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Most research on the causes of women's underrepresentation examines one of two stages of the political pipeline: the development of nascent political ambition or specific aspects of the campaign and election process. In this article, we make a different kind of contribution. We build on the growing literature on gender, psychology, and representation to provide an analysis of what kinds of men and women make it through the political pipeline at each stage. This allows us to draw some conclusions about the ways in which the overall process is similar and different for women and men. Using surveys of the general U.S. population (N = 1,939) and elected municipal officials such as mayors and city councilors (N = 2,354) that measure the distribution of Big Five personality traits, we find that roughly the same types of men and women have nascent political ambition; there is just an intercept shift for sex. In contrast, male and female elected officials have different personality profiles. These differences do not reflect underlying distributions in the general population or the population of political aspirants. In short, our data suggest that socialization into political ambition is similar for men and women, but campaign and election processes are not.
Reducing food portion size could reduce energy intake. However it is unclear at what point consumers respond to reductions by increasing intake of other foods. We predicted that a change to a served portion size would only result in significant additional eating within the same meal if the resulting portion size was no longer visually perceived as ‘normal’. Participants in two crossover experiments (Study 1: N = 45; Study 2: N = 37; adults, 51% female) were served different sized lunchtime portions on three occasions that were perceived by a previous sample of participants as ‘large-normal’, ‘small-normal’, and ‘smaller than normal’ respectively. Participants were able to serve themselves additional helpings of the same food (Study 1), or dessert items (Study 2). In Study 1 there was a small but significant increase in additional intake when participants were served the ‘smaller than normal’ compared to the ‘small-normal’ portion, m difference = 39 kcal, p = .002, d = 0.35, but there was no significant difference between the ‘small-normal’ and ‘large-normal’ conditions, m difference = 20 kcal, p = .08, d = 0.24. A similar pattern was observed in Study 2: m difference = 36 kcal, p = .06, d = 0.18; m difference = 20 kcal, p = .26, d = 0.10. However, smaller portion sizes were each associated with a significant reduction in total meal intake. The findings provide preliminary evidence that reductions that result in portions appearing ‘normal’ in size may limit additional eating, but confirmatory research is needed. (250/250 words)
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection can cause serious illness including haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The role of socio-economic status (SES) in differential clinical presentation and exposure to potential risk factors amongst STEC cases has not previously been reported in England. We conducted an observational study using a dataset of all STEC cases identified in England, 2010–2015. Odds ratios for clinical characteristics of cases and foodborne, waterborne and environmental risk factors were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by SES, adjusting for baseline demographic factors. Incidence was higher in the highest SES group compared to the lowest (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19–2.00). Odds of Accident and Emergency attendance (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10–1.75) and hospitalisation (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.36–2.15) because of illness were higher in the most disadvantaged compared to the least, suggesting potential lower ascertainment of milder cases or delayed care-seeking behaviour in disadvantaged groups. Advantaged individuals were significantly more likely to report salad/fruit/vegetable/herb consumption (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.16–2.17), non-UK or UK travel (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.40–2.27; OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.35–2.56) and environmental exposures (walking in a paddock, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22–2.70; soil contact, OR 1.52, 95% CI 2.13–1.09) suggesting other unmeasured risks, such as person-to-person transmission, could be more important in the most disadvantaged group.
The second order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of two different ionic selfassembled multilayer (ISAM) films combined with Ag nanoparticles have been investigated. The plasmon resonances in the Ag particles concentrate the incident light, markedly increasing in the NLO efficiencies of the films. We find that the efficiency enhancement is significantly larger in conventional ISAM films compared to films made using a hybrid covalent ISAM technique (HCISAM), even though the intrinsic bulk second order non-linear susceptibility (χ(2)) is much larger for HCISAM films. We attribute this to the interfaces in HCISAM films being much easier to disrupt by external perturbations such as the metal deposition by which the nanoparticles are fabricated. We conclude that because the plasmon decay length is very short, the plasmonic enhancement of NLO effects primarily occurs at and near the film-particle interface. To discern the importance of the interfaces, we surrounded thin ISAM and HCISAM films with NLOinactive buffer layers, which confirmed this hypothesis, particularly in the case of HCISAM films.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metric was created by the American Heart Association with the goal of educating the public on seven modifiable factors that contribute to heart health. While it is well documented that these ideal health behaviors lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, the association between the LS7 ideal health metrics and end stage renal disease (ESRD) risk has not been examined in a lower socioeconomic population at high risk for both ESRD and CVD. Our objective is to examine the association between the LS7 score and incident ESRD in a cohort of white and black men and women in the southeastern US, where rates of CVD and ESRD are high. