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CVD and associated metabolic diseases are linked to chronic inflammation, which can be modified by diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in inflammatory markers, blood metabolic and lipid panels and lymphocyte gene expression in response to a high-fat dairy food challenge with or without milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Participants consumed a dairy product-based meal containing whipping cream (WC) high in saturated fat with or without the addition of MFGM, following a 12 h fasting blood draw. Inflammatory markers including IL-6 and C-reactive protein, lipid and metabolic panels and lymphocyte gene expression fold changes were measured using multiplex assays, clinical laboratory services and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Fold changes in gene expression were determined using the Pfaffl method. Response variables were converted into incremental AUC, tested for differences, and corrected for multiple comparisons. The postprandial insulin response was significantly lower following the meal containing MFGM (P < 0·01). The gene encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was shown to be more up-regulated in the absence of MFGM (P = 0·009). Secondary analyses showed that participants with higher baseline cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (Chol:HDL) had a greater reduction in gene expression of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTBR) with the WC+MFGM meal. The protein and lipid composition of MFGM is thought to be anti-inflammatory. These exploratory analyses suggest that addition of MFGM to a high-saturated fat meal modifies postprandial insulin response and offers a protective role for those individuals with higher baseline Chol:HDL.
The occurrence of smectite-illite and smectite-chlorite minerals series was studied along a thick clay cap (~300 m) drilled in the Cerro Pabellón geothermal field (northern Andes, Chile). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the alteration mineralogy and clay mineral assemblages and their changes with depth. Cerro Pabellón is a high-enthalpy blind geothermal system, with a reservoir zone from ~500 m to 2000 m depth, with temperatures of 200–250°C. Three main hydrothermal alteration zones were identified: (1) argillic; (2) sub-propylitic, and (3) propylitic, with variable amounts of smectite, illite-smectite, chlorite-smectite, mixed-layer chlorite-corrensite, illite and chlorite appearing in the groundmass and filling amygdales and veinlets. Chemical and XRD data of smectites, I-S and illites show, with some exceptions, a progressive illitization with depth. The evolution of I-S with depth, shows a sigmoidal variation in the percentage of illite layers, with the conversion of smectite to R1 I-S at ~180–185°C. These temperatures are greater than those reported for other similar geothermal fields and might indicate, at least in part, the efficiency of the clay cap in terms of restricting the circulation of hydrothermal fluids in low-permeability rocks. Our results highlight the importance of a better understanding of clay-mineral evolution in active geothermal systems, not only as a direct (or indirect) way to control temperature evolution, but also as a control on permeability/porosity efficiency of the clay cap.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus and Universidad Central del Caribe, through the Title V Cooperative Project, devised a clinical and translational research (CTR) platform to pipeline students/faculty of undergraduate health sciences programs into CTR. Educational interventions in CTR—introductory intervention (II) and Annual Symposium (AS)—were designed to promote awareness, stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the II the participants (n=159) were surveyed before and after a presentation and panel discussion about CTR. In addition, after the sessions—plenary, panel, and workshop—about CTR, the participants of AS (n=42) were surveyed for satisfaction and learning experience in CTR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most participants of the II, 134 (84.3%) were students. In total, 58 (58, 36.5%) completed the post II survey. Of these, 53.4% satisfactorily defined the CTR concept Versus only 31.0% that could define CTR in the pre survey, 47 (81.7%) were unable to identify a CTR researcher and 45 (78.3 %) expressed interest in learning about CTR. In total, 28 (28, 66.7%) participants of the AS completed the satisfaction survey, out of which 17 (60.6%) were students. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that the AS served as a vehicle to increase their knowledge in CTR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The educational interventions demonstrated to be an effective strategy to promote awareness and stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. In addition, the results obtained, provided valuable baseline information for the planning—development of training cycles in CTR.
Regional climate warming has caused several ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula to retreat and ultimately collapse during recent decades. Glaciers flowing into these retreating ice shelves have responded with accelerating ice flow and thinning. The Wordie Ice Shelf on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula was reported to have undergone a major areal reduction before 1989. Since then, this ice shelf has continued to retreat and now very little floating ice remains. Little information is currently available regarding the dynamic response of the glaciers feeding the Wordie Ice Shelf, but we describe a Chilean International Polar Year project, initiated in 2007, targeted at studying the glacier dynamics in this area and their relationship to local meteorological conditions. Various data were collected during field campaigns to Fleming Glacier in the austral summers of 2007/08 and 2008/09. In situ measurements of ice-flow velocity first made in 1974 were repeated and these confirm satellite-based assessments that velocity on the glacier has increased by 40–50% since 1974. Airborne lidar data collected in December 2008 can be compared with similar data collected in 2004 in collaboration with NASA and the Chilean Navy. This comparison indicates continued thinning of the glacier, with increasing rates of thinning downstream, with a mean of 4.1 ± 0.2 m a−1 at the grounding line of the glacier. These comparisons give little indication that the glacier is achieving a new equilibrium.
