%) versus 88.4% (range 85.2 to 92.3%) after implementation. The proportion who had CT remained stable (88.0% versus 87.4%; p=0.60), while the proportion who had LP decreased from 38.9% to 25.9% (p<0.001), and the proportion investigated with CTA increased from 18.8% to 21.6% (p=0.036). The additional testing rate (i.e. LP or CTA) diminishedfrom 50.1% to 40.8% (p<0.001). The proportion admitted declined from 9.8% to 7.3% (p=0.008), while the mean length of ED stay was stable (6.2 +/− 4.0 to 6.4 +/− 4.1 hours; p=0.45). For the 1,201 patients with CT 6 hours, there was an absolute decrease in additional testing (i.e. LP or CTA) of 15.0% (46.6% versus 31.6%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of the Ottawa SAH Rule was 100% (95%CI: 98-100%), and the 6-Hour CT Rule was 95.3% (95%CI: 88.9-98.3) for SAH. Five patients with early CT had SAH with CT reported as normal: 2 unruptured aneuryms on CTA and presumed traumatic LP (determined by treating neurosurgeon); 1 missed by the radiologist on the initial interpretation; 1 dural vein fistula (i.e. non-aneuyrsmal); and 1 profoundly anemic (Hgb 63g/L). Conclusion: The Ottawa SAH Strategy is highly sensitive and can be used routinely when SAH is being considered in alert and neurologically intact headache patients. Its implementation was associated with a decrease in LPs and admissions to hospital.
Inflammation of the mammary gland following bacterial infection, commonly known as mastitis, affects all mammalian species. Although the aetiology and epidemiology of mastitis in the dairy cow are well described, the genetic factors mediating resistance to mammary gland infection are not well known, due in part to the difficulty in obtaining robust phenotypic information from sufficiently large numbers of individuals. To address this problem, an experimental mammary gland infection experiment was undertaken, using a Friesian-Jersey cross breed F2 herd. A total of 604 animals received an intramammary infusion of Streptococcus uberis in one gland, and the clinical response over 13 milkings was used for linkage mapping and genome-wide association analysis. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) was detected on bovine chromosome 11 for clinical mastitis status using micro-satellite and Affymetrix 10 K SNP markers, and then exome and genome sequence data used from the six F1 sires of the experimental animals to examine this region in more detail. A total of 485 sequence variants were typed in the QTL interval, and association mapping using these and an additional 37 986 genome-wide markers from the Illumina SNP50 bovine SNP panel revealed association with markers encompassing the interleukin-1 gene cluster locus. This study highlights a region on bovine chromosome 11, consistent with earlier studies, as conferring resistance to experimentally induced mammary gland infection, and newly prioritises the IL1 gene cluster for further analysis in genetic resistance to mastitis.
Altitudes, lengths, areas, maximum thicknesses and volumes of 27 glaciers that built up in a small area of the Scottish Highlands during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) stadial are given. The influence of direct radiation on the glaciers is calculated taking into account transmissivity of the atmosphere, glacier aspect and surface gradient, and the albedos of ice and snow. Equilibrium firn lines for the glaciers are determined. The computed regional firn line, incorporating the influence of direct radiation had a gradient of 14.5 m/km. Former precipitation values are based on an equation for average annual mass balances of the glaciers during the stadial that incorporates glacier altitude, regional ablation gradient, direct radiation, the influence of avalanching and blowing of snow, and final glacier volume. Average July and January sea-level temperatures of 6°C and at least — 8°C, respectively, are inferred. Snowfall was principally associated with south-east winds and was similar in total to present day but rather differently distributed. Cloud amounts, at least in summer, were greater than now. A more vigorous atmospheric circulation with many depressions moving along more southerly tracks than now may have been related to the junction of polar water and North Atlantic Drift water in the immediate vicinity of the British Isles.
We present the preliminary results of a frequency analysis of 1457 fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RR0) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from MACHO Project photometry. We find the same classes of pulsational behavior as were found in our earlier survey of first overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) stars. Variables whose prewhitened power spectra contain one or two peaks close to the main frequency component in the original power spectra are commonly known as Blazhko-type variables. The present analysis shows the overall frequency of Blazhko-type stars in the total RR0 population analysed to date to be ≈ 10%. This is lower than the often cited Galactic field/globular rate of 20-30% (Szeidl, 1988).
The incidence rate of Blazhko-type variability in the LMC appears to be about three times higher in RR0 stars than in RR1 stars. This puts important constraints on possible models of the Blazhko effect.
