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Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.
The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.
Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner education, and female offspring gender, distinguished the emergent trajectory from the chronic trajectory. Younger maternal age distinguished the improving group from the resilient group. Exposure to medical, interpersonal, financial, and housing adversity predicted membership in the chronic, emergent, and improving trajectories compared with the resilient trajectory. Finally, exposure to medical, interpersonal, and financial adversity was associated with the chronic v. improving group, and inversely related to the emergent class relative to the improving group.
There are distinct temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, after childbirth, and beyond. Most women show stable low levels of depressive symptoms, while emergent and chronic depression patterns are separable with distinct correlates, most notably maternal age, education levels, adversity exposure, and child gender.
Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations.
The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma.
Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.
Most research on interventions to counter stigma and discrimination has
focused on short-term outcomes and has been conducted in high-income
To synthesise what is known globally about effective interventions to
reduce mental illness-based stigma and discrimination, in relation first
to effectiveness in the medium and long term (minimum 4 weeks), and
second to interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
We searched six databases from 1980 to 2013 and conducted a
multi-language Google search for quantitative studies addressing the
research questions. Effect sizes were calculated from eligible studies
where possible, and narrative syntheses conducted. Subgroup analysis
compared interventions with and without social contact.
Eighty studies (n = 422 653) were included in the
review. For studies with medium or long-term follow-up (72, of which 21
had calculable effect sizes) median standardised mean differences were
0.54 for knowledge and −0.26 for stigmatising attitudes. Those containing
social contact (direct or indirect) were not more effective than those
without. The 11 LMIC studies were all from middle-income countries.
Effect sizes were rarely calculable for behavioural outcomes or in LMIC
There is modest evidence for the effectiveness of anti-stigma
interventions beyond 4 weeks follow-up in terms of increasing knowledge
and reducing stigmatising attitudes. Evidence does not support the view
that social contact is the more effective type of intervention for
improving attitudes in the medium to long term. Methodologically strong
research is needed on which to base decisions on investment in
This study builds on existing research on the prevalence and consequences of mental illness discrimination by investigating and quantifying the relationships between experienced discrimination and costs of healthcare and leisure activities/social participation among secondary mental health service users in England.
We use data from the Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study (n = 202) and a subsample of the Viewpoint study (n = 190). We examine experiences of discrimination due to mental illness in the domains of personal relationships, community activities, and health care, and how such experienced discrimination relates to patterns of service use and engagement in leisure activities.
Our findings show that the cost of health services used for individuals who reported previous experiences of discrimination in a healthcare setting was almost twice as high as for those who did not report any discrimination during the last 12 months (Relative Risk: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.17) and this was maintained after controlling for symptoms and functioning. Experienced discrimination in healthcare (Relative Risk: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.84) or in relationships (Relative Risk: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.91), however, was associated with lower participation in, and hence lower costs of, leisure activities. Individuals who reported any discrimination in a healthcare setting had, on average, £434 higher costs associated with health service use while reported discrimination in the community was associated with increased leisure costs of £32.
These findings make an important initial step towards understanding the magnitude of the costs of mental health-related discrimination.
This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee's recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance.
To explore the role of psychiatric admission, diagnosis and reported unfair treatment in the relationship between ethnicity and mistrust of mental health services.
The Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study was a cross-sectional study of 202 individuals using secondary mental health services in South London. Two structural equation models were estimated, one using Admission (whether admitted to hospital for psychiatric treatment in the past 5 years) and one using involuntary admission to hospital in the past 5 years.
Increased mistrust was directly associated with the latent variable ‘unfair treatment by mental health services and staff’ and with Black or mixed ethnicity in both models. Those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum (as compared to depression and bipolar disorder) had a lower average score on the latent variable, suggesting that on average they reported less unfair treatment. We found evidence of increased reporting of unfair treatment by those who had an admission in the past 5 years, had experienced involuntary admission, and for people of Black of mixed Black and White ethnicity.
Neither prevalence of schizophrenia spectrum nor rates of hospital admission explained the greater mistrust of mental health services found among people of Black and mixed Black and White ethnicity compared with White ethnicity. Rather, people of Black and mixed Black and white ethnicity may be more likely to experience unfair treatment, generating mistrust; furthermore, this group is more likely to express mistrust even after accounting for reporting of unfair treatment by mental health services and staff.