The variations and dynamics of the southern edge of Fuchs Ice Piedmont, Adelaide Island (67˚45’ 09’ S, 68˚55’ 04’ W), Antarctic Peninsula, are presented. The snow-covered surface of the glacier has been used since the 1960s for landing aeroplanes in support of British, and more recently Chilean, operations at nearby Teniente Carvajal station (formerly known as Adelaide T). In recent years, snow conditions in the runway area have progressively deteriorated, due to increasingly early summer melting. Radio-echo sounding, global positioning system and remotely sensed data have been analyzed for mapping the crevasse and ice velocity fields, as well as the surface and subglacial topography of the area. The results show that the runway area is located on a local ice divide surrounded by crevasses which are appearing on the glacier surface progressively earlier in the summer, presumably due to higher snowmelt and perhaps higher ice velocities, in response to regional atmospheric warming. In the near future, landing operations will be further affected as more crevasses will appear in the runway area if present warming trends persist. This situation affects all coastal areas in the Antarctic Peninsula, hence the need to search for possible new locations of crevasse-free runways at higher elevations.
Volcán Villarrica (39°25′12″ S, 71°56′27″ W; 2847 m a.s.l.) is an active ice-capped volcano located in the Chilean lake district. The surface energy balance and glacier frontal variations have been monitored for several years, using automatic weather stations and satellite imagery. In recent field campaigns, surface topography was measured using Javad GPS receivers. Daily changes in snow-, ice-and tephra-covered areas were recorded using an automatic digital camera installed on a rock outcrop. In spite of frequently damaging weather conditions, two series of consecutive images were obtained, in 2006 and 2007. These photographs were georeferenced to a resampled 90 m pixel size SRTM digital elevation model and the reflectance values normalized according to several geometric and atmospheric parameters. The resulting daily maps of surface albedo are used as input to a distributed glacier-melt model during a 12 day mid-summer period. The spatial pattern of cumulative melt is complex and controlled by the distribution of airfall and wind-blown tephra, with extremely high melt rates occurring downwind of the crater and exposed ash banks. The camera images are also used to visualize the pattern of glacier crevassing. The results demonstrate the value of terrestrial photography in understanding the energy and mass balance of the glacier, including the generation of meltwater, and the potential value of the technique for monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards associated with ice–volcano interactions during eruptive activity.
Over the past 30 years, the number of US doctoral anthropology graduates has increased by about 70%, but there has not been a corresponding increase in the availability of new faculty positions. Consequently, doctoral degree-holding archaeologists face more competition than ever before when applying for faculty positions. Here we examine where US and Canadian anthropological archaeology faculty originate and where they ultimately end up teaching. Using data derived from the 2014–2015 AnthroGuide, we rank doctoral programs whose graduates in archaeology have been most successful in the academic job market; identify long-term and ongoing trends in doctoral programs; and discuss gender division in academic archaeology in the US and Canada. We conclude that success in obtaining a faculty position upon graduation is predicated in large part on where one attends graduate school.
Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturing and mounted on a stalk. The manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.
Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator. An increased localisation of phosphorylated α-subunit of AMPK in the periportal hepatocytes was also observed. Liver hepatic lipase C, important for lipoprotein transformation, showed a change of daily phase with a peak at the time of food access. In serum, there was an increase of LDL, which was responsible for a net elevation of circulating cholesterol. We conclude that our results indicate an enhanced fasting response in the liver during daily synchronisation to food access, which involves altered metabolic and cellular control of fatty acid oxidation as well a significant elevation of serum LDL. These adaptations could be part of the metabolic input that underlies the expression of the food-entrained oscillator.
The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces. Three Fe/Cu relationships were tested in order to improve hardness and brightness in aluminum pieces since these alloys are used in the making of ornamental pieces. The variation on Fe/Cu content could result in modification on corrosion rate, since a metallographic characterization must be carried out identifying the presence of intermetallic phases. The presence of these elements could result in increasing corrosion rate, or even in modification of corrosion morphology, so localized corrosion could be expected.