We present the first massive frequency analysis of the 1200 first overtone RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed in the first 4.3 yr of the MACHO project. Besides the many new double-mode variables, we also discovered stars with closely spaced frequencies. These variables are most probably nonradial pulsators.
Before slaughter, lambs may experience several stressors such as feed and water deprivation, handling and transport that have the potential to negatively impact welfare and meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter handling, exercise and the presence of a dog on the behaviour and physiology of lambs and meat quality at slaughter. At 6 months of age, 60 lambs (n=20 lambs/replicate; three replicates) were allocated to one of the two treatment groups (n=30 lambs/treatment): low (LOW) intensive handling or high (HIGH) intensive handling. LOW lambs were moved short distances, quietly and without the use of a dog before transport. HIGH lambs were moved quickly, long distances and with a dog present before transport. Lamb behaviour (standing, lying, rumination and panting) was recorded for 1 h before (post-treatment) and after transport (post-transport), and for 30 min before slaughter (pre-slaughter). Blood samples were collected before (baseline), after transport (post-transport) and at exsanguination (at slaughter) to assess cortisol, lactate and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. At slaughter, lamb carcases (M. longissimus lumborum) were evaluated for pH levels, drip and cook loss, and tenderness. HIGH lambs spent more time standing (P<0.001) and panting (P<0.001) and less time lying (P<0.001) and ruminating (P<0.001) post-treatment than LOW lambs, but more (P<0.001) time ruminating post-transport. All lambs spent more time standing (P<0.001) and less time lying (P<0.001) and panting (P<0.001) post-transport and pre-slaughter than post-treatment. Cortisol concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in lambs post-transport and at slaughter compared with baseline values. Lactate concentrations were lower (P=0.002) in HIGH than LOW lambs. In addition, NEFA concentrations were higher (P<0.001) post-transport and at slaughter in HIGH compared with LOW lambs. Ultimate pH was higher (P<0.001) in HIGH than LOW lambs and pH declined quicker (P=0.012) in LOW than HIGH lambs. Cook loss, drip loss and shear force were lower (P⩽0.05) in HIGH than LOW lambs. The HIGH intensive pre-slaughter handling regime used in the present study caused stress in lambs and increased ultimate pH that could potentially negatively impact welfare, product quality and consistency.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
We discuss some of the effects which magnetic fields in the range 104–108 G have on the continuum emission of white dwarfs. In order to show how atomic processes are related to the transport of radiation in an anisotropic medium we introduce the radiative transfer equation for polarized light. Using this transfer equation as a guide we develop a greatly simplified model of a white dwarf atmosphere: anisotropic absorption of unpolarized light passing through a cold, optically-thin layer. Two possible sources of continuum polarization in white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields are explored, namely bound-free transitions and cyclotron absorption. Within the hydrogenic approximation we develop a further approximation which is valid for bound-free transitions when B is in the range 104–107 G. Using this approximation it is possible to obtain simple expressions for the net circular and linear polarization in terms of the zero-field opacity. In the case of cyclotron absorption, the cross section is large and strongly peaked at the cyclotron frequency, which falls in the infrared or optical for B ⩾ 108 G. This process can lead to net circular and linear polarization of comparable magnitude. For stars with non-uniform magnetic fields, the cyclotron absorption effects are spread over considerable wavelength ranges, with possibly quite complicated wavelength-dependent polarization.
Gem minerals at Lava Plains, northeast Queensland, offer further insights into mantle-crustal gemformation under young basalt fields. Combined mineralogy, U-Pb age determination, oxygen isotope and petrological data on megacrysts and meta-aluminosilicate xenoliths establish a geochemical evolution in sapphire, zircon formation between 5 to 2 Ma. Sapphire megacrysts with magmatic signatures (Fe/Mg ∼100–1000, Ga/Mg 3–18) grew with ∼3 Ma micro-zircons of both mantle (δ18O 4.5–5.6%) and crustal (δ18O 9.5–10.1‰) affinities. Zircon megacrysts (3±1 Ma) show mantle and crustal characteristics, but most grew at crustal temperatures (600–800°C). Xenolith studies suggest hydrous silicate melts and fluids initiated from amphibolized mantle infiltrated into kyanite+sapphire granulitic crust (800°C, 0.7 GPa). This metasomatized the sapphire (Fe/Mg ∼50–120, Ga/Mg ∼3–11), left relict metastable sillimanite-corundum-quartz and produced minerals enriched in high field strength, large ion lithophile and rare earth elements. The gem suite suggests a syenitic parentage before its basaltic transport. Geographical trace-element typing of the sapphire megacrysts against other eastern Australian sapphires suggests a phonolitic involvement.