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study recruited ~86,000 low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Utilizing a nested case-control design, our analysis included 1628 incident cases of ESRD identified via linkage of the cohort with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2015. Controls (n = 4884) were individually matched 3:1 with ESRD cases based on age, sex, and race. Demographic, medical, and lifestyle information were obtained via baseline questionnaire. The AHA definitions for ideal health were used for non-smoking (never or quit >12 months), body mass index (BMI<25kg/m2) and physical activity (>75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or >150min/week of moderate/vigorous activity). Modified definitions were used for consuming a healthy diet [Healthy Eating Index (HEI10) score>70] and for blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol, based on self-reported no history of diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. The number of ideal health parameters were summed to generate the LS7 score, which ranged from 0-7 with higher scores indicating more ideal health. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident ESRD associated with LS7 score were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for income and education. The SCCS ESRD case-cohort dataset will be available by TS 2019 and analyses will be completed to adjust for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function and to examine whether eGFR modifies the relationship between LS7 and incident ESRD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 54 years, 55% (3600) of participants were women, and 87% (5656) were black. A total of 58% (943) of ESRD cases were non-smokers compared to 54% (2633) of controls. ESRD cases had higher prevalence of BMI>25 kg/m2 (81% vs. 74%), hypertension (84% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (48% vs. 34%), and diabetes (66% vs. 22%) compared to controls. A total of 18% (839) of controls and 12% (194) of ESRD cases met ideal exercise recommendations, and 20% of either cases (302) or controls (916) had a HEI10 score above 70. The median LS7 score for controls and ESRD cases was 3 and 2, respectively, and 17% (983) of participants had a low score (0-1) while 2% (105) met 6 or 7 ideal health metrics. Higher LS7 score was associated with lower odds of ESRD (P-trend<0.001). Participants with LS7 score >3 (above median) had 75% reduced odds of ESRD (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.22, 0.29) compared to those with a score of 2 or less. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In the SCCS population, the presence of any 3 or more ideal health behaviors is associated with reduced odds of developing ESRD. The components of the LS7 represent important modifiable risk factors that may be targets for future interventions driven by the patient. The attributable risk due to each factor is needed to dissect which ideal behaviors are the most beneficial.
Investing in global health and development requires making difficult choices about what policies to pursue and what level of resources to devote to different initiatives. Methods of economic evaluation are well established and widely used to quantify and compare the impacts of alternative investments. However, if not well conducted and clearly reported, these evaluations can lead to erroneous conclusions. Differences in analytic methods and assumptions can obscure important differences in impacts. To increase the comparability of these evaluations, improve their quality, and expand their use, this special issue includes a series of papers developed to support reference case guidance for benefit-cost analysis. In this introductory article, we discuss the background and context for this work, summarize the process we are following, describe the overall framework, and introduce the articles that follow.
The mouth may be presented and understood in different ways, be subject to judgement by others and, as we age, may intrude on everyday life due to problems that affect oral health. However, research that considers older people's experiences concerning their mouths and teeth is limited. This paper reports on qualitative research with 43 people in England and Scotland, aged 65–91, exploring the significance of the mouth over the lifecourse. It uses the concept of ‘mouth talk’ to explore narratives of maintaining, losing and replacing teeth. Participants engaged in ‘mouth talk’ to downplay the impact of the mouth, demonstrate socially appropriate ageing, and distance themselves from ‘real’ old age by retaining a moral identity and sense of self. They also found means to challenge dominant discourses of ageing in how they spoke about missing teeth. Referring to Leder's notion of ‘dys-appearance’ and Gilleard and Higgs’ work on the social imaginary of the fourth age, the study illustrates the ways in which ‘mouth talk’ can contribute to sustaining a sense of self in later life, presenting the ageing mouth, with and without teeth, as an absent presence. It also argues for the importance of listening to stories of the mouth in order to expand understanding of people's approaches to oral health in older age.
This paper is based on part of the thesis of one of the authors (5), submitted at the University of Toronto in 1963. In the first part of the paper a result on induced representations (2, 4, 9) is generalized slightly and a number of corollaries are derived. In the rest of the paper a special case of this result is applied to put the representation theory of the alternating group on a par with that of the symmetric group. A knowledge of the representation theory of Sn (7) on the part of the reader is assumed.
The present paper is a sequel to that of J. H. Chung (2) and contains a proof of a conjecture made by him, namely, that the number of ordinary (modular) irreducible representations contained in a given p-block of Sn is independent of the p-core. A summary of the results contained herein appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (9).
We shall consider methods of summation A, B, … defined by matrices of real elements (amn), (bmn), (m, n = 1, 2, …) which are regular, that is, have the three well-known properties of Toeplitz (4, p. 43). A method A is said to be core-consistent with the methodBfor bounded sequences if the A-core (3, p. 137; and 4, p. 55) of each real bounded sequence is contained in its B-core. B is totally included in A, B ≪A, if each real sequence which is B-summable to a definite limit (this limit may be finite or infinite of a definite sign) is also A-summable to the same limit.
The study of the modular representation theory of the symmetric group has been greatly facilitated lately by the introduction of the graph (9, III ), the q-graph (5) and the hook-graph (4) of a Young diagram [λ]. In the present paper we seek to coordinate these ideas and relate them to the r-inducing and restricting processes (9, II ).
1. Introduction. The problem of the expression of an invariant matrix of an invariant matrix as a direct sum of invariant matrices is intimately associated with the representation theory of the full linear group on the one hand and with the representation theory of the symmetric group on the other. In a previous paper the author gave an explicit formula for this reduction in terms of characters of the symmetric group. Later J. A. Todd derived the same formula using Schur functions, i.e. characters of representations of the full linear group.
