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The Systems Ecology Paradigm (SEP) incorporates humans as integral parts of ecosystems and emphasizes issues that have significant societal relevance such as grazing land, forestland, and agricultural ecosystem management, biodiversity and global change impacts. Accomplishing this societally relevant research requires cutting-edge basic and applied research. This book focuses on environmental and natural resource challenges confronting local to global societies for which the SEP methodology must be utilized for resolution. Key elements of SEP are a holistic perspective of ecological/social systems, systems thinking, and the ecosystem approach applied to real world, complex environmental and natural resource problems. The SEP and ecosystem approaches force scientific emphasis to be placed on collaborations with social scientists and behavioral, learning, and marketing professionals. The SEP has given environmental scientists, decision makers, citizen stakeholders, and land and water managers a powerful set of tools to analyse, integrate knowledge, and propose adoption of solutions to important local to global problems.
Radar surveys across ice sheets typically measure numerous englacial layers that can often be regarded as isochrones. Such layers are valuable for extrapolating age–depth relationships away from ice-core locations, reconstructing palaeoaccumulation variability, and investigating past ice-sheet dynamics. However, the use of englacial layers in Antarctica has been hampered by underdeveloped techniques for characterising layer continuity and geometry over large distances, with techniques developed independently and little opportunity for inter-comparison of results. In this paper, we present a methodology to assess the performance of automated layer-tracking and layer-dip-estimation algorithms through their ability to propagate a correct age–depth model. We use this to assess isochrone-tracking techniques applied to two test case datasets, selected from CreSIS MCoRDS data over Antarctica from a range of environments including low-dip, continuous layers and layers with terminations. We find that dip-estimation techniques are generally successful in tracking englacial dip but break down in the upper and lower regions of the ice sheet. The results of testing two previously published layer-tracking algorithms show that further development is required to attain a good constraint of age–depth relationships away from dated ice cores. We recommend that auto-tracking techniques focus on improved linking of picked stratigraphy across signal disruptions to enable accurate determination of the Antarctic-wide age–depth structure.
The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of the risks seen in the exploration and production of geothermal energy from the viewpoint of the regulator. The risks are categorised as conventional risks, ultra-deep risks and enhancing factors. These risks are similar to those seen in the oil and gas industry, but the maturity of the geothermal sector in terms of managing such risks is much lower.
Another objective of this paper is to discuss how these risks are managed and mitigated by the sector and the supervisor, State Supervision of Mines (SodM). Portfolio operators developing multiple projects, using skilled employees and embracing continuous improvement are seen as the way forward for the sector to grow safely and sustainably.
This paper concludes that positive developments have started, but a lot of work still needs to be done to ensure safe growth of the geothermal energy sector.
Evidence indicates that Antarctic minke whales (AMWs) in the Ross Sea affect the foraging behaviour, especially diet, of sympatric Adélie penguins (ADPEs) by, we hypothesize, influencing the availability of prey they have in common, mainly crystal krill. To further investigate this interaction, we undertook a study in McMurdo Sound during 2012–2013 and 2014–2015 using telemetry and biologging of whales and penguins, shore-based observations and quantification of the preyscape. The 3D distribution and density of prey were assessed using a remotely operated vehicle deployed along and to the interior of the fast-ice edge where AMWs and ADPEs focused their foraging. Acoustic surveys of prey and foraging behaviour of predators indicate that prey remained abundant under the fast ice, becoming successively available to air-breathing predators only as the fast ice retreated. Over both seasons, the ADPE diet included less krill and more Antarctic silverfish once AMWs became abundant, but the penguins' foraging behaviour (i.e. time spent foraging, dive depth, distance from colony) did not change. In addition, over time, krill abundance decreased in the upper water column near the ice edge, consistent with the hypothesis (and previously gathered information) that AMW and ADPE foraging contributed to an alteration of prey availability.
