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Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets. In total, 48 weaned piglets were individually allocated to four experimental groups in a 2×2 factorial design for 29 days. Two different dietary treatments were adopted: (a) control (CTR), fed a basal diet, (b) treatment (MPC), fed the basal diet plus 30 g/ton of melon pulp concentrate. On days 19, 21, 23 and 25 half of the animals within CTR and MPC groups were subjected to a challenge with intramuscular injections of an increasing dosage of LPS from Escherichia coli (serotype 0.55:B5) (+) or were injected with an equal amount of PBS solution (−). Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the trial and under the challenge period for interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, haptoglobin, plasma SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, red blood cells and plasma resistance to haemolysis, and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine. Growth performance was evaluated weekly. A positive effect of melon pulp concentrate was evidenced on total antioxidant capacity, half-haemolysis time of red blood cells, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake, while LPS challenge increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and haptoglobin serum concentrations, with a reduced feed intake and gain : feed (G : F). The obtained results show that oral SOD supplementation with melon pulp concentrate ameliorates the total antioxidant capacity and the half-haemolysis time in red blood cell of post-weaning piglets, with positive results on growing performance.
In the present study, the sudden changes of the flow field past stalled airfoils for small variations of the Reynolds number are investigated numerically. A vortex particle method has been used for the simulations in a two-dimensional framework. The most critical configurations found with this solver are verified through the comparison with the solution given by a mesh-based finite volume solver. The airfoils considered are the NACA0010 and a narrow ellipse with the same thickness. The angle of attack is fixed to
for which complex dynamics of the flow can take place in the different viscous regimes inspected. The Reynolds number ranges between
and, within this interval, numerous bifurcations of the solution are observed in terms of mean lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and downstream wake. An analysis of these bifurcations is provided and links are made between the wake structures observed. On this base the flow patterns can be classified in different modes similarly to the analysis by Kurtulus (Intl J. Micro Air Vehicles, vol. 7(3), 2015, pp. 301–326; vol. 8(2), 2016, pp. 109–139). A discussion of the vortical evolution of the flow in the vicinity of the suction side of the airfoil is also provided.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania for which there is a paucity of effective viable non-toxic drugs. There are 1·3 million new cases each year causing considerable socio-economic hardship, best measured in 2·4 million disability adjusted life years, with greatest impact on the poorest communities, which means that desperately needed new antileishmanial treatments have to be both affordable and accessible. Established medicines with cheaper and faster development times may hold the cure for this neglected tropical disease. This concept of using old drugs for new diseases may not be novel but, with the ambitious target of controlling or eradicating tropical diseases by 2020, this strategy is still an important one. In this review, we will explore the current state-of-the-art of drug repurposing strategies in the search for new treatments for leishmaniasis.
If the grains in pre-collapsing clouds are due to the contribution of winds from previous generations of stars and supernovae ejecta, they already contain a fraction if not all, of the heavy elements. The far infrared spectrum of Bok globules, which are at relatively early contraction stages, has been attributed to dusty material.
AG Car is a Luminous Blue Variable which recently evolved from AIe to Ofpe/WN9 in four years at about constant bolometric luminosity, while in the visual the star faded by two magnitudes. This change is probably associated with variable opacity of an unstable massive expanding envelope of a hot star. We discuss the main spectral features of the star and of its ring nebula, and the spectral variations.
Local food systems are frequently touted as economic development strategies for rural communities. In this study, we estimated the local economic impacts of local compared with conventionally produced and marketed food in two regions of Missouri and one region in Nebraska. We found that local food systems generated substantial increases in value added for their local economies.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) are characterized by a total velocity in excess of the Galactic escape speed, and with trajectories consistent with coming from the Galactic Centre. We apply a novel data mining routine, an artificial neural network, to discover HVSs in the TGAS subset of the first data release of the Gaia satellite, using only the astrometry of the stars. We find 80 stars with a predicted probability >90% of being HVSs, and we retrieved radial velocities for 47 of those. We discover 14 objects with a total velocity in the Galactic rest frame >400 km s−1, and 5 of these have a probability >50% of being unbound from the Milky Way. Tracing back orbits in different Galactic potentials, we discover 1 HVS candidate, 5 bound HVS candidates, and 5 runaway star candidates with remarkably high velocities, between 400 and 780 km s−1. We wait for future Gaia releases to confirm the goodness of our sample and to increase the number of HVS candidates.
In the last few years various departments of the University Hospital “A. Gemelli” have been engaged in dealing with disasters of different kinds: the earthquakes of Belice, Friuli and Irpinia, the fire of the Todi antique exhibition, and various terrorist attacks. In these events the organization of the care of the survivors took the following four aspects into account: 1) Type and kind of lesions related to the nature of the event. 2) Criteria and collection areas of the injured, casualty clearing and treatments. 3) Distance of the disaster from the treatment center. 4) New structures to be set up for improving efficiency in the future.
1) The most frequent clinical problems encountered burns and crushing injuries, and those affecting the musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory and neuro-muscular systems. In a second phase, together with the possible lack of water, food, clothing, shelter and toilet facilities, infectious diseases of the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract appear, particularly in old people and children. The treatment of the injured in the emergency phase requires a series of interventions at a very high technological level. In the subsequent phase, which may last for months, the treatment needed comes under normal preventive and clinical care.