A cardiac source is often implicated in strokes where the deficit includes aphasia. However, less is known about the etiology of isolated aphasia during transient ischemic attack (TIA). Our objective was to determine whether patients with isolated aphasia are likely to have a cardioembolic etiology for their TIA.
We prospectively studied a cohort of TIA patients in eight tertiary-care emergency departments. Patients with isolated aphasia were identified by the treating physician at the time of emergency department presentation. Patients with dysarthria (i.e., a phonation disturbance) were not included. Potential cardiac sources for embolism were defined as atrial fibrillation on history, electrocardiogram, Holter monitor, atrial fibrillation on echocardiography, or thrombus on echocardiography.
Of the 2,360 TIA patients identified, 1,155 had neurological deficits at the time of the emergency physician assessment and were included in this analysis, and 41 had isolated aphasia as their only neurological deficit. Patients with isolated aphasia were older (73.9±10.0 v. 67.2±14.5 years; p=0.003), more likely to have a history of heart failure (9.8% v. 2.6%; p=0.027), and were twice as likely to have any cardiac source of embolism (22.0% v. 10.6%; p=0.037).
Isolated aphasia is associated with a high rate of cardioembolic sources of embolism after TIA. Emergency patients with isolated aphasia diagnosed with a TIA warrant a rapid and thorough assessment for a cardioembolic source.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
Feedback provided by relativistic jets may be effective in shaping the galaxy luminosity function. The quenching mode (quasar mode) at redshifts ~2-3 potentially disperses gas in star-forming galaxies. The maintenance mode (radio mode) heats the gas in galaxy clusters counteracting cooling flows. A number of authors have examined the effect of relativistic jets in dispersing clouds in the kpc-scale inhomogeneous interstellar medium of evolving galaxies. We have also investigated a particular case of maintenance-mode feedback in our simulation of the iconic radio galaxy / cooling flow cluster Hydra A. Modelling of the knots produced by the jets in the inner 10 kpc provides an estimate of 0.8 – 0.9 c for the velocities of the jets in agreement with other velocity estimates for FR1 jets. The addition of jet precession provides realistic simulations of the morphology of the Hydra A radio source and raises interesting questions as to the role of black hole and disk precession, in general, in galaxy formation.
Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
We studied the optical nonlinearities of modified 3,3′-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodides (X-DTDCI) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions (X = H, Cl, Br at meso position) by a pump-probe technique with crossed polarized chirped laser pulses at room temperature. Reverse-saturable-absorption (RSA) with monoexponential lifetimes is observed at 532 nm in all the samples studied. We determined the effective excited-state absorption cross-sections and their lifetimes for all the samples investigated and found that they clearly correlate to the substituent X at the meso position. Empowered by the chirped pulses, a much faster nonlinearity with a decay time of ˜3.1 ps that is much shorter than the laser pulses used, is unveiled in Cl-DTDCI. We expressed both the absorptive and the refractive part of this fast nonlinearity as the equivalent molecular hyperpolarizability γ1212 and found γ1212 = (8.1 + i9.8) × 10−32erg−1.
We characterize the optical properties of modified meso-alkynyl porphyrins by a number of techniques. Our data show that extending the conjugation and incorporating metal in the center of the ring in these molecules serve the objective of tuning the absorption maximum wavelength. We evaluate the optical limiting performance by determining the effective reversesaturable- absorption (RSA) lifetime and the change in the absorption cross-sections. The ultimate optical limiting performance of these molecules is tested in both picosecond and nanosecond regimes.
The Mandala drainage basin lies in the central part of the West African craton immediately to the south of the regional watershed. There has been frequent kimberlite dyke intrusion in the basin. The kimberlites range in grade from apparently barren to having a high diamond content. The presence of other undiscovered kimberlites can be inferred from the distribution, chemistry and abundance of kimberlite satellite minerals and variations in diamond size and character. Secondary diamond deposits are widespread with the main concentrations in the present and former Mandala valley bottoms. Tributaries have lower diamond contents. There are systematic variations in the alluvial diamond characteristics which can be explained in terms of diamond sources as well as transport of the diamonds away from those sources. The occurrence of the secondary diamond deposits is explained by the form and distribution of the primary sources, the nature of the drainage network and the long-term evolution of the drainage basin. Since the Pliocene or Early Pleistocene the Mandala has been rejuvenated with incision of the main channel by up to 26 m. This incision has led to flushing of the tributaries and storage of sediment, including diamonds, in the principal channel.