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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Detecting gastrointestinal (GI) infection transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England is complicated by a lack of routine sexual behavioural data. We investigated whether gender distributions might generate signals for increased transmission of GI pathogens among MSM. We examined the percentage male of laboratory-confirmed patient-episodes for patients with no known travel history for 10 GI infections of public health interest in England between 2003 and 2013, stratified by age and region. An adult male excess was observed for Shigella spp. (annual maximum 71% male); most pronounced for those aged 25–49 years and living in London, Brighton and Manchester. An adult male excess was observed every year for Entamoeba histolytica (range 59.8–76.1% male), Giardia (53.1–57.6%) and Campylobacter (52.1–53.5%) and for a minority of years for hepatitis A (max. 69.8%) and typhoidal salmonella (max. 65.7%). This approach generated a signal for excess male episodes for six GI pathogens, including a characterised outbreak of Shigella among MSM. Stratified analyses by geography and age group were consistent with MSM transmission for Shigella. Optimisation and routine application of this technique by public health authorities elsewhere might help identify potential GI infection outbreaks due to sexual transmission among MSM, for further investigation.
Late-Wisconsin ice sheets were reconstructed for the CLIMAP 18000 years b.p. experiment. This experiment modeled the ice-age steady-state climate using boundary conditions that differed from present ones mainly in Earth-surface albedos, sea-surface areas, and land-surface topography. These required determinations of the area, volume, and elevation of Late Wisconsin ice sheets. An initial-value finite-difference numerical model for ice-sheet reconstruction was developed from a recursive formula which gave ice thickness for known variations of bed topography and theoretical variations of basal shear stress. Ice thicknesses were calculated in 50 km to 100 km steps along flow lines from margins to domes of late-Wisconsin ice sheets. We assumed that terrestrial margins were along the furthermost moraines, marine margins were along the present 500 m bathymetric contour, domes were centers of maximum post-glacial isostatic rebound, and flow lines were along glacial lineations (eskers, striations, drumlins, etc.) connecting margins to domes. At various locations ice-sheet margins were verified by dated moraines for terrestrial margins and Egga-type moraines for marine margins. Ice-sheet elevations and thicknesses were contoured from profiles reconstructed for 40 Antarctic flow lines and 137 Northern Hemisphere flow lines for a maximum ice-sheet extent, and 86 Northern Hemisphere flow lines for a minimum ice-sheet extent.
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed. Male Ross chickens were reared until day 14 on the floor in an animal care facility and then transferred to individual cages in three separate experiments. In each of experiments 1 and 2, 36 chicks were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or LPS (n=18/group). Lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose sugar concentration in blood was measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min in experiment 1, at 60, 90 and 120 min in experiment 2 and at 90 min in experiment 3 (n=16/group). Lipopolysaccharide was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 0.5, 1 and 1 mg/kg BW in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively, on days 16, 18 and 20, whereas control received sterile saline. On day 21, only birds in experiments 1 and 2 were fasted for 19.5 h. Chicks were orally gavaged with the LMR sugars (0.25 gL, 0.05 gM, 0.05 gR/bird) followed by blood collection (from the brachial vein) as per time point for each experiment. Only in experiment 3, were birds given an additional oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/ml per bird) 60 min after the first gavage. Plasma d-lactate, ZO-1 and DAO concentrations were also determined by ELISA in experiment 3 (n=10). Administration of LPS did not affect IP as measured by the LMR sugar test compared with control. This was also confirmed by FITC-d and DAO levels in experiment 3 (P>0.05). The plasma levels of d-lactate were decreased (P<0.05). Plasma levels of ZO-1 were increased in the third experiment only and did not change in the first two experiments. Lipopolysaccharide at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg did not increase IP in this model system. In conclusion, the LMR sugar can be detected in blood 90 min after the oral gavage. Further studies are needed for the applicability of LMR sugars tests.
We describe here the parallels in astronomy and earth science datasets, their analyses, and the opportunities for methodology transfer from astroinformatics to geoinformatics. Using example of hydrology, we emphasize how meta-data and ontologies are crucial in such an undertaking. Using the infrastructure being designed for EarthCube - the Virtual Observatory for the earth sciences - we discuss essential steps for better transfer of tools and techniques in the future e.g. domain adaptation. Finally we point out that it is never a one-way process and there is enough for astroinformatics to learn from geoinformatics as well.
The emerging statistical properties from the first 50 extrasolar planets are startlingly different from the picture that was imagined prior to 1995. About 0.75% of nearby solar type stars harbor jovian planets in 3 to 5 day circular orbits. Another ∽7% of stars have jupiter–mass companions orbiting in eccentric orbits within 3.5 AU. The mass distribution of substellar companions rises abruptly near 5 MJup and continues increasing down to the detection limit near 1 MJup-Orbital eccentricities correlate positively with semimajor axes, even for planets beyond the tidal circularization zone within 0.1 AU, distinguishing planets from binary stars. The planet bearing stars are metal–rich relative to both nearby stars and to the Sun. Analogs of Solar System planets have not been detected to date as they require precision of 3 m s−1 maintained for more than a decade.
Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are of interest for stellar and galactic evolution for four main reasons. Firstly, they comprise most of the mass of elements heavier than helium, so their abundance reflects the bulk of chemical enrichment. Secondly, all of the oxygen, much of the carbon and perhaps some of the nitrogen is believed to be produced in shorter-lived stars more massive than those responsible for the Fe production (Tinsley 1979), so their abundance relative to Fe in very metal deficient objects should provide key information for modelling the chemical history of galaxies. Thirdly, because C and O comprise the bulk of the metals in stellar material (Fe:C:N:0 = 1:12:2.5:21 in the Sun) it is their abundance as well as that of iron, which is needed to compute evolutionary tracks for different metallicities. Finally, the O abundance will indicate whether CNO material has been mixed to the surface.
A photometric survey of a central region of the LMC has been undertaken to obtain a magnitude and colour limited sample of bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars; the stars were selected from V and Ic plates taken by the UK Schmidt Telescope Unit (UKSTU) at Coonabarabran. Infrared JHK photometry has been obtained for all the stars in the sample in order to determine bolometric magnitudes, and spectra have been obtained for most of the stars to obtain spectral types. Stars in the sample have bolometric magnitudes up to the AGB limit of Mbol ∼ – 7.1, and many of the stars show evidence for dredge-up of carbon and s-process elements during helium shell flashes. A bolometric luminosity function has been constructed and its behaviour is discussed in terms of possible mass loss scenarios.
The president thanks those members contributing material to this report. The volume of the material necessitated some editing, but no substantive omissions occurred. Whenever available, AAA numbers are used in lieu of complete titles of publications to help conserve space.
IAU Symposium No. 109 Astrometric Techniques, was held in Gainesville, Florida in January 1984. Although the Proceedings of that meeting are not now available (January 1935), ccmnission members and other interested parties are urged to secure access to that voline when it appears since so many facets of the commission’s work are addressed therein.
As part of the Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project, the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to identify Cepheids in M100, M101 and NGC925, and to measure distances derived from the Cepheid PL relation. For M100, the distance of 17.1 ± 1.8 Mpc has been used to infer a preliminary value for H0 of ~ 80 km/s/Mpc, which brings the age of the Universe derived from the standard model of the Big Bang into conflict with the ages of the oldest stars.
Objectives: In addition to neuropsychological difficulties, patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) can have reduced activities of daily living and a poorer quality of life compared to healthy adults. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET), is a cognitive screening tool designed to be sensitive to the neuropsychological profile of patients with SVD. While the BMET is sensitive to the cognitive consequences of SVD, it is unclear how well scores on this measure relate to functional outcomes. The aims of this study are to investigate the relationship between scores on the BMET and functional outcomes (activities of daily living and quality of life) in SVD, and to compare this with other commonly used cognitive screening tools. Methods: This study included 184 participants with SVD (mean age=63.2; SD=9.9) and 299 healthy controls (mean age=62.4; SD=13.8) who were tested using the BMET, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Stroke Specific - Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and measures of both instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL). Results: After controlling for covariates the scores on the BMET, but not the MoCA or MMSE, were significantly related to poorer IADL and quality of life in the SVD group. In addition to the BMET scores, symptoms of depression were found to be significant associated with functional outcome. Conclusion: These results support the clinical utility of using of the BMET, in combination with a standardized depression questionnaire, during the early assessment of patients with SVD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1–9)
To review the available clinical guidelines from Canada, North America, Europe and the United Kingdom for the diagnosis and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for adolescents previously diagnosed in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) on transition to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) and for adults presenting with a diagnostic query re-ADHD. This article seeks to apply the available guidelines to an Irish context.
Various clinical guidelines and consensus statements were identified by a literature search of PubMed, incorporating literature from the past 10 years from English speaking countries and inclusion of any additional guidelines of clinical relevance. A clinical guideline with specific reference for Irish clinicians was proposed for the diagnosis and management of adults presenting for the first time with a diagnostic query re-ADHD and also to include those young adults previously diagnosed in CAMHS on transition to AMHS.
ADHD is a lifelong disorder, which if undiagnosed or untreated can lead to significant impairment resulting in a high economic cost for society. Stimulant medication is a first-line treatment option for adults with ADHD; however, some formulations are unlicensed in Ireland. Recent licensing of Atomoxetine, for both adolescents on transition and for adults with newly diagnosed ADHD is a welcome development. Third-line agents are rarely prescribed due to their side effect profiles and are prescribed off-label:
It is important to establish clinical guidelines for an Irish context incorporating a biopsychosocial approach. Further discussion amongst clinicians and stakeholders is needed to plan service development.
We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80–200 keV electron beams.