2) In the emergency period, which in our experience does not generally last longer than ten days, the medical and surgical departments of our hospital mostly concerned were the intensive care units (18 beds), the orthopedics and traumatology sections (122 beds), the surgical wards (309 beds), the transfusion center and the hemodialysis service.
The need to arrange the assistance beforehand and therefore prepare for the prevention of damage to people and property that may result from accidents or events of considerable magnitude occurring inside the University Hospital, “A. Gemelli,” has led to several laws of the Constitution of the Italian Republic (Article 35), the Criminal Code (Articles 437 and 451), and the Civil Code (Article 2087): The law of Feb 12, 1955, #51 (Official Gazette 54, March 7, 1955); Decree 547 of April 27, 1955 “Regulations for the prevention of industrial accidents” and Decree 302 of March 19, 1956.
The study of these assistance procedures has led to the formulation of an emergency plan divided into two basic parts: prevention of accidents, and rescue operations.
By prevention we mean: a) The training of all staff and Managing Bodies of our Faculty/Staff to take effective action in the case of an intra-hospital accident, b) The need for detailed information on the various procedures to be used depending on the gravity of the event, c) Awareness of the civil and criminal responsibilities relating to the various management and non-management levels in case of emergency.
The training plan for the whole staff, approved by the management administrative, technical and medical bodies, consists of theoretical and practical courses. These courses, which started in June 1983 are “modular.” The staff will take part in them as homogeneous groups, for a period of time which will vary, in regard to the number of hours and kind of instruction, and in relation to what each group has to learn about work safety, fire prevention and emergency measures.
An electrophoretic process is proposed to deposit electrochemically-preformed Au or Pd NPs, with controlled size, directly on MWCNTs-based chemiresistors to improve the detection of aromatic pollutants, compared to pristine ones.
The sensing properties of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were evaluated at an operating temperature of 40°C towards various concentrations of one aromatic pollutant, belonging to the dangerous BTEX class of compounds, m-Xylene. The sensing performance was related to the metal used in the functionalization process. Metal-doped MWCNTs sensors exhibited a very high gas sensitivity to m-Xylene even at low (80 ppb) concentration at low operating temperature (40°C), good reversibility and repeatability, with the sensing properties controlled by the type of deposited metal catalyst.
The results indicate that Metal-modified MWCNT-based chemiresistive gas sensors has good potential in practical applications, due to its remarkable performance, low power consumption, and facile synthesized methods.
The Digitised First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) provides low dispersion optical spectra for about 24 million sources. A two-step machine learning algorithm based on similarities to predefined templates is applied to select different classes of rare objects in the dataset automatically, for example late type stars, quasars and white dwarves. Identifying outliers from the groups of common astrophysical objects may lead to discovery of rare objects, such as gamma-ray burst afterglows.
We discuss the non-linear evolution of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in Herbig-Haro jets performing numerical simulations by means of a PPM hydro-code modified as to include non-equilibrium, optically thin, radiation losses and heating. In this paper we discuss in particular the effects of different functional dependences of heating on density. The results obtained show a weak dependency of the instability evolution on the different forms of the heating function, that is largely unknown, therefore the simple assumption of constant heating, adopted in previous papers on this matter, does not lead to severe limitations on the general applicability of the results to the astrophysical jets and, in particular, to the origin of the emission knots.
One of the key processes governing the structure and evolution of astrophysical jets is their interaction with the surrounding medium. A jet can deposit momentum and energy in the ambient medium, and entrain external material. The main physical process responsible for mixing between a jet flow and the ambient medium is the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. We have previously analysed the 2D evolution of the axisymmetric modes of a cylindrical jet (Bodo et al 1994) and of the antisymmetric modes of a planar slab jet (Bodo et al 1995). These last are thought to give indications of the 3D evolution of the helical modes of a cylinder, since the linear behavior is very similar. In this contribution we present some preliminary results of fully 3D simulations comparing them with the mentioned 2D results.
We have studied spectra of the peculiar B[e] star HD 45677. Examination of the Balmer wings enabled us to determine a value of log g = 3.9 indicating a possibly luminosity class V. The weak Heɪ lines togetherwith the Si ɪɪ 4128 and 4130 Å doublet indicate a low rotation velocity in the order of 70 km s−1, which is much lower than the previously claimed value of 200 km s−1 by Swings & Allen (1971). We have examined high-resolution profiles of the strong He I line at 5876 Å and found on one hand that we can explain the variation of the profile by the motions of clouds, some of which accreted. The Balmer lines on the other hand show the presence of an accelerated wind plus absorption by a disk seen edge-on
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
The prompt availability of reliable epidemiological information on emerging pandemics is crucial for public health policy-makers. Early in 2013, a possible new H1N1 epidemic notified by an intensive care unit (ICU) to GiViTI, the Italian ICU network, prompted the re-activation of the real-time monitoring system developed during the 2009–2010 pandemic. Based on data from 216 ICUs, we were able to detect and monitor an outbreak of severe H1N1 infection, and to compare the situation with previous years. The timely and correct assessment of the severity of an epidemic can be obtained by investigating ICU admissions, especially when historical comparisons can be made.