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Psychological and social resources such as extraversion, optimism, social support, or social networks contribute to adaptation and to successful aging. Building on assumptions derived from successful aging and from the developmental adaptation models, this study aims to analyze the joint impact of different psychosocial resources, such as personality, social relations, health, and socio-demographic characteristics on life satisfaction in a group of people aged 65 years-old and older from Spain.
A cross-sectional survey using non-proportional quota sampling was carried out. The sample comprised 406 community-dwelling older adults (M = 74.88, SD = 6.75). In order to collect the data, face-to-face interviews were individually conducted. A structural equation model (SEM) was carried out using the PLS software.
The results of the SEM model showed that, within this sample, psychosocial variables explain 47.4% of the variance in life satisfaction. Social relations and personality, specifically optimism, were strongly related with life satisfaction, while health status and socio-demographic characteristics were modestly associated with life satisfaction.
Findings support the view that psychosocial resources are important for successful aging and therefore should be included in successful aging models. Furthermore, interventions aimed at fostering successful aging should take into account the role of psychosocial variables.
The family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 contains 29 species allocated to seven genera, of which Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is the most diverse, with c. 14 valid species. The diversity of Clinostomum has been assessed, combining morphological and molecular data. The genetic library for species in this genus has increased steadily, although there is little or no information for the other genera included in the family. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of clinostomids have not been assessed, and their classification is still based on morphological traits. The monotypic Ithyoclinostomum was described from a fish-eating bird in Brazil, and its metacercariae have been found in several locations in South America, parasitizing erythrinid freshwater fishes. We collected unusually large metacercariae from the body cavity of cichlids in several locations across Middle America. These metacercariae exhibited some resemblance to Ithyoclinostomum, although several differences prevent their inclusion in Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum, casting doubt on their taxonomic identification. The main objective of this paper was to characterize the metacercariae collected in cichlids using both morphology and molecular data from three molecular markers, and to assess the molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Clinostomidae to establish the position of the newly generated sequences. We took a conservative position and tentatively placed the metacercariae as belonging to Ithyoclinostomum.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
It has been widely corroborated that recent stressful life events could impact wellbeing; nevertheless, it is not clear whether stressful situations experienced in the past and the individual resources used to deal with them influence older adults’ wellbeing. This study aims to analyse the influence of stressful past events and personal control beliefs, or the extent to which people believe they can control or influence their environment in order to achieve desired outcomes, on negative affect and domain-specific life satisfaction in a cross-sectional sample of 1,177 Spanish people age 50 years and older. For this purpose, the measurement of ten stressful past events, perceived control beliefs, negative affect and life satisfaction were obtained. Preliminary analyses showed that domain-specific life satisfaction grouped into two factors: internal and external life satisfaction. The results of the partial least squares structural equation model indicated that stressful events and control beliefs have an impact on both negative affect and life satisfaction in old age. Stressful past events had a negative effect on life satisfaction, while control beliefs were positively associated with negative affect. The model was able to predict the variance of internal life satisfaction at 37.5 per cent.
Cranfield University's National Flying Laboratory Centre (NFLC) has developed a Bulldog light aircraft into a flight test facility. The facility is being used to research advanced in-flight instrumentation including fibre optic pressure and strain sensors. During the development of the test bed, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to assist the flight test design process, including the sensor requirements. This paper describes the development of the Bulldog flight test facility, including an overview of the design and certification process, the in-flight data taken using the installed fibre optic sensor systems and lessons learned from the development programme, including potential further applications of the sensors.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
On the basis of ample evidence accumulated during recent years for current star formation within the 30 Doradus Nebula, which appears to have been triggered by the massive central cluster (R136) in and just beyond the curved nebular filaments surrounding it, an HST/NICMOS survey of these regions was undertaken.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
Bioactive materials based on polymer/hydroxyapatite are currently being extensively investigated as materials for promotion of bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction . In this work, a material interpenetrating based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA), Chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared following the methodology of the foaming gas Damla Çetin , generating an interpenetrated network with the chitosan filled with hydroxyapatite. The materials were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in vitro bioactivity  (SBF) and characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA studies suggested that there was not existence of possible interactions between polymers and HA but there is a thermal stability increase in the HA content. Meanwhile, SBF and its characterization by SEM, was found that the materials are bioactives as indicated by the formation of a bone-like apatite layer after immersion in simulated body ﬂuid, indicating the potential of this material for use in bone tissue engineering.
Mola mola is distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. The scarce reports on the occurrence of the species in the Uruguayan coast were based on incomplete morphological studies on collected specimens that could not properly discard the congeneric Mola ramsayi. This work constitutes confirmation of the occurrence of Mola mola in the coastal area of Uruguay, based on morphological characters of a specimen collected in April 2013. The fish occurred 100 m offshore in the Río de la Plata estuary (at a depth of 5 m), in an area with a water temperature between 19 and 19.5°C. Morphometric data is provided. The specimen is preserved in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Uruguay).
The crystal structure of the novel metal organic framework (MOF) Zn(C3H5NO2S)2 is described. This MOF can serve as a model for active sites in metalloproteins, on diverse activities such as structural or catalytic functions. Each half of the amino acid act as a bidentate ligand to one Zn and as a monodentate ligand to another Zn, while the disulphide bond presents an important structural function, stabilizing the crystal packing. The structure has been obtained ab initio from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121), with a = 20.0906(7), b = 9.5842(3), c = 5.018 89(13), and V = 966.40(5) Å3, with Z = 4. The structure was determined using a direct space approach, by means of the Monte Carlo technique, followed by Rietveld refinement.