If we define the weight b of a Young diagram containing n nodes to be the number of removable p-hooks where n = a + bp, then three fundamental theorems stand out in the modular representation theory of the symmetric group Sn.
1. Introduction. It has been observed (2) that the number of p-regular classes of Sn, i.e. the number of classes of order prime to p, is equal to the number of partitions (λ) of n in which no summand is repeated p or more times. For this relation to hold it is essential that p be prime. It seems natural to call the Young diagram [λ] associated with (λ) p-regular if no p of its rows are of equal length, otherwise p-singular.
Each irreducible representation [λ] of the symmetric group Sn may be identified by a partition [λ] of n into non-negative integral parts λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ … λn ≥ 0, of which the first λ'j parts are ≥j, or by a right (Young) diagram also called [λ], that contains λi nodes in its ith row and λ'j
nodes in its jth column.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify and sharpen the argument in the last two chapters of the author's Representation theory of the symmetric group(3). When these chapters were written the peculiar properties of the case p = 2 were not fully appreciated. No difficulty arises in the definition of the block in terms of the p-core, or in the application of the general modular theory based on the formula
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Discrimination within the healthcare system and physician distrust have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes for people living with HIV; however, many studies do not link these variables to biological data. We hypothesize that perceived healthcare discrimination and physician distrust associates with higher longitudinal viremia among HIV-positive women. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 2006 cross-sectional survey assessed healthcare-based discrimination and physician trust in 92 HIV-positive and 46 high-risk HIV-negative women from the Washington DC Women’s Interagency HIV Study (DC-WIHS). In addition, we identified HIV viral load trajectories and demographics from the HIV-positive women who contributed≥4 semi-annual visits from 1994 to 2015. Viral suppression was defined by assay detection limits (<80 to <20 copies/mL). Group-based probability trajectory analyses grouped women based on longitudinal viral load patterns, and identified 3 groups: sustained viremia (n=32) with low-viral suppression over time, intermittent viremia (n=27) with varying suppression over time, and non-viremia (n=33) with high-longitudinal viral suppression. Ordinal logistic regression models assessed trajectory group and discrimination variables, controlling for demographics, using stepwise selection with significance level of α=0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most women were African American (60%), insured at the time of visit (89%) and nonsmokers (56%). While physician trust did not differ by HIV viral trajectory group, trust was lower among HIV-negative women compared with HIV-positive women (p=0.03). Over 1 in 5 HIV-positive women reported discrimination in the healthcare system based on HIV status (21.3%). Report of discrimination based on drug/alcohol use was higher among HIV-negative participants (19.2% vs. 6.5%, p=0.01). Among women with longitudinal sustained viremia, report of discrimination based on race ethnicity (29%, p=0.004) and sexual orientation (15.6%, p=0.008) were higher than within the nonviremic and intermittent trajectory groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Physician trust did not associate with increased longitudinal viral suppression among HIV-positive women in Washington, DC. Lack of physician trust among high-risk HIV-negative women could have implications for uptake of prevention methods. Reports of discrimination vary between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the Washington, DC area. The findings of healthcare system distrust among HIV-negative women has implications outside the realm of HIV, as this lack of trust may impact risk for other disease states among similar populations of women.
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) poses a threat to public health due to its complicated, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. A cluster of three XDR TB cases was detected among foreign medical students of a Romanian university. The contact investigations included tuberculin skin testing or interferon gamma release assay, chest X-ray, sputum smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing, genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and were addressed to students, personnel of the university, family members or other close contacts of the cases. These investigations increased the total number of cases to seven. All confirmed cases shared a very similar WGS profile. Two more cases were epidemiologically linked, but no laboratory confirmation exists. Despite all the efforts done, the source of the outbreak was not identified, but the transmission was controlled. The investigation was conducted by a team including epidemiologists and microbiologists from five countries (Finland, Israel, Romania, Sweden and the UK) and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Our report shows how countries can collaborate to control the spread of XDR TB by exchanging information about cases and their contacts to enable identification of additional cases and transmission and to perform the source investigation.
The changes in the payment scheme proposed by the Milk Marketing Board from 1 April 1984 cover a number of issues relating to compositional quality, seasonality of pricing and the monthly distribution of production. Although the changes in total must be financially self-balancing on a national basis, the effect on individual farms may be significant.
A computer program has been used on the records from a number of farms to investigate the effect of the changes, separately and together, on annual and monthly income from milk. The effects on three herds were as follows.
Herd 1 was a Jersey herd that showed an overall increase in income per cow, due mainly to the higher price of protein. Herds with a high protein to lactose ratio in the milk will stand to gain from the new price of protein.
Herd 2 was a Friesian/Holstein herd with a low protein and low milk fat content in the milk. The herd was also calving seasonally and had a low output of milk during August and September. A substantial decrease in income of approximately £29 per cow was due principally to the low protein to lactose ratio but also to the low fat content and the seasonal pattern of milk production on the farm.