The assessment of corrosion rate was carried out in saline media, since chlorides are ions that promote localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (polarization curves and Tafel plots) were used in order to evaluate the attack in aluminum pieces; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also employed with voltage amplitude of 10 mV rms, and a frequency range from 10,000 Hz to 0.01 Hz. A typical three electrodes cell was used, exposing an area of one cm2. Before polarization, open circuit potential was monitored for an hour looking for a steady state. All conditions were tested for triplicate.
The behavior of open circuit potential vs. time, and polarization curves was analyzed; a corrosion mechanism is proposed according to the electrochemical control. Polarization rate was calculated by using Tafel plots and, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis by using equivalent electric circuits is shown. Electrochemical impedance will yield information about corrosion morphology that is backed with microscopic inspection.
The objective of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces in order to determine the effect of the relationship Fe/Cu on the corrosion mechanism in aluminum parts for ornamental pieces.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene–environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD.
The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them.
PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10−6). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10−4 and p = 5.12 × 10−20, respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples.
CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene–environment interactions in complex traits.
Strategies to dissect phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) have mainly relied on subphenotypes, such as age at onset (AAO) and recurrence/episodicity. Yet, evidence on whether these subphenotypes are familial or heritable is scarce. The aims of this study are to investigate the familiality of AAO and episode frequency in MDD and to assess the proportion of their variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP heritability).
For investigating familiality, we used 691 families with 2–5 full siblings with recurrent MDD from the DeNt study. We fitted (square root) AAO and episode count in a linear and a negative binomial mixed model, respectively, with family as random effect and adjusting for sex, age and center. The strength of familiality was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For estimating SNP heritabilities, we used 3468 unrelated MDD cases from the RADIANT and GSK Munich studies. After similarly adjusting for covariates, derived residuals were used with the GREML method in GCTA (genome-wide complex trait analysis) software.
Significant familial clustering was found for both AAO (ICC = 0.28) and episodicity (ICC = 0.07). We calculated from respective ICC estimates the maximal additive heritability of AAO (0.56) and episodicity (0.15). SNP heritability of AAO was 0.17 (p = 0.04); analysis was underpowered for calculating SNP heritability of episodicity.
AAO and episodicity aggregate in families to a moderate and small degree, respectively. AAO is under stronger additive genetic control than episodicity. Larger samples are needed to calculate the SNP heritability of episodicity. The described statistical framework could be useful in future analyses.
A study of the fluid flow in a mixing device proposed to dissolve alloying elements in iron baths is performed through a mathematical model in order to predict the best operating conditions for a proper melting/dissolution of solid alloying particles. The mathematical model consists in the mass and momentum conservation equations (continuity and Turbulent Navier-Stokes equations), and the standard two k-epsilon turbulence model. The model is numerically solved in transient regime with the Volume of Fluid algorithm (VOF) to calculate the vortex shape. VOF is built-in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software ANSYS FLUENT 14. A flow of metal enters tangentially in the mixing chamber of the proposed mixing device (taken from an open patent) to generate a vortex. The shape and height of the vortex reached in this chamber depends on several design variables, but in this work only the presence or absence of a barrier in the device is analyzed. Results are obtained on the vortex sizes and shapes, liquid flow patterns, turbulent structure, residence times of the particles of alloying elements added to the melt and mixing times (Residence time distribution curves) of two devices: one with a barrier and the other without this barrier. It is found that the presence of the barrier in the device increases turbulence, destroys the vortex, decreases the residence time of the particles, and decreases the volume of fluid in the device. Most of the features of the barrier are detrimental for mixing and inhibits melting/dissolution of the alloying elements. Then, it is suggested a device without the presence of barrier for better performance.
The effects of particle size and rigidity on segregation behaviour in confined simple shear flow of binary suspensions of fluid-filled elastic capsules are investigated in a model system that resembles blood. We study this problem with direct simulations as well as with a master equation model that incorporates two key sources of wall-normal particle transport: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The simulation results indicate that, in a mixture of large and small particles with equal capillary numbers, the small particles marginate, while the large particles antimarginate in their respective dilute suspensions. Here margination refers to localization of particles near walls, while antimargination refers to the opposite. In a mixture of particles with equal size and unequal capillary number, the stiffer particles marginate while the flexible particles antimarginate. The master equation model traces the origins of the segregation behaviour to the size and rigidity dependence of the wall-induced migration velocity and of the cross-stream particle displacements in various types of collisions. In particular, segregation by rigidity, especially at low volume fractions, is driven in large part by heterogeneous collisions, in which the stiff particle undergoes larger displacement. In contrast, segregation by size is driven mostly by the larger wall-induced migration velocity of larger particles. Additionally, a non-local drift-diffusion equation is derived from the master equation model, which provides further insights into the segregation behaviour.