The Early Iron Age enclosures and associated sites on Sutton Common on the western edge of the Humberhead Levels contain an exceptional variety of archaeological data of importance not only to the region but for the study of later prehistory in the British Isles. Few other later prehistoric British sites outside the East Anglian fens and the Somerset Levels have thus far produced the quantity and quality of organically preserved archaeological materials that have been found, despite the small scale of the investigations to date. The excavations have provided an opportunity to integrate a variety of environmental analyses, of wood, pollen, beetles, waterlogged and carbonised plant remains, and of soil micromorphology, to address archaeological questions about the character, use, and environment of this Early Iron Age marsh fort. The site is comprised of a timber palisaded enclosure and a succeeding multivallate enclosure linked to a smaller enclosure by a timber alignment across a palaeochannel, with associated finds ranging in date from the Middle Bronze Age to the Roman and medieval periods. Among the four adjacent archaeological sites is an Early Mesolithic occupation site, also with organic preservation, and there is a Late Neolithic site beneath the large enclosure. Desiccation throughout the common is leading to the damage and loss of wooden and organic remains. It is hoped that the publication of these results, of investigations between 1987 and 1993, will lead to a fuller investigation taking place.
In England, people with a serious mental illness are offered a standardized care plan under the Care Programme Approach (CPA). A crisis plan is a mandatory part of this standard; however, the quality and in particular the level of individualisation of these crisis plans are unknown. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of crisis planning and the impact of exposure to a specialized crisis planning intervention.
The crisis plans of 424 participants were assessed, before and after exposure to the Joint Crisis Plan (JCP) intervention, for ‘individualisation’ (i.e., at least one item of specific and identifiable information about an individual). Associations of individualisation were investigated.
A total of 15% of crisis plans were individualised at baseline. There was little or no improvement following exposure to the JCP. Individualised crisis plans were not associated with a history of prior crises or incidences of harm to self and others.
Routine crisis planning for individuals with serious mental illness is not influenced by clinical risk profiles. ‘Top down’ implementation of the policy is unlikely to generate the best practice and compliance if clinicians do not perceive the clinical value in the process.
Decisions regarding disclosure of a mental health problem are complex and can involve reconciling conflicting needs and values. This article provides a qualitative account of the beliefs and experiences of mental health service users regarding disclosure in employment contexts.
Total sample of 45 individuals were interviewed in two study phases. In phase one, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 mental health service users. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In phase two, identified themes were further explored through interviews with mental health service users (n = 30) in three employment contexts: in paid employment (n = 10); in study or voluntary work (n = 10); and currently unemployed (n = 10). These were analysed using directed content analysis.
Four super-ordinate themes were drawn from phase one analysis: (1) public understanding of mental health problems; (2) the employment context; (3) personal impact of labelling and (4) disclosure needs. These themes were reflective of the content of phase two interviews.
Greater emphasis needs to be placed on considering the societal, employment and interpersonal influences which form the basis for disclosure beliefs and experiences.
Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many ‘end-of-pipe’ measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another.
Discrimination against people with severe mental illness is an international problem. It is associated with reduced social contact and hinders recovery. This paper aims to evaluate if experienced or anticipated discrimination is associated with social capital, a known correlate of mental health.
Data from the annual viewpoint cross-sectional survey of people with severe mental illness (n = 1016) were analysed. Exploratory univariate analysis was used to identify correlates of social capital in the sample, which were then evaluated in linear regression models. Additional hypotheses were tested using t tests.
Experienced discrimination made a modest contribution to the explained variance of social capital. Experienced discrimination from friends and immediate family was associated with reduced access to social capital from these groups, but this was not found for wider family, neighbours or mental health staff. Experience of discrimination in finding or keeping a job was also associated with reduced access to social capital.
Further longitudinal research is needed to determine how resources within people's networks can help to build resilience, which reduces the harmful effect of discrimination on mental health.
Carbon is implanted into fused silica with doses of 1, 3, 6, 10×1016 ions/cm2. Infrared spectroscopy has identified the formation of CO and CO2 molecules in the implanted glasses. The relationships among concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon doses are established by the infrared measurements. Annealing under different atmospheres have dramatic effects on CO and CO2 concentrations.
Zinc ion implanted silica with controlled thermal annealing has been investigated. Low temperature optical measurements indicate the presence of Zn clusters in the as-implanted silica. Optical spectra of the annealed sample under a reducing environment suggest Zn cluster and Zn metal colloid formation. The absorption peak at ∼5.3 eV may be due to the surface plasma absorption of Zn metal colloids in silica. The oxidized samples (10 and 6 x 1016 ions/cm2) show an absorption peak at ∼4.3 and ∼4.8 eV, respectively and imply ZnO quantum dot formation. The blueshift in exciton absorption can be attributed to the quantum confinement effects.
We report production of a self-injected, collimated (8 mrad divergence), 600 pC bunch of electrons with energies up to 350 MeV from a petawatt laser-driven plasma accelerator in a plasma of electron density ne = 1017 cm−3, an order of magnitude lower than previous self-injected laser-plasma accelerators. The energy of the focused drive laser pulse (150 J, 150 fs) was distributed over several hot spots. Simulations show that these hot spots remained independent over a 5 cm interaction length, and produced weakly nonlinear plasma wakes without bubble formation capable of accelerating pre-heated (~1 MeV) plasma electrons up to the observed energies. The required pre-heating is attributed tentatively to pre-pulse interactions with the plasma.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is