One major challenge in the study of late-Quaternary extinctions (LQEs) is providing better estimates of past megafauna abundance. To show how megaherbivore population size varied before and after the last extinctions in interior Alaska, we use both a database of radiocarbon-dated bone remains (spanning 25–0 ka) and spores of the obligate dung fungus, Sporormiella, recovered from radiocarbon-dated lake-sediment cores (spanning 17–0 ka). Bone fossils show that the last stage of LQEs in the region occurred at about 13 ka ago, but the number of megaherbivore bones remains high into the Holocene. Sporormiella abundance also remains high into the Holocene and does not decrease with major vegetation changes recorded by arboreal pollen percentages. At two sites, the interpretation of Sporormiella was enhanced by additional dung fungal spore types (e.g., Sordaria). In contrast to many sites where the last stage of LQEs is marked by a sharp decline in Sporormiella abundance, in interior Alaska our results indicate the continuance of megaherbivore abundance, albeit with a major taxonomic turnover (including Mammuthus and Equus extinction) from predominantly grazing to browsing dietary guilds. This new and robust evidence implies that regional LQEs were not systematically associated with crashes of overall megaherbivore abundance.
Little is known about the experiences of people living alone with dementia in the community and their non-resident relatives and friends who support them. In this paper, we explore their respective attitudes and approaches to the future, particularly regarding the future care and living arrangements of those living with dementia. The study is based on a qualitative secondary analysis of interviews with 24 people living alone with early-stage dementia in North Wales, United Kingdom, and one of their relatives or friends who supported them. All but four of the dyads were interviewed twice over 12 months (a total of 88 interviews). In the analysis, it was observed that several people with dementia expressed the desire to continue living at home for ‘as long as possible’. A framework approach was used to investigate this theme in more depth, drawing on concepts from the existing studies of people living with dementia and across disciplines. Similarities and differences in the future outlook and temporal orientation of the participants were identified. The results support previous research suggesting that the future outlook of people living with early-stage dementia can be interpreted in part as a response to their situation and a way of coping with the threats that it is perceived to present, and not just an impaired view of time. Priorities for future research are highlighted in the discussion.
Cerebral imaging is now acknowledged as a crucial research topic in Psychiatry. However, a gap remains between scientific results and clinical applications. For example, a large number of studies have focused on statistical associations with a disease, symptoms or treatment effects on a cross-sectional design. Results are thus informative at a specific time point whereas the disease and its cerebral phenotypes change overtime. Longitudinal imaging enables to identify brain structures and functions changes over time but requires specific preprocessing to avoid bias such as interpolation and registration asymmetries . By creating a midpoint average image, patients’ scans are equally manipulated and statistics are unlikely to be biased.
So far, cerebral imaging do not provide information on diagnosis and/or prognosis and clinicians do not use cerebral imaging in everyday practice. However, recent improvements in modeling cerebral imaging data using multivariate statistics and pattern recognition (i.e. machine learning) might offer the possibility to use imaging in clinical settings. Indeed, it has been shown that machine learning enables to distinguish patients with depressive disorders to controls based on cerebral activation during sad faces visualization . Using a prognostic approach, Tognin et al.  were able to predict symptoms progression based on cortical thickness among ultra-high risk for psychosis. However, these applications need to be carefully interpreted in order to preclude inflated optimism . On the basis on this literature, we propose to expose our preliminary results based on combining basal arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging to improve diagnosis performances of depression in 30 patients and controls.
Apathy, defined as a lack of motivation, is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Specific scales are available for the evaluation of apathy but it lacks objective evaluation methods.
To evaluate the changes in reaction time task according to the presence or absence of reward stimulation and to assess the relation between these performances and apathy scales.
13 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 91 elderly healthy subjects were enrolled. A computerized test using the experiment software E-prime® was designed to assess reaction times in different experimental conditions after a training trial (neutral, stimulation, stress, stimulation after stress, extinction) and relation between the performances to the test and the Apathy Inventory (AI) scores were observed.
Patients reaction times were significantly higher than control. Reactions times were lower in stimulation conditions and maximum during the stress condition. In the patients population, apathetic subjects (AI total score >2) had significantly higher reaction times than non apathetic subjects (p<0,05). We found significant positive correlation between AI dimensions lack of initiative and lack of interest, and reaction times in the following conditions: lack of interest and neutral condition (p<0,01), stimulation condition (p<0,05), lack of initiative and stress condition (p<0,05). Furthermore, AI total score was correlated with both stimulation and extinction conditions (p<0,05). There was no significant correlation with the emotional blunting.
the reaction time task may be a promising tool for an objective evaluation of the initiative and interest dimensions of apathy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Disinhibition and irritability, defined as loss of behavioral and emotional control, are frequent in the elderly. The working hypothesis for this study was that these disorders are associated with a cognitive alteration of control processes that manifests as non-routine behavior because of the dysfunction of a general executive component known as the supervisory attentional system (SAS).