It has been found that the hybrid materials are a compatible matrix for numerous organic compounds, such as organic dyes, laser dyes, and compounds that exhibit photo-chromic behavior and many more The epoxy-silica system seems to be an excellent matrix for organic dyes and a hybrid material suitable for to be used as coating on glass substrates with good adhesion properties. This work presents a systematic study of the effects of the different amount of using rhodamine 6G as dye on the structure and properties of epoxy–silica hybrids coatings synthesized by the sol-gel process. We have taken advantage on the high solubility of organic dyes in a hybrid organic–inorganic epoxy resin–silica (epoxy–SiO2) matrix to obtain homogeneous, hard and high optical quality red color films on glass substrates. The effects of the content of rhodamine 6 G on the optical and thermal properties of epoxy-silica hybrid films were also examined. Epoxy resin DER 332 cured with an amine (4,4 diamino diphenyl methane) was used as organic component and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor of the inorganic component. The results showed that at a concentration of rhodamine 0.05% coatings retain adhesion properties similar to coatings without colorant and the coatings are uniform and free of defects. These coatings have the potential to be used as filters and ornamental coatings.
Osteoarthritis is a very complex illness of the joints that affects cartilage and subcondral bone. At the last years, researching has been focused in the development and characterization of composite materials, evaluating their structural properties. Some o those composite materials are constituted by organic and inorganic compounds forming hybrids. These materials can improve their properties due to the interaction of reinforcement hard particles in the polymeric matrix. The interest on the composite biomaterials has been increased on the biomedical applications such as tissue regenerating based in synthetic polymers with biodegradable and biocompatible properties whose can be reinforced by calcium phosphates. In this sense, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is often used for biological implants due its mineral phase similitude with bone microstructure and tissue compatibility. Similarly, polylactic acid (PLA) is a used polymer for implant applications due physicochemical and biocompatibility properties, and short degradation time also. In order to obtain a composite that can be used as a regenerating material on the osteoarthritis problem, in this work a (90/10 wt.%) polylactic/hydroxyapatite hybrid composite was produced by chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, FT-IR and TGA/DSC techniques.
The Zarza la Mayor and Zarza de Montánchez tonalites and Arroyo de la Luz granodiorite are part of a tonalitic–granodioritic belt located along the Schistose-Greywacke Domain of the Central Iberian Zone. These intrusions are also part of the Central Extremadura Batholith, a set of plutons ranging from tonalite to leucogranite that have been considered a prime example of Variscan syn-kinematic plutonism. New LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS U–Pb dating reveals that the Zarza la Mayor tonalite–granodiorite is an Early Ordovician intrusion. The LA-ICP-MS data show that there is an absence of inherited cores, despite some complex internal zoning with obvious resorption features in some of the zircon crystals. Dating of monazite and zircon by CA-ID-TIMS provides a concordant age of 478.1 ± 0.8 Ma. This age coincides with electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) monazite chemical ages for the Zarza de Montánchez (482 ± 10 Ma) and Arroyo de la Luz (470 ± 15 Ma) intrusions. These new data indicate the presence of an Early Ordovician belt of calc-alkaline tonalite–granodiorite in the Schistose-Greywacke Domain – the Beira Baixa–Central Extremadura tonalite–granodiorite belt – which resembles a continental magmatic arc. This belt is contemporaneous with the Ollo de Sapo magmatic event further north in the Central Iberian Zone.
A multiscale approach was adopted for the calculation of confined states in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). While results close to experimental data have been obtained with a combination of atomistic strain and tight-binding (TB) electronic structure description for the confined quantum states in the QD, the TB calculation requires substantial computational resources. To alleviate this problem an integrated approach was adopted to compute the energy states from a continuum 8-band k.p Hamiltonian under the influence of an atomistic strain field. Such multiscale simulations yield a roughly six-fold faster simulation. Atomic-resolution strain is added to the k.p Hamiltonian through interpolation onto a coarser continuum grid. Sufficient numerical accuracy is obtained by the multiscale approach. Optical transition wavelengths are within 7% of the corresponding TB results with a proper splitting of p-type sub-bands. The systematically lower emission wavelengths in k.p are attributable to an underestimation of the coupling between the conduction and valence bands.
In order to determine the changes in the relative importance of different kinds of preys as larval anchoveta Engralis ringens grows, the present study reports information about feeding incidence, type, size, and carbon content estimates of preys, at the beginning of the main spawning season in mid-winter off central Chile. Our results show a mixed diet initially dominated by phytoplankton and later switching to zooplankton in older larvae. While larval anchoveta grows, they feed on preys whose widths do not vary much compared to their body length and volume. These preys might be different taxa or a single species whose body widths vary little among life stages (i.e. nauplii and copepodites). Differences in estimated carbon content were observed among food items and a marked increase in carbon consumption was observed in the larger larval sizes (>9 mm standard length). These ontogenetic changes in feeding are coincident with the increased proportion of larger preys and also with the number of preys consumed by larger larvae.