Bulk rock geochemistry and major- and trace-element compositions of clinopyroxene have been determined for three suites of peridotitic mantle xenoliths from the North Atlantic Craton (NAC) in northern Scotland, to establish the magmatic and metasomatic history of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) below this region. Spinel lherzolites from the southernmost locality (Streap Com'laidh) have non-NAC mantle compositions, while the two northern xenolith suites (Loch Roag and Rinibar) are derived from the thinned NAC marginal keel. Clinopyroxene compositions have characteristic trace-element signatures which show both 'primary' and 'metasomatic' origins. We use Zr and Hf abundances to identify ancient cryptic refertilization in 'primary' clinopyroxenes. We suggest that Loch Roag and Rinibar peridotite xenoliths represent an ancient Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic SCLM with original depleted cratonic signatures which were overprinted by metasomatism around the time of intrusion of the Scourie Dyke Swarm (∼2.4 Ga). This SCLM keel was preserved during Caledonian orogenesis, although some addition of material and/or metasomatism probably also occurred, as recorded by Rinibar xenoliths. Rinibar and Streap xenoliths were entrained in Permo-Carboniferous magmas and thus were isolated from the SCLM ∼200 Ma before Loch Roag xenoliths (in an Eocene dyke). Crucially, despite their geographical location, lithospheric mantle peridotite samples from Loch Roag show no evidence of recent melting or refertilization during the Palaeogene opening of the Atlantic.
We examine the roles of actuaries in UK life offices, along with trends, challenges to and opportunities for actuaries. We carry out an analysis of senior roles in life offices, a questionnaire survey and interviews with relevant senior personnel. We find that actuaries occupy many important roles in life offices and are regarded as having good industry knowledge and technical skills, especially in financial modelling. There are fewer executive directors and more non-executive directors of life offices who are actuaries compared with the position in 1990. A higher proportion of reserved roles is outsourced to consultants than was the case in 1990. Only a small number of Actuarial Function Holders are directors. Actuaries are more siloed than was the case in the past, although actuaries are well represented in the finance and risk functions of many offices. Although actuarial work in connection with the preparation for Solvency II will decline, there will be important ongoing requirements for actuaries following Solvency II implementation. We also see opportunities for actuaries in four areas: in risk management, in financial analysis and management based on Solvency II and international financial reporting standards, in connection with “big data”, and in product development and the customer proposition. There are implications for the examination syllabus, continuing professional development and research.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with international prevalence rates estimated to be 5%. It is currently the most common disorder treated in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in Ireland. There have been a number of guidelines worldwide produced to aid clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD; however, there are no guidelines available specifically for the Irish population and healthcare system.
The aim of this paper is to review the available clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of ADHD in children adolescents across North America, Canada, Europe and the United Kingdom and to apply these to an Irish context.
A number of international guidelines were reviewed. A proposed pathway for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD has been devised with the recommendation that a formalised consensus guideline should be implemented.
This review paper has highlighted that there is consensus between the guidelines for the diagnosis of ADHD with a thorough clinical history remaining the gold standard. They further agree on the importance of identifying co-morbid disorders. When it comes to the treatment, the guidelines are less unified. This current paper has devised a proposed care pathway for ADHD in Ireland to ensure high quality cost effective care within its healthcare system.
The objective of this study was to estimate the direct financial costs of hospital care for management of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections using hospital records for cases diagnosed in England. We linked laboratory-confirmed cases (n = 3696) identified through national surveillance to hospital episode statistics and reimbursement codes. From these codes we estimated the direct hospital costs of admissions. Almost all notified invasive GAS cases (92% of 3696) were successfully matched to a primary hospital admission. Of these, secondary admissions (within 30 days of primary admission) were further identified for 593 (17%). After exclusion of nosocomial cases (12%), the median costs of primary and secondary hospital admissions were estimated by subgroup analysis as £1984–£2212 per case, totalling £4·43–£6·34 million per year in England. With adjustment for unmatched cases this equated to £4·84–£6·93 million per year. Adults aged 16–64 years accounted for 48% of costs but only 40% of cases, largely due to an increased number of surgical procedures. The direct costs of hospital admissions for invasive GAS infection are substantial. These estimated costs will contribute to a full assessment of the total economic burden of invasive GAS infection as a means to assess potential savings through prevention measures.
This study examines the relationship of unmet dementia-related care needs of community-dwelling persons, and their caregivers (CGs), to measures of caregiver burden.
Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from participants in a dementia care coordination trial of community-residing persons with dementia (PWD) (n = 254) and their caregivers (n = 246). Participants were recruited from Northwest Baltimore, Maryland. The Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) was used to measure subjective caregiver burden. Objective burden was measured by estimating the total hours per week spent doing things for the PWD and/or how many hours CGs missed paid work in the prior month due to caregiving responsibilities. The Johns Hopkins Dementia Care Needs Assessment was used to identify unmet dementia-related care needs. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions examined the relationship of unmet needs, demographic, clinical, or functional characteristics with caregiver burden measures.
In adjusted multivariable models, patient neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver unmet emotional needs explained 22% of the variance in ZBI scores. In adjusted multivariable models, caregiver need for respite, patient functional dependency, and caregiver unmet specialty medical needs explained 26% of the variance in the hours per week spent caregiving. PWD's level of functional dependency was the sole correlate of missed time at work, explaining 11% of the variance.
Addressing potentially modifiable unmet caregiver needs may reduce subjective and objective caregiver burden.