A total of 28 elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment were recruited and divided into two groups using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Fourteen subjects were allocated to the disinhibited group and 14 subjects matched for age, sex and educational level formed a disinhibition-free control group. The neuropsychological battery included the following tests: Mini Mental Score Evaluation, Boston Naming test, Token test, Trail Making and Verbal Fluency. Two tasks were specifically designed to stress the SAS: 1) A specific verbal sentence arrangement task in which subjects had to use sequential reasoning with verbal material. Each test sequence consisted of a series of words shown in jumbled order. The construction of some sequences had to be done by using familiar routine associations (valid conditions). In contrast, other sequences required the overriding selection of familiar routine associations, which were inappropriate within the general context of the task (invalid conditions). 2) Using the Continuous Performance Test, four aspects were evaluated: sustained, selective, preparation and suppressive attention.
The only group differences in neuropsychological test results were the following: 1) the sentence arrangement task. In comparison with the control group, the disinhibited group was impaired in invalid conditions and the calculated difference between the number of correct responses in invalid conditions minus that in valid conditions was significantly higher; and 2) the CPT. Disinhibited subjects had a significantly lower number of hits, exclusively in the ‘suppressive attention’ paradigm.
These results suggest that subjects with disinhibition have impaired supervisory system function.
The aim of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic patients' impairment in semantic verbal fluency tasks is due to difficulties in organizing their search or, in other words, in organizing output in terms of clusters of meaningfully related words. Consecutive association of words belonging to subcategories of the semantic task was defined as semantic clustering. A categorical verbal fluency task was first administered to 100 healthy subjects and then to 22 schizophrenic patients and 22 healthy subjects matched for sex, age and education. In the normal population, semantic clustering was found to be involved in word generation. A large number of semantic clusters indicated efficient organization of semantic knowledge and led to better word production. Schizophrenic patients showed impaired verbal fluency and generated a smaller number of semantic clusters than the control subjects. These findings point to a defect in self-initiation of semantic categorization in schizophrenia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of social anxiety and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (n = 40 girls between 13 and 19 years of age). Mean duration of diabetes was 7 years. We supposed that this chronic illness may provoke feelings of friendlessness and sadness, social withdrawal and fear of social situations because diabetes entails a series of demands which differentiate the diabetic child from healthy children. Our population was compared with 35 healthy young girls. All were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age-Children and completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Imaginary Audience Scale. Diagnoses of anxiety disorders across DSM-IIIR do not show significant differences between groups. In self-report inventories, our findings do not support the hypothesis that social anxiety is a pathological symptom in diabetic subjects. However, they were more depressed than the control group. Furthermore, social functioning of the diabetic group did not differ from that of the control group. They were more concerned with their illness than with social anxiety.
There is wide acknowledgement that apathy is an important behavioural syndrome in Alzheimer’s disease and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In light of recent research and the renewed interest in the correlates and impacts of apathy, and in its treatments, it is important to develop criteria for apathy that will be widely accepted, have clear operational steps, and that will be easily applied in practice and research settings. Meeting these needs is the focus of the task force work reported here.
The task force includes members of the Association Française de Psychiatrie Biologique, the European Psychiatric Association, the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium and experts from Europe, Australia and North America. An advanced draft was discussed at the consensus meeting (during the EPA conference in April 7th 2008) and a final agreement reached concerning operational definitions and hierarchy of the criteria.
Apathy is defined as a disorder of motivation that persists over time and should meet the following requirements. Firstly, the core feature of apathy, diminished motivation, must be present for at least four weeks; secondly two of the three dimensions of apathy (reduced goal-directed behaviour, goal-directed cognitive activity, and emotions) must also be present; thirdly there should be identifiable functional impairments attributable to the apathy. Finally, exclusion criteria are specified to exclude symptoms and states that mimic apathy.
5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) stimulates pineal melatonin secretion, and a decrease in dark phase melatonin levels has been described in major depression. As exogenous melatonin has shown synchronizer properties, authors hypothesized that giving 5-MOP would have antidepressant properties.
Twenty-six inpatients meeting the criteria of major depressive disorders were enrolled in a four-week, double blind trial of 5-MOP versus amitriptyline. Clinical improvement was identical in both treatment groups but biological changes were different in each group: 5-MOP patients showed an early nocturnal surge of melatonin levels that was maintained at the fourth treatment week, while melatonin levels remained unchanged in patients treated with amitriptyline.
The aim of this study was to investigate relationships and differences between 2 scales assessing subject’s adaptative functioning. On the one hand, Axis V in the revised version of the Third Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) includes specific symptoms for each level of functioning described. On the other hand, the Psychosocial Aptitude Rating Scale (PARS) does not include clinical symptoms. A total of 78 psychiatric inpatients were rated independently with the 2 scales. The 2 ratings were correlated for the whole sample and for each diagnostic category. Diagnosis (Axis 1) explained 63.9% of the variance in the Global Assessment Functioning (GAF) Scale (Axis V) and only 23.8% in the Psychosocial Aptitude Rating Scale (PARS). Axis V is then made redundant by Axis 1 which is contrary to the aim of a multi-axial system. PARS describes aspects of the disorder that are distinct from clinical symptoms. These occupational and social aspects may be of great interest for a better overall evaluation of severity of mental disorders.
L’apathie est définie comme un manque de motivation qui impacte les dimensions cognitives, émotionnelles et comportementales du quotidien. Les comportements orientés vers un but (c.-à-d., l’obtention de toute forme de satisfaction élémentaire (nourriture par exemple) et la persévération à l’effort), les cognitions (prise d’initiative, stratégies d’adaptation telles que la flexibilité mentale et l’inhibition des conduites inadéquates) et l’état émotionnel associé (activation du système d’éveil et d’excitation) sont réduits voire même absents dans les cas extrêmes. La sensation de vacuité ressentie par l’entourage peut prendre le masque du rejet de la part du proche aidant/compagnon, d’un désinvestissement de la part du médecin ou bien même de l’oubli dans les institutions. L’apathie étant associée à l’assombrissement du pronostic et à une qualité de vie altérée dans différentes maladies neuropsychiatriques, une approche transnosographique apporterait-elle des évidences permettant de suspecter un déficit commun ? Ce symposium se déroulera en trois parties : au cours de la première, le Pr Dujardin présentera les données générales autour du concept d’apathie (notamment les définitions et les données épidémiologiques) puis seront traités de façon plus spécifiques (physiopathologies, outils d’évaluations et stratégies thérapeutiques) l’apathie dans les maladies psychiatriques dont la dépression et la schizophrénie et dans les maladies dégénératives dont les maladies d’Alzheimer et de Parkinson. L’objectif est de pouvoir soumettre aux auditeurs un modèle intégratif correspondant aux troubles évoqués.
Bien que le terme « apathie » soit plus favorablement rencontré dans le domaine des pathologies dégénératives, de plus en plus de travaux sont réalisés dans celui des pathologies développementales, au premier rang desquels la schizophrénie et la dépression. Les analyses factorielles des échelles de symptômes négatifs dans la schizophrénie identifient deux facteurs dont celui de l’apathie associée à un pronostic péjoratif . Les troubles de la motivation sont désormais au cœur des enjeux thérapeutiques et de nouveaux paradigmes d’effort et l’imagerie cérébrale caractérisent les désordres motivationnels dans la schizophrénie . Les traitements médicamenteux souvent suspectés d’être pourvoyeur de troubles motivationnels ne sont pas mis en causes dans une récente méta-analyse . Nous exposerons également les résultats de nos travaux identifiant les troubles émotionnels chez les patients apathiques schizophrènes et dépressifs.
Deficits in emotional processes are often observed by clinicians in anorexia nervosa and may have an impact on social functioning. Recognition of emotion was mostly investigated using visual stimuli as faces of emotional scenes. Only one study (Kucharska-Pietura et al., 2004) demonstrated impairments in emotional prosody using positive and negative valenced stimuli. However, this study did not provide a highlight for the identification of emotional bias (for example, to recognize an intense fear in a friendly voice). The aim of this study is to better understand the recognition of emotional prosody in anorexia nervosa using a wide range of positive, negative and neutral stimuli (Belin et al., 2008). In order to test emotion recognition biases in emotional prosody, we exposed 15 patients with anorexia nervosa and 15 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. In addition, we assessed clinical symptomatology and cognitive functioning for all participants. We showed that patients with anorexia nervosa provided higher intensity ratings on the non-target scales (e.g., surprise scale for fear stimuli) than HCs for sadness, fear and neutral voices. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the HCs. These findings suggested a bias in the processing of emotional prosody and may impact the social functioning of patients with anorexia nervosa. The bias may result from a sensorial deficit or a high-order cognitive dysfunction and have to be investigated